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never dispossess himself of his individual obligation to obey God. But the unlawfulness of war in any form, is equally evident when regarded as the affair of nations. Doubtless there may be found in the Scriptures a variety of injunctions applicable to men only as individuals; but it is one of the excellent characteristics of the Bible, that its principles are of universal application to mankind, whether acting singly as individuals, or collectively as nations. If not thus applicable, national crimes might be committed without en. tailing any national guilt, and without any real infraction of the revealed will of God,

Now, among these eternal, unchangeable principles of the Bible, is that of universal love. The law of God, addressed alike to all merr, plainly says, Resist not evil ; revenge not injuries ; LOVE Your ENEMIES. Individuals, and nations consisting of individuals, are all unquestionably bound to obey this law; and, whether it is the act of an individual, or a nation, the transgression of the law is sin. Nations transgress the Christian law of love, and commit sin, when they declare or carry on war, precisely as does the private duellist, when he sends or accepts a challenge, and deliberately endeavors to destroy his neighbor. The man who takes any part in national warfare, takes a part also in the national sin. He aids and abets his nation in breaking the law of Christ. So far then is the authority of his legislature, or his monarch, from justifying his engagement in warfare, that he cannot obey either, without adding to his private transgression, the further criminality of actively promoting the transgression of the state.

It is evident, then, that total abstinence from warfare would be the necessary result of strict adherence to the law of Christ. But one of the precepts already cited, bears a specific, peculiar allusion to the subject of war: “Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and hate thine enemy; but I say unto you, Love your enemies."

Here is a direct, avowed contrast between the law and the gospel. In calling the attention of his hearers to the sayings " by them of old time,” Christ quoted from the law of Moses itself; and it was with that law, as understood by the Jews, that he compared his own holier system. Now the precepts of ancient times to which he refers,the precepts respecting love and hatred, -probably formed a part of those divine edicts which were delivered to the Israelites by Moses. That which related to the love of their neighbor, is recognized at once: “Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." Lev. xix. 18. The love here enjoined, was to the children of the people of Israel. The neighbor to be loved was a fellow-countryman, or, if a stranger, a proselyte; and the precept in fact commanded no more than that the Israelites should love one another. So also the injunction of old, that the Israelites should hate their enemies, was exclusively national. They were not permitted to hate their private enemies in the same favored community, but were enjoined to do them good : "If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again." But they were to hate their national enemies, and make no covenant with them: “Thou shalt smite them, and utterly destroy them; thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor show mercy unto them.” On another occasion, a similar injunction was delivered respecting the Amalekites : “ Thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven."

Such was the hatred enjoined upon ancient Israel, and thus was it to be applied. Now, it is to these edicts, that the law of Christ is placed in opposition : “But I say unto you, Love your enemies." True, this law is applicable to private life ; but it was principally intended to discountenance national enmities, and prevent the practice of war. The Israelites were commanded to combat and destroy the nations who were enemies alike to themselves and to God. Christians are introduced to a purer, more lovely system; their law commands them to be the friends of all mankind. If sent forth among idolatrous nations, it is as the ministers of their restoration, not as the instruments of their punishment; and, as they may not contend with the sword against God's enemies, much less may they wield it for any purpose of their own. Armed with submission, forbearance and longsuffering, they must secede from the warfare of a wrathful and corrupt world, and, whatever the aggravations to which they are exposed, must evince themselves to be the meek, harmless, benevolent followers of the Prince of Peace.

I know of nothing in the New Testament which has any appearance of contravening these precepts, but a single passage in the gospel of Luke. After our Lord's paschal supper, and immediately before he was betrayed, he said to his disciples, “ He that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one.” These words, superficially con

never dispossess himself of his individual obligation to obey God. But the unlawfulness of war in any form, is equally evident when regarded as the affair of nations. Doubtless there may be found in the Scriptures a variety of injunctions applicable to men only as individuals; but it is one of the excellent characteristics of the Bible, that its principles are of universal application to mankind, whether acting singly as individuals, or collectively as nations. If not thus applicable, national crimes might be committed without entailing any national guilt, and without any real infraction of the revealed will of God.

Now, among these eternal, unchangeable principles of the Bible, is that of universal love. The law of God, addressed alike to all merr, plainly says, Resist not evil ; revenge not injuries ; LOVE YOUR ENEMIES. Individuals, and nations consisting of individuals, are all unquestionably bound to obey this law; and, whether it is the act of an individual, or a nation, the transgression of the law is sin. Nations transgress the Christian law of love, and commit sin, when they declare or carry on war, precisely as does the private duellist, when he sends or accepts a challenge, and deliberately endeavors to destroy his neighbor. The man who takes any part in national warfare, takes a part also in the national sin. He aids and abets his nation in breaking the law of Christ. So far then is the authority of his legislature, or his monarch, from justifying his engagement in warfare, that he cannot obey either, without adding to his private transgression, the further criminality of actively promoting the transgression of the state.

