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have power to chuse their Speaker, the Treasurer of the State, and their other officers; sit on their own adjournments; prepare bills and enact them into laws; judge of the elections and qualifications of their own Members: they may expel a Member, but not a second time for the same cause; they may administer oaths or affirmations on examination of witnesses 5 redress grievances; impeach state criminals; grant charters of incorporation; constitute towns, boroughs, cities and counties-, and shall have all other powers necessary for the le-. gislature of a free State or Commonwealth: but they shall have no power to add to, alter, abolish, or infringe any part of this Constitution.
X. A Quorum of the House of Representatives shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Members elected; and having met and chosen their Speaker, shall each of them, before they proceed to business, take and subscribe, as well the oath or affirmation of fidelity and allegiance herein after directed, as the following oath or affirmation, viz.
"I do swear (or affirm), that as a
Member of this Assembly, I will not propose or assent to any bill, vote, or resolution, which
mall (hall appear to me injurious to the people; nor do or consent to any act or thing whatever, that mall have a tendency to lessen or abridge their rights and privileges, as declared in the Constitution of this State; but will in all things conduct myself as a saithful honest Representative and guardian of the people, ac* cording to the best of my judgement and abilities."
And each Member before he takes his feat, (hall make and subscribe the following declaration, viz.
"I do believe in one God, the Creator and Governor of the Universe, the rewarder of the good, and the punisher of the wicked. And I do acknowledge the scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be given by divine inspiration."
And no further or other religious test mall ever hereafter be required of any civil officer or magistrate in this State.
XI. Delegates to represent this State in Congress shall be chosen by ballot by the future General Assembly at their first meeting, and annually forever afterwards, as long as such representation mall be necessary. Any Delegate
may may be superseded at any time, by the General Assembly appointing another in his stead. No man shall fit in Congress longer than two years successively, nor be capable of re-election for three years afterwards: and no person who holds any office in the gift of the Congress, shall hereafter be elected to represent this Commonwealth in Congress.
XII. If any city or cities, county or counties, shall neglect or refuse to elect and fend Representatives to the General Assembly, twothirds of the Members from the cities or counties that do elect and fend Representatives, provided they may be a majority of the cities and counties of the whole State, when met shall have all the powers of the General Assembly, as fully and amply as if the whole were present.
XIII. The doors of the House in which the . Representatives of the freemen of this State
shall sit in General Assembly, mall be and remain open for the admission of all persons who behave decently, except only when the welfare of this State may require the doors to be (hut.
XIV. The votes and proceedings of the General Assembly (hall be printed weekly du
ring their sitting, with the yeas and nays on any question, vote, or resolution, where any two Members require it, except when the vote is taken by ballot; and when the yeas and nays are so taken, every Member shall have a right to insert the reasons of his vote upon the minutes, if he desire it.
XV. To the end that laws before they are enacted may be more maturely considered, and the inconvenience of hasty determinations as much as possible prevented, all bills of a public nature shall be printed for the consideration of the people, before they are read in General Assembly, the last time for debate and amendment; and, except on occasions of sudden necessity, shall not be passed into laws until the next session of Assembly; and for the more perfect satissaction of the public, the reasons and motives for making such laws shall be fully and clearly expressed in the preambles.
XVI. The stile of the laws of this Commonwealth (hall be, "Be it enacted, and it is hereby enacted by the Representatives of the freemen of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly met, and by the authority of the same." And the General Assembly shall affix
O theif their seal to every bill, as soon as it is enacted into a law, which seal shall be kept by the Assembly, and shall be called, The Seal of the Laws of Pennsylvania, and shall not be used for any other purpose.
XVII. The city of Philadelphia, and each county in this Commonwealth respectively, shall on the first Tuesday of November in this present year, and on the second Tuesday in October annually, for the two next succeeding years, to wit, the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-seven, and the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, chuse six persons to represent them in General Assembly. But as representation in proportion to" the number of taxable inhabitants, is the only principle which can at all times secure liberty, and make the voice of a majority of the people the law of the land; therefore the General Assembly shall cause compleat lists of the taxable inhabitants in the city and each county in the Commonwealth respectively, to be taken, and returned to them, on or before the last meeting of the Assembly elected in the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, who shall appoint a Representation to each, in proportion to :• - the