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first man. But we are likewise invited to a participation of all the blessings, which the second Man has procured, by his atonement for fin, and by his victory over death. For as by man came death, so by man came also the resurrection from the dead.
Let us take a survey, first of the malady, and then of the remedy.
I., The malady, the effect and wages of fin, is death. Many ideas are included in this word, taken in the scriptural sense.
1. The sentence annexed to the transgresfion of that commandment, which was given as an especial test of Adam's obedience, and which affects all his posterity, is thus expressed, In the day that thou eatest-thou Shalt surely die *. But man was not, ordinarily, to die by a stroke of apoplexy, or by a Aash of lightning. The sentence includes all the natural evils, all the variety of woe, which fin has brought into the world. The rebellious tempers and appetites which so often cut short the life of man, together with the sufferings and troubles which, sooner or later, bring him down with sorrow to the grave, being the consequences of fin, may
* Gen. ii. 17,
be properly confidered, as belonging to that death, in which they terminate. Even the earth and the elements partook in the effects of man's disobedience. Thorns and thistles * were not the produce of the ground, till after he had finned. Nor can I suppose that hurricanes, floods and earthquakes, were known in a state of innocence. But had the whole earth been a paradise, man, having finned, must have been miserable. It is not in situation to make that heart happy, which is the seat of inordinate pafsions, rage, envy, malice, lust and avarice. And were the earth a paradise now, it would be stained with blood, and filled with violence, cruelty and mifery, while it is inhabited by finners. Many persons at prefent, who dwell in stately houses, and have every thing around them that is suited to gratify and please their fenfes, know by painful experience, how little happiness these external advantages afford, while their minds are tortured with disappointments and anxiety. Thus the outward afAicions, which, every where, surround and assail the finner, and the malignant passions, which, like vultures, continually gnaw his
* Gen. iii. 18.
heart, all combine to accelerate the execution of the sentence of death.
2. Death, in a very important sense, entered immediately with sin. Besides the rational life, which still distinguishes man from the brute creation, he originally pofa fessed a spiritual and divine life, for he was created in the image of God, in righteousness and true holiness. He was capable of communion with God, of rejoicing in his favour, and of proposing his will and glory as the great end of his actions. In a word, the presence and life of God dwelt in him, as in a temple. As the soul is the life of the body, which becomes a carcase, a prey to worms and putrefaction, when the soul has forsaken it; fo God is the life of the soul. Sin defaced his temple, and he forsook it. In this sense, when Adam had transgressed the law, he died instantly, in that very day, in that very moment. He lost his spiritual life, he lost all desire for communion with God, he no longer retained any love for his Benefactor. He dreaded his presence, he fought to hide himself from him, and, when obliged to appear and answer, stood self-condemned before him, till revived and restored by the promise of grace. And thus his posterity derive from him, what may be called, a living death. They are dead while they live, dead in trespasses and fins *, till they are again quickened by his holy Spirit. This is not a subject of common place declamation ; it is to be proved by the tenor of scripture, the nature of redemption, and the very reason of things. Unless we allow that man, in his present state, is thus fallen, depraved and dead; we must be reduced to the absurdity of supposing, that God made him such a creature as he now is. That when he formed him for himself, and endued him with a capacity and desires, which nothing short of his own infinite goodness can fatisfy, he should at the same time create him with a disposition to hate his Maker, to seek his fatisfaction in sensuality upon a level with the brutes, and to confine his views and pursuits within the limits of this precarious life, while he feels, in defiance of himself, an instinctive thirst for immortality. Man considered in this view, would be a solecism in the creation; and they who do not acquiesce, in the cause which
the scripture assigns, for the inconsistencies and contradictions, which are found in his character, will never be able to afsign any other cause, which will bear the trial of som ber and rational examination. What the poet says of Beelzebub, Majestic though iz ruins, may be truly affirmed of man. His faculties and powers are proofs of his original greatness ; his awful misapplication of them equally prove, that he is a fallen and ruined creature. He has lost his true life, he is dead in fin, and unless renewed and revived by the grace God, can only, in a future state, be fit for the company of the fallen angels.
3. Death, as the wages of fin, extends still farther. There is the second death, the final and eternal misery of soul and body in hell. This we know is the dreadful lot of the impenitent. We need no other proof that this was included in the sentence; for, certainly, the righteous Judge, would not inflict a greater punishment than he had denounced. Indeed, it follows of course, in the very nature of things, if we admit the soul to be immortal, a resurrection both of the just and the unjust, and that there remains no other sacriVOL. II,