It is evident, then, that total abstinence from warfare would be the necessary result of strict adherence to the law of Christ. But one of the precepts already cited, bears a specific, peculiar allusion to the subject of war : “Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and hate thine enemy; but I say unto you, Love your enemies." Here is a direct, avowed contrast between the law and the gospel. In calling the attention of his hearers to the sayings“ by them of old time," Christ quoted from the law of Moses itself; and it was with that law, as understood by the Jews, that he compared his own holier system. Now the precepts of ancient times to which he refers,the precepts respecting love and hatred,-probably formed a part of those divine edicts which were delivered to the Israelites by Moses. That which related to the love of their neighbor, is recognized at once: “Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.” Lev. xix. 18. The love here enjoined, was to the children of the people of Israel. The neighbor to be loved was a fellow-countryman, or, if a stranger, a proselyte; and the precept in fact commanded no more than that the Israelites should love one another. So also the injunction of old, that the Israelites should hate their enemies, was exclusively national. They were not permitted to hate their private enemies in the same favored community, but were enjoined to do them good: “If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again.” But they were to hate their national enemies, and make no covenant with them: “Thou shalt smite them, and utterly destroy them; thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor show mercy unto them.” On another occasion, a similar_injunction was delivered respecting the Amalekites : “ Thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven."

Such was the hatred enjoined upon ancient Israel, and thus was it to be applied. Now, it is to these edicts, that the law of Christ is placed in opposition: “But I say unto you, Love your enemies." True, this law is applicable to private life; but it was principally intended to discountenance national enmities, and prevent the practice of war. The Israelites were commanded to combat and destroy the nations who were enemies alike to themselves and to God. Christians are introduced to a purer, more lovely system; their law commands them to be the friends of all mankind. If sent forth among idolatrous nations, it is as the ministers of their restoration, not as the instruments of their punishment; and, as they may not contend with the sword against God's enemies, much less may they wield it for any purpose of their own.

Armed with submission, forbearance and longsuffering, they must secede from the warfare of a wrathful and corrupt world, and, whatever the aggravations to which they are exposed, must evince themselves to be the meek, harmless, benevolent followers of the Prince OF PEACE.

I know of nothing in the New Testament which has any appearance of contravening these precepts, but a single passage in the gospel of Luke. After our Lord's paschal supper, and immediately before he was betrayed, he said to his disciples, “He that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one." These words, superficially con

sidered, may be deemed to inculcate the notion, that his followers were to defend themselves and their religion with the sword; but the context, and the circumstances which followed, evidently decide otherwise. The disciples, apparently understanding their Lord literally, answered, “Here are two swords;" and Jesus replied, “ It is enough.” In declaring that two swords were enough under such circumstances, he offered them an intelligible hint, that he had been misunderstood ; but the opportunity was at hand on which they were to be completely undeceived. The enemies of Jesus approached, armed; whereupon the disciples said, “Lord, shall we smite with the sword?” and Peter, without waiting for a reply, smote the servant of the High Priest, and cut off his ear. Then were they clearly instructed, that it was their duty not to fight, but to suffer wrong. “Suffer ye thus far," said he to Peter; and immediately afterwards he confirmed his doctrine by actionhe touched the wounded man, and healed him. Then he cried out to Peter, “ Put up thy sword into the sheath; the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it? All they that take the sword, shall perish with the sword." When carried before Pilate, he plainly declared, that his kingdom was such as neither to require nor allow the defence of carnal weapons. “My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews."

When our Lord, therefore, exhorted his disciples to sell their garments, and buy swords, his precept was evidently not to be understood literally. Such, indeed, is the explicit judgment of most commentators; and we may therefore conclude either with Erasmus, that the sword of which our Lord here spake, was the sword of the Spirit, the word of God, or with critics in general, that the words of Jesus imported only a general warning to the disciples, that their situation was about to be greatly changed; that, deprived of his presence, they would be exposed to every species of difficulty, become the objects of hatred and persecution, and thus be driven to a variety of expedients in providing for their own maintenance and security.

The absolute inconsistency of war with the gospel, was the prevalent belief of the early Christians. Justin Martyr, A. D. 140, quoting the prophecy of Isaiah already cited, says, That these things have come to pass, you may be readily convinced; for we who were once slayers of one another, do not now fight against our enemies." Irenæus, Bishop

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