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in this sense in the first apology of Apuleius.* First, if there be some examples of persons He addresses himself to Æmilianus, his adver- frightened into folly or madness, there are sary, to justify himself from the accusation of more of persons terrified into an epilepsy. having bewitched one Thallus, who was fallen Among the various causes of this sickness, the extremely ill with an epilepsy. Imo si verum | author of a book on the subject, supposed to be velis, Æmiliane, tu potius caducus qui jam tot Hippocrates,* has given sudden fright as one. calumniis, cecidisti, neque enim gravius est It would be needless to multiply proofs corpore quam corde collabi, pede potius quam when a sorrowful experience daily gives uus mente corruere, in cubiculo despui, quam in so many! But I recollect one instance of isto splendidissimo cætu detestari.
the zeal of St. Barnaril,t which deserves to 3. 'And he marked the posts of the gates. be related, I do not say to be applauded. This is the version of the late Mr. Martin, but William the Xth Duke of Aquitain, and allow me to lay aside all the versions of our Count of Thoulouse, declared himself against modern divines, and even those of the most Innocent the Ild in favour of Peter de Leon, celebrated Rabbies, and to abide by my Sep- an antipope who had taken the name of tuagint and my Vulgate. The Septuagint | Anacletus the IId. The Duke had driven renders it xLY STRATEY ETI' Tns bepees TNS TUans, and the Bishops of Poictiers, and of Limoges, from the Vulgate says, et impingebat in ostia portie their sees. St. Barnard was sent into Guienne and he hurt himself, or he dashed himself to engage him to reconcile himself to the holy against the posts of the gate. Munstert pre- see, and to re-establish the two bishops, but tends indeed that the Latin interpreter first he could not prevail with him to be reconwrote, et pingebat in ostia portia, and that it ciled to the bishop of Poictiers. While they was afterwards changed into impingebut; but were talking at the church gate, St. Barnard though this ingenious conjecture has been went up to the altar and said mass. Having adopted by able critics, yet it seems to me fu- consecrated the host, and pronounced the be tile, because on the one hand the Vulgate evi- nediction on the people, he took the body of the dently follows the Septuagint, and on the other, Lord in a patine, and going out with a countebecause the Latin interpreter would have con- nance on fire, and with eyes in a flame, he adtradicted himself, collabebutur inter manus dressed with a threatening air these terrible eorum, et pingebat in ostia portie, if he fell into words to the Duke: We have entreated you, their hands how could he write, or scratch but you have despised us. In a former interwith his fingers on the gate or the door? Nor view, a great number of the servants of God beis it necessary with the celebrated Lewis sought you, and you treated them with conCapelf to suppose the change of a letter, and tempt. Behold, now the Son of the Virgin to say that the Septuagint reads vajaloph, in- comes to you, the head and lord of the church stead of vajetar. The verb tava signifies to you persecute. Behold your judge, at whose mark, to make an impression, or some print name every name in heaven, earth, and hell, with the hand, or an instrument, and to shake, bow. Behold the avenger of your crimes, and make the body tremble where the mark into whose hand, sooner or later, your stubis imprinted. David was violently hurt born soul shall fall. Have you the hardiness against the posts of the gate, so that marks to despise him? And will you contemn the were left in his flesh. This signification of the master as you have done the servants? The verb is agreeable to the Chaldean language, spectators were all dissolved in tears, and the in which teva signifies to tremble, to shiver, count himself, unable to bear the sight of the and in the Arabic, where the same root signi- abbott, who addressed him with so much refies to be troubled or astonished.
hemence, and who held up to him all the 4. King Achish uses another word, which while the body of the Lord, fell all shaking modern translations render fool, madman. Lo, and trembling, to the earth. Being raised up you see the man is mad. Have I need of mad- by his soldiers, he fell back again, and lay on men, and so on. The Septuagint, which I fol- his face, saying nothing and looking at nobolow step by step, and the authors of which un- dy, but uttering deep groans, and letting his derstood Hebrew better than we, translates it, spittle fall down on his beard, and discoveradou aedete card Q ETDANTTOY And so on : Why have ing all the signs of a person convulsed in an you brought this man? Do you not see that epilepsy. St. Barnard approached, pushed he is attacked with an epilepsy.? Have I him with his foot, commanded him to rise, need of epileptics, that you have brought him and to stand up and hear the decree of Gode to fall into convulsions in my presence? This. The bishop of Poictiers, whom you have single testimony of the Septuagint ought to determine this question.
