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In the siege of Hamburgh, 1813, there perished 15,000 of the garrison, besides all the victims among the inhabitants, and the besieging army. In the siege of Mexico, more than 100,000 were slain in battle, and upwards of 50,000 more died from the infection of putrefying carcasses. The siege of Vienna sacrificed 70,000 lives, and that of Ostend 120,000. At the siege of Acre, by the Crusaders, 300,000 fell; ancient Carthage, containing 700,000 inhabitants, was so utterly destroyed, that not a single edifice was left standing; during the siege of Jerusalem, 1,100,000 persons perished, and during that of Troy, according to Burton, not less than 946,000 Trojans, and 870,000 Greeks; in all, 1,816,000 for a worthless courtezan!

Mark the havoc of single battles. At Durham, 1346, there fell 15,000; at Halidonhill and Agincourt, 20,000 each ; at Bautzen and Lepanto, 25,000 each ; at Austerlitz, Jena and Lutzen, 30,000 each ; at Eylau, 60,000; at Waterloo and Quatre Bras, one engagement, 70,000; at Borodino, 80,000 ; at Fontenoy, 100,000; at Yarmouth, 150,000; at Chalons, no less than 300,000 of Attila's army alone! The Moors in Spain, about the year 800, lost in one battle 70,000; in another, four centuries later, 180,000, besides 50,000 prisoners, and in a third, even 200,000. Still greater was the carnage in ancient times. At Cannæ, 70,000 fell. The Romans alone, in an engagement with the Cimbri and Teutones, lost 80,000. The Carthagenians attacked Hymera in Sicily with an army of 300,000 men, and a fleet of 2000 ships, and 3000 transports; but not a ship nor a transport escaped destruction, and of the troops, only a few in a small boat reached Carthage with the melancholy tidings.

Marius slew, battle, 140,000 Gauls, and in another, 290,000. In the battle of Issus, between Alexander and Darius, 110,000 were slain, and in that of Arbela, 300,000. Julius Cæsar once annihilated an army of 363,000 Helvetians; in a battle with the Usipetes, he slew 400,000; and on another ocCasion, he massacred more than 430,000 Germans, who “ had crossed the Rhine, with their herds, and flocks, and little ones, in quest of new settlements."

It is difficult to conceive the havoc of ancient warfare. During a single war of the northern barbarians in Africa, no less than five millions, according to Procopius, perished by the sword, famine and pestilence, and in the war of twenty years waged by Justinian against the barbarous

in one

hordes that poured into Italy, the Goths alone are supposed to have lost more than fifteen millions !

Look at two cases more. The army of Xerxes, according to Rollin, was composed of 1,700,000 foot, 80,000 horse, and 20,000 men for conducting the carriages and camels. On passing the Hellespont, he received a re-enforcement of 300,000, making the whole 2,100,000. His fleet consisted of 1207 vessels, each carrying 230 men ; in all, 277,610 men. This number was augmented from the European nations with 1200 vessels carrying 240,000 men; and on board the small galleys, transports, and other craft, to the number of 3000, were 240,000 more men. Including the multitude of usual attendants on an army in the East, Dr. Dick supposes

“the whole number of souls that followed Xerxes into Greece, must have amounted to 5,283,320 ;” and, if the attendants were only one-third as great as common at the present day in Eastern countries, the sum total must have reached nearly six millions! What became of this vast multitude ? In one year 'it was reduced to 300,000 fighting men; and of these only 3000 escaped destruction. More than five millions lost in a single year!

During the thirteenth century arose Jenghiz-khan, and ravaged the heart of Asia. His armies sometimes exceeded a million, and his wars were those of utter extermination. He seemed the war-demon incarnate. His spirit feasted on death. On the plains of Nessa, he shot 90,000 persons in cold blood. At the storming of Kharasm, he massacred 200,000, and sold 100,000 for slaves. In the district of Herat, he butchered 1,600,000, and in two cities with their dependencies, 1,760,000. During the last twenty-seven years of his long reign, he is said to have massacred an average of more than half a million every year ; and in the first fourteen years, he is supposed by Chinese historians to have destroyed not less than eighteen millions; a sum total of 32,000,000 human beings sacrificed in forty-one years by a single hand on the Moloch shrine of war !

Do you ask, now, for an epitome of the havoc war has made of human life? In the Russian campaign, there perished in less than six months nearly half a million of the French alone, and perhaps as many more of their enemies.

During only twelve years of the recent wars of Europe, no less than 5,800,000 Christian lives are supposed

to have been lost. Even the French admit, that the wars of Napoleon alone must have sacrificed six millions; and, if we reckon all the victims, both among the soldiers and the people, of the wars consequent on the French Revolution, the sum total cannot be less than nine or ten millions. The Spaniards are said to have destroyed in forty-two years more than twelve millions of American Indians.

The wars in the time of Sesostris cost 15,000,000 lives ; those of Semiramis, Cyrus and Alexander, 10,000,000 each; those of Alexander's successors, 20,000,000. Grecian wars sacrificed 15,000,000 ; Jewish wars, 25,000,000; the wars of the twelve Cæsars, 30,000,000 in all; the wars of the Romans before Julius Cæsar, 60,000,000; the wars of the Roman Empire, of the Saracens and the Turks, 60,000,000 each; the wars of the Reformation, 30,000,000 ; those of the Middle Ages, and the nine Crusades in two centuries, 40,000,000 each; those of the Tartars, 80,000,000; those of Africa, 100,000,000!

