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nothing satisfactory. The interests of Ireland were neglected by the ministry; no system of amelioration, no plan of improvement was suggested. She seemed to be déserted, and no redress offered itself, but what sprung from the people themselves. But was it wise, was it politic, to force the people upon the amending of their own wrongs ? Mr. Grattan moved an amendment, which depicted in vivid colours the distressed state of the country, and maintained that the only resource left to support their expiring trade was to open a free export trade, and to let his inajesty's subjects enjoy their natural birthright. Not only the leading patriots on this occasion, but even several of the immediate servants of the crown, were for the amendment. Mr. Hussey Burgh, who was then primc serjeant, acting with a view to ministerial finesse, and in order to deprive Mr. Grattan of the honour of carrying his amendment, moved, in lieu of it one exactly similar in spirit, and which was unanimously assented to * This was, that " it is

* Mr. Hardy, who seems to have had a minute knowledge of all the various springs that regulated the political measures of the last thirty years, gives the following history of this famous and operative resolution :

“ To counteract Mr. Grattan's amendment the ministerial speakers introduced much general expression as to the trade of Ireland, but the opposition could not be so deceived. It was resolved, that a positive unequivocal requisition to be rem stored to our commercial rights should be preferred by the house of communs. Mr. Grattan's amendment was prefaced ... Thanks voted to the volunteers. not by temporary expedients, but by a free trade alone, that this nation is now to be saved from impending ruin," This address was carried by the speaker to the viceroy amid the thundering acclamations of the populace, between two lines of Dublin volunteers, commanded by the Duke of Leinster, in arms and uniforms, which extended the whole way from the parliament-house to the castle, So perfectly correct as well as spirited had the conduct of the volunteer army been throughout the kingdom, that the house of com. mons, almost as soon as it met, voted their unanimous thanks to them. In the upper house a simj. nothing satisfactory. The interests of Ireland were neglected by the ministry; no system of amelioration, no plan of improvement was suge gested. She seemed to be déserted, and no redress offered itself, but what sprung from the people themselves. But was it wise, was it politic, to force the people upon the amending of their own wrongs ? Mr. Grattan moved an amendment, which depicted in vivid colours the distressed state of the country, and maintained that the only resource left to support their ex. piring trade was to open a free export trade, and to let his majesty's subjects enjoy their 'natural birthright. Not only the leading patriots on this occasion, but even several of the immediate servants of the crown, were for the amendment. Mr. Hussey Burgh, who was then prime serjeant, acting with a view to ministerial finesse, and in order to deprive Mr. Grattan of the honour of carrying his amendment, moved, in lieu of itz one exactly similar in spirit, and which was unanimously assented to *. This was that " it is

by a preamble, stating the necessity and justice of our claims. Mr. Burgh, at that time prime serjeant, approved of the amendment, but condemned the preamble, and suggested ong short simple proposition. Mr. Flood whispered him across the benches, - State a free trade merely.' Burgh instantly adopted the words, and moved, that nothing but a free trade could save the country from ruin. Mr. Grattan at first objected to the withdrawing the preamble, as he not only considered it a necessary adjunct to any motion that could be made on the subject, but was afraid, by dividing the proposition, to make room for some adroit and successful parliamentary manoeuvre which would get rid of the whole. However, when air. Con. nolly, the brother-in-law of the lord-lieutenant, and who, from that connexion, as well as his rauk and situation, might, in the fluctuating state of the buuse, have commanded a majority, not only expressed himself strongly in favour of a free trade, but against the preamble, Mr. Grattan withdrew it, stating, at the same time, that he did so in the full and entire expectation that the resolution as to a free trade should be unequivocally sopported. Mr. Burgh's amendment was then puty and carried unanimously." .

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* Mr. Hardy, who seems to have had a minute knowledge of all the various springs that regulated the political measures of the last thirty years, gives the following history of this famous and operative resolution :

.“ To counteract Mr. Grattan's amendment the ministerial speakers introduced, much general expression as to the trade of Irelaud, but the opposition could not be so deceived. It was resolved, that a positive unequivccal requisition to be rem stored to our commercial rights should be preferred by the House of communs. Mr. Grattan's amendment was prefaced

... Thanks voted to the volunteers.. 7 not by temporary expedients, but by a free trade alone, that this nation is now to be saved from impending ruin," This address was carried by the speaker to the viceroy amid the thundering acclamations of the populace, between two lines of Dublin volunteers, commanded by the Duke of Leinster, in arms and uniforms, which extended the whole way from the parliament-house to the castle. So perfectly correct as well as spirited had the conduct of the volunteer army been throughout the kingdom, that the house of commons, almost as soon as it met, voted their unanimous thanks to them. In the upper house a simi.

by a preamble, stating the necessity and justice of our claims. Mr. Burgh, at that time prime serjeant, approved of the amendment, but condemned the preamble, and suggested ono short simple proposition. Mr. Flood whispered him across the benches,' State a free trade merely.' Burgh instantly adopted the words, and moved, that nothing but a free trade could save the country from ruin. Mr. Grattan at first ubjected to the withdrawing the preamble, as he not only considered it a decessary adjunct to any motion that could be made on the subject, but was afraid, by dividing the proposition, to make room for some adroit and successful parliamentary maneuvre which would get rid of the whole. However, when dir. Con. nolly, the brother-in-law of the Jord- lieutenant, and who, from that connexion, as well as his rauk and situation, might; in the Auctuating state of the buuse, have commanded a majority, not only expressed himself strongly in favour of a free trade, but against the preamble, Mr. Grattan withdrew it, stating, at the same time, that he did so in the full and entire expectation that the resolution as to a free trade should be unequivocally supported. Mr. Burgli's amendment was then put, and carried unanimously." "...

when all other means failed, resistance, he should ever hold, was perfectly justifiable.” , It may be briefly observed upon the doctrine contained in this extract, that it is one more cal. culated to produce injury than benefit. When any body of men, acting together for the attainment of one common purpose, are told from high authority, that armed resistance-in other words, rebellion--is justifiable if all other means have failed, it is not difficult to conceive they will dispense with the if, assume the proposition as proved, and act upon the assumption of a general principle directly subversive of all government, and hostile to the foundations of civil so. ciety. A more moderate, a more practicable, and a safer system to inculcate would be to refer the alternative of seizing arms only to extreme cases, clearly and definitely proved. The warmest admirers of Mr. Fox, however, must admit, that his notions of liberty and freedom partook somewhat too largely of republicanism, which seemed in him, to be grafted upon the pure stock of whiggism. His conduct during the French revolution proved this.—To return, however, to Ireland and her concerns. :

So determined were the Irish commons on the redress of commercial grievances that they spiritedly resolved to vote the bills of supply for the first time for only six months; and they were transmitted to England, where, however mortify

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