* Hippocrates 77ept regals voocu. T. ii. 8. xi. p. 336. 2. My second class of arguments is taken
+ Vita Sancti Bernardi, lib. ii. cap. 6. n. 38. Roga
vimus te, et sprevisti nos, supplicavit tibi in altero from the scope of the place, and I think, even
quam jam tecum habuimus, conventu servorum Dei supposing the original terms were as favour- ante te adunata multitudo, et contempsisti. Ecce able to the idea of folly or madness as they ad te processit filius virginis, qui est caput et Domiare to that of an epilepsy, yet we should be tuus, in cujus nomine omne genu curvatur cælestium, more inclined to the latter sense than to the terrestrium et infernorum. Adest vindex tuus, in
cujus manua illa anima tua deveniet. Nunquid et
ipsum spernes ? Nunquid et ipsum sicut servos ejus * Apuleius Apol, pro se ipso prima.
Elevatus a militibus, rursum in faciem rnit, nec Munsterus in h. 1. in criticis magnis. See Bayle. quippiam alieni loquens, aut intendens in aliquem, Achish. Rem. C.
saliris in barbam defluentibus, cum profundis efflatis IL. Capellus criticiæ sacra libro. iv. cap. 5. 8. 35. gemitibus, epilepticus videbatur.
driven from his church, is here ; go and recon- | fool, he need not go far in search of one, that cile yourself to him; and by giving him a holy he would make a fool of himself: and he agreekiss of peace become friendly, and reconduct ably compares mankind with their defects to him yourself to his see. Satisfy the God you Harpasta the fool of his wife. Every body have offended, render him the glory due to his knows, adds this philosopher,* ambition is not name, and recall all your divided subjects into my vice, but we cannot live otherwise at Rome. the unity of faith and love. Submit yourself I dislike luxury, but to live at a great expense to pope Innocent; and as all the church obeys is essential to living in this great city; and so him, resign yourself to this eminent pontiff on. Pliny the younger, writing to one of his chosen by God himself. At these words the friends, complained of having misspent his time count ran to the bishop, gave him the kiss of at an elegant supper through the impertinence peace, and re-established him in his see.' of these fools, who interrupted conversation :
2. I return, sir, from this digression, which he says, that every one had his own whim; that is not quite foreign to my subject, to observe, he had no relish for such absurdities; but that in the second place, that the sacred historian some complaisance was necessary to the taste attributes to David the three characteristical of our acquaintances. marks of the falling sickness, falling, convul- It was not the same with madmen, and parsion, and frothing. Falling, for it is said he ticularly epileptics. Every body carefully fell into the hands of the officers of the king: avoided them, and thought, to meet them was convulsion, for he hurt himself against the a bad omen. Dion Cassius says, the Roman
posts of the gate:' and frothing, for he let fall senate always broke up, when any one of them his spittle upon his beard. These are symp- happened to be taken with an epilepsy, for toms, which Isidore of Seville gives of an epi- which reason it was called morbus comitialis,t lepsy,* cujus tanta vis est, ut homo valens con- witness these verses of Serenus Sammonicus : cidat, spunelque. We may see the cause, or
Est subiti species morbi, cui nomen ab illo est, at least what physicians say of it, in the work Quod fieri nobis suffragia justa recusat: of Hippocrates just now quoted, in the posthu- Sæpe etenim membris acri languore caducis, mous works of Mr. Manjot, and in all the trea
Consilium populi labes horrenda diremit. tises of pathological physic. The manner in Pliny the elder, who relates the same thing, which Hippocrates explains the symptom of informs us of another custom, that was, to spit froth seems very natural, copou de ex TCU STOuatos, at the sight of an epileptic: Despuimus comi&c. The froth, that comes out of the mouth, tiales morbos, hoc est, contagia regerimus; proceeds from the lungs, which, not receiving simili modo et fascinationes repercutimus, any fresh air, throw up little bubbles, like those dextræque clauditatis accursum. There was of a dying man.
