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the boldness of his mind. And the ease and certainty with which he shaped his course through those unknown seas, has never been equalled, except by Captain Cook. We must not, however, compare the difficulties of Drake with his small and rudely fitted vessels, to those of Cook, with the most consummate arrangements which the British admiralty, under George III., could provide. Perfect in his seamanship, relying implicitly on his own resources, and possessing that high courage which knows not even the bodings of fear, Drake was, in all seasons and latitudes, perfectly at home on the ocean.

Having coasted California and North America, as far as the forty-eighth degree, in hopes of finding a passage to the Atlantic, and being disappointed in this expectation, he landed on the country which he named New Albion, and took possession of it in Queen Elizabeth's name.

After this, he boldly sailed across the Pacific Ocean. Within less than six weeks, he reached the Molucca Islands, and touched at Ternate. Thence, by Java and the Cape of Good Hope, he proceeded homewards, and reached Plymouth on November 3rd, 1580, having completed the first circumnavigation of the globe in two years, ten months, and twenty days. He also brought home an immense mass of treasure, taken from the Spanish towns on the coasts of Chili and Peru, and from various Spanish vessels, including a royal galleon, called the Caca Fuego, richly laden with plate.

Queen Elizabeth did rightly in honoring him with her praise, for on the whole he well merited it. His ship, the Pelican, she ordered to be preserved in a little creek near Deptford, on the Thames, as a monument of his enterprise.

It was a happy day for Drake when the queen came with great ceremony, to grace with her royal presence a banquet in his welltried ship, and bestowed on him the honor of knighthood.

Soon after this banquet, Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador, complained to the queen, with arrogant violence, of Drake's having dared to sail in the Indian Sea. Elizabeth promptly replied, " that a title to the ocean could not belong to any people, or private persons, forasmuch as neither nature, nor public use and custom, permitteth any possession thereof." To the penetrating understanding, the intrepid spirit of our greatest queen, belongs the glory of having first asserted the undoubted right of England to navigate the ocean in all its parts.

One most characteristic anecdote of Drake's subsequent career must not be omitted. He was the chief bero in the great national defence against the invasion of the Spanish Armada. The queen made him vice-admiral on that occasion, and he was posted at his native place to watch the approach of the Spanish fleet. He was playing at bowls on the Plymouth Hoe with his officers, when a Scottish privateer brought the news that he had seen the Spanish fleet off the Lizard. Amidst the sudden bustle, and calls for ships' boats, Drake was cool and collected. He insisted that the game should be played out. “Plenty of time, my lads," said he, “both to win the game and beat the Spaniards."

THE SPANISH ARMADA. ATTEND all ye who list to hear our noble England's praise, I tell of the thrice famous deeds she wrought in ancient days, When the great fleet invincible against her bore in vain The richest stores in Mexico, the stoutest hearts of Spain.

It was about the lovely close of a warm summer's day,
There came a gallant merchant ship full sail to Plymouth Bay;
Her crew hath seen Castile’s black fleet beyond Aurigny's isle,
At earliest twilight, on the waves lie heaving many a mile;
At sunset she escaped their van, by God's especial grace;
And the tall Pinta, till the noon, had held her close in chase.
Forthwith a guard at every gun was placed along the wall;
The beacon blazed upon the roof of Edgcumbe’s* lofty hall;
Many a light fishing-bark put out to pry along the coast;
And with loose rein and bloody spur rode inland many a post.
With his white hair unbonneted, the stout old sheriff comes;
Behind him march the halberdiers, before him sound the drums;
His yeomen, round the market-cross, make clear an ample space,
For there behoves him to set up the standard of her Grace.

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And haughtily the trumpets peal, and gaily dance the bells,
As slow upon the laboring wind the royal blazon swells.
Look how the lion of the sea lifts up his ancient crown,
And underneath his deadly paw treads the gay lilies down.
So stalk'd he when he turn'd to flight, on that famed Picard field.
Bohemia's plume, and Genoa's bow, and Cæsar's eagle shield:
So glared he when at Agincourt in wrath he turn'd to bay,
And crush'd and torn beneath his paws the princely hunters lay.
Ho! strike the flag-staff deep, Sir Knight; ho ! scatter flowers,

fair maids :
Ho! gunners fire a loud salute; ho! gallants, draw your blades;
Thou sun, shine on her joyously-ye breezes, waft her wide;
Our glorious SEMPER EADEM*- the banner of our pride.
The freshening breeze of eve unfurld that banner's massive fold,
The parting gleam of sunshine kiss'd that haughty scroll of gold;
Night sank upon the dusky beach, and on the purple sea, —
Such night in England ne'er had been, nor ne'er again shall be.
From Eddystone to Berwick bounds, from Lynn to Milford Bay,
That time of slumber was as bright and busy as the day;
For swift to east and swift to west the warning radiance spread;
High on St. Michael's Mount it shone-it shone on Beachy