Such estimates may well seem incredible; but we have taken them all from sources entitled to credit. On such a subject, perfect accuracy is impossible; you might as well think of counting the spires of grass on the whole globe, or the drops of rain that fell in Noah's flood; but, if the foregoing statements make any approximation to the truth, the entire havoc of human life by war must defy our utmost powers of conception. “If we take into consideration," says the learned Dr. Dick, “the number not only of those who have fallen in battle, but of those who have perished through the natural consequences of war, it will not perhaps be overrating the destruction of human life, if we affirm, that one-tenth of the human race has been destroyed by the ravages of war; and, according to this estimate, more than fourteen thousand millions of human beings have been slaughtered in war since the beginning of the world.” Edmund Burke went still further, and reckoned the sum total of its ravages from the first at no less than TÀIRTY-FIVE THOUSAND MILLIONS !

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY, BOSTON, MASS.

WITNESSES FOR PEACE.

“ AMERICA,” says the Rev. Mr. JEFFRIES, a distinguished Eng lish Episcopal Missionary, and one of the Chaplains of the East India Company, “ America has the honor of inventing two of the most valuable institutions that ever blessed mankind,—the Peace Society, and the Temperance Society; and, if every American viewed them as I do, he would join them immediately.The cause of peace is common to all Christians; and from men of eminence in different denominations, we will quote a few specimens of their views on this subject.

WYCLIFFE, the Reformer, deserves to stand at the head of them all. “What honor falls to a knight that kills many men ? The hangman killeth many more, and with a better title. Better were it for men to be butchers of beasts than butchers of their brethren! As, according to common law, no man will make battle, except he have leave from the prince of the people; so no man should take vengeance, unless God move him, and warn him as his instrument, saying how he will have vengeance.

METHODISTS.-Let us hear the father of Methodism, JOHN WESLEY. “You may pour out your soul, and bemoan the loss of true, genuine love in the earth. Lost indeed! you may well say, but not in the ancient sense. See how these CHRISTIANS love one another! These. Christian kingdoms that are tearing out each other's bowels, desolating one another with fire and sword! These Christian armies that are sending each other by thousands, by tens of thousands, quick to hell! These Christian nations that are all on fire with intestine broils, party against party, faction against faction! Yea, what is most dreadful of all, these Christian churches, (tell it not in Gath ; but, alas! how can we hide it from Jews, Turks or Pagans ?) that bear the name of Christ, the Prince of Peace, yet wage continual war with each other! O God! how long will thy promise fail?

ÉPISCOPALIANS.-Soame Jenyns. If Christian nations were nations of Christians, all war would be impossible and unknown among them.

Thomas Scott. War in every case must be deemed the triumph or the harvest of the first great murderer, the devil.

Bishop Watson. Christianity looks upon all the human race as children of the same father; and in ordering us to do good, to love as brethren, to forgive injuries, and to study peace, it quite annihilates the disposition for martial glory, and utterly debases the pomp of war.

Dr. Jortin. The consequences of war are too well known. They are the desolation of populous and flourishing regions, the

P. T. NO. XXI.

loss of trade, the increase of taxes and debts, poverty both public and private, the destruction of thousands, and the ruin of almost as many families, besides the sicknesses, the famines, the iniquities and cruelties which always accompany a state of hostility.The wars continually waged by Christian nations, are most notorious offences against the sixth commandment, against the law of nature, against the laws of God given by Moses, against the Christian religion. In all wars, one side is in fault, sometimes both; and in this case war is no better than robbery and murder, the guilt of which lies, I do not say, upon the soldiers, but upon those in whose hands is lodged the power of declaring war.

BAPTISTS.—Ward, the veteran and venerable missionary, says, " “ the glory of our Christian profession lies in our business on earth resembling the work which the Father gave to Christ to do; but how unfavorable to this is the profession of arms! Rather, how totally incompatible with it! Christianity says, love your enemies ; the maxims of statesmen say, kill them off. Christ says, resist not evil ; the statesman says, fight, and leave the reasons to me.-What a shocking sight to tie a handkerchief over a man's eyes, and tell him to shoot in the crowd at persons whom he never saw, a company of fathers, sons, brothers; but, more than this, a company of men who have to live forever in happiness or misery, and every bullet perhaps sends a man to hell. Either our religion is a fable, or there are unanswerable arguments, (urged, it is true, till they are stale enough,) against war, and the profession of arms. Thor shalt do no murder. One murder makes a villain; millions, a hero,' Where? At the bar of God? I trow not. Satan was a murderer from the beginning, a kind of hero reigning in hell.

Judson, the Apostle of Burmah, says, “I hail the establishment of peace societies as one of the most auspicious signs of the present eventful era, and regard them as combining with Bible and missionary societies to form that three-fold cord which will ultimately bind all the families of man in universal peace and love. Since war has been universally advocated and applauded, it appears to me that it is not optional with any to remain neutral or silent on this great question ; since, thus remaining, they must be considered as belonging of course to the war party. Notwithstanding, therefore, I am a missionary, I have for some time determined to make whatever efforts were necessary to comply with the dictates of conscience, and wash my hands of the blood that is shed in war. I regret that I have so long delayed to enter my protest against this practice by some overt act; a measure which appears, in the present state of things, the indispensable duty of every Christian.

PRESEYTERIANS.-Dr. Macleod. War is a school of vice, a nursery of debauchery. By it cities are sacked, and countries laid waste. The dearest ties of kindred are unloosed; fathers made childless, children fatherless, and wives converted into widows. What more cruel, and less congenial with the spirit of the gospel ?

Dr. Beman. The character of war is not less incompatible with the genius of the gospel, and an advanced stage of intellectual refinement, than that of despotism or slavery. It is a relict

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