Head. Far on the deep the Spaniard saw, along each southern shire, Cape beyond cape, in endless range, those twinkling points of fire. The fisher left his skiff to rock on Tamar's glittering waves, The rugged miners pour'd to war from Mendip's sunless caves. O'er Longleat's towers, o'er Cranbourne's oaks, the fiery herald

flew; He roused the shepherds of Stonehenge, the rangers of Beaulieu, Right sharp and quick the bells all night rang out from Bristol

town, And ere the day three hundred horse had met on Clifton down; The sentinel on Whitehall gate look'd forth into the night, And saw, o'erhanging Richmond Hill, the streak of blood-red

light. Then bugle's note and cannon's roar the death-like silence broke ; And with one start, and with one cry, the royal city woke.

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At once on all her stately gates arose the answering fires;
At once the loud alarum clash'd from all her reeling spires;
From all the batteries of the Tower peal'd loud the voice of fear,
And all the thousand masts of Thames sent back a louder cheer:
And from the farthest wards was heard the rush of hurrying feet,
And the broad streams of flags and pikes dash'd down each roaring

And broader still became the blaze, and louder still the din,
As fast from every village round the horse came spurring in :
And eastward straight, from wild Blackheath, the warlike errand

went, And raised in many an ancient hall the gallant squires of Kent. Southward, from Surrey's pleasant hills fle, those bright couriers

forth; High on bleak Hampstead's swarthy moor they started for the

North; And on, and on, without a pause, untired they bounded still, All night from tower to tower they sprang—they sprang from

hill to hill, Till the proud Peak unfurld the flag o’er Darwin's rocky dalesTill like volcanoes flared to Heaven the stormy hills of Wales Till twelve fair counties saw the blaze on Malvern's lonely

height Till stream'd in crimson on the wind the Wrekin's crest of lightTill broad and fierce the star came forth on Ely's stately fane, And tower and hamlet rose in arms o'er all the boundless plain; Till Belvoir's lordly terraces the sign to Lincoln sent, And Lincoln sped the message on o’er the wide vale of Trent; Till Skiddaw saw the fire that burn'd on Gaunt's embattled pile, And the red glare of Skiddaw roused the burghers of Carlisle.

Macaulay. PRESENCE OF MIND, AND NAVAL DISCIPLINE. THE daring of the British seaman in the face of the enemy, and in the fierce struggle of the tempest, is only equalled by his presence of mind in grappling, in the dark hours of night, and when suddenly aroused from his peaceful slumber, with that most appalling and invidious foe—fire. Here is a striking example:

In the year 1831, the ship’s corporal of H.M.S. Magicienne, then many hundred miles from land, in the early morning watch, on going his rounds, smelt, or fancied he smelt, fire in the fore cockpit. On descending the cockpit ladder, he ascertained the correctness of his fears, finding the foresail-room to be on fire, just over the magazine. Discipline had here a great triumph, for the man made no alarm on the lower deck amongst the sleeping crew, but, in accordance with orders, quietly made his report to the officer of the watch, who in his turn communicated it to the commander, Captain (afterwards Admiral) Plumridge. Without staying to dress himself, the captain jumped on deck, and coolly gave the orders to sound the fire-roll and beat to quarters.

By this time the word had passed—“Fire in the foresail. room.” Every man and officer was at his respective station. Sail-trimmers shortened and trimmed sails; and sentries were under arms over the boats. All hands remained steadily at their quarters : pumps, engines, and buckets were worked with energy, and the water rushed down on the devouring element to an extent that must either have extinguished it or swamped the ship. The party whose duty required them to be where the fire was, notwithstanding their perilous position, immediately over the magazine, cleared the burning sail-room with all that energy and self-possession peculiar to British seamen in such emergencies. More than ten minutes had not elapsed from the time the drum beat to quarters till all was over, and the gallant “craft,” under all canvas, again pursuing her course. So quietly was everything managed, that the “sail-trimmers” at the after quarter never knew that the ship was actually on fire, but merely thought it a sham for exercise. Not a man or sail-trimmer was allowed to look round, or speak, or whisper, to his neighbour. The piercing eye of the captain was upon them, who, in his bedgown, walked the deck with his arms folded- his step as firm and

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