then as much superstition in this custom as 3. The horror of king Achish concerning the aversion to the illness. Accordingly Theocondition of David, is a third reason, which phrastes has not forgotten, in his character of confirms our opinion. You see,' said this a superstitious man, to represent him seized prince to his officers, 'this man is epileptic, with horror, and spitting at meeting a madshall such a man come into my house? And man, or an epileptic. This was so common, he drove him away,' as it is said in the title of and so much confined to an epilepsy, that it the thirty-fourth psalm. . According to the was frequently called the sickness to be spilted common opinion, David seigned himself a na- at: Thus Plautus, in the comedy of the Captural, a fool, not a madman: he did actions of tives, where Tyndarus, to prevent Hegio from imbecility, and silliness, not of madness and fu- staying with Aristophontes, accuses him of bery. Now the ancients, far from having any ing subject to the illness that is spit at. aversion to this sort of fools, kept them in In this custom of spitting at the sight of an their palaces to make diversion. Tarquin the epileptic, I think I have formed a very probaproud kept Lucius Junius Brutus in his family ble conjecture on another famous passage of less as a relation of whom he meant to take Scripture; but, sir, I shall do myself the hocare, than as a fool to please his children by nour to treat of this in a future letter to you. absurd discourses and ridiculous actions. Ana- At present, I avail myself of this custom to excharsis, who lived about three hundred years plain why Achish discovered so much indignaafter David, could not bear this custom of the tion against his courtiers, and so much disdain Greeks. This wise Scythian said, “Man was for David, and why he drove him so quickly a thing too serious to be destined to a usage so from his palace. ridiculous,'t Seneca, in one of his letters to 4. In fine, I think, it is easy to see in the Lucilius, speaks of a female fool, whom his thanksgiving psalms, which David composed wife had left him for a legacy, and who had after he had escaped this imminent danger, sesuddenly lost her sight. She did not know veral indications of the nature of the illness she was blind, and was always asking to be let that had seized him so suddenly. It is agreed out of a house where she could see nothing. that he composed the thirty-fourth and the Seneca says, that he had a great dislike to this fifty-sixth on this occasion, as the titles assure kind of singularities; that if ever he should us, and to them I add the thirty-first and the take it into his head to divert himself with a
* Hoc, quod in illa videmus, omnibus nobis accidere
liqueat tibi.- Plin. Ep. lib. ix. 17. * Isidor, Hispaljensis originum lib. iii. cap. 7. De Dio Cassius. lib 37. chronicis morbis, voce Epilepsia. p. 33. Col. A. lit c. Plin. lib. xxviii. cap. 4. Hippocrat. ut supra.
Theophrastes Charact, πoρι δεισιδαιμονίας. Apud Eustathium in Homerom.
9. Plut. Capt. Act. iii. Scen. 4. ver. 15, &c. morbus Seneca. Epist. 30.
hundred and sixteenth, concerning which I beg kal signifies to escape, when it is in the conjuleave to make two remarks.
gation piel signifies to vomit, to reject; so the First, that the hundred and sixteenth has so celebrated Rabbi David Kimchi says. Inmuch connexion with the fifty-sixth, and the deed the Chaldee paraphrast* uses it in two thirty-first with the hundred and sixteenth, places in this sense, Lev. xviii. 28. 25, “The that it is very evident these three psalms were land itself vomiteth out her inhabitants—That composed at the same time, and in view of the the land spue not you out also, as it spued out same deliverance : with this difference, how- the nations before you.' Jon. ii. 10, The fish ever, that in the fifty-sixth David confines vomited out Jonah. This word is used in the himself to the malignity of his enemies, to the Talmud, which forbids a disciple ever to vomit punishment they might expect, and to his own in the presence of his master; for, according to confidence in God, who engaged him to despise this Rabinnical code of law, he who spits beall their efforts ; whereas in the thirty-first he fore his master, is worthy of death. According expresses more clearly the terror which had to Mr. d'Arvieux,t the Arabians religiously been excited in him by the conversation of observe this custom to this day. Among them Achish and his officers, and the prayers which no man ever spits before his superior, it would he had addressed to the Lord in his distress. be considered as treating them with disrespect In the hundred and sixteenth he attends more and contempt. The Chaldee paraphrast unto the success of these prayers, and to the gra- derstood this psalm in this sense, and rendered titude he felt for deliverance from his great the passage thus, because of the falsehood that danger, and to the profound impression which is in their hands, spit them, or vomit them out. his late situation had made on his mind. A bare Now, sir, would it be improper to apply this parallel of these three hymns discovers a great verse to my explication, and to affirm, that resemblance both in sentiment and expression. David here manifestly alludes to two of the Compare Ps. lvi. verses 5. 9. 11-14, with symptoms of an epilepsy, which he himself cxvi. 8. 12, 13. 17. 14. 18. 8. 9.—and cxvi. 1— had lately experienced? This holy man prays 3. 11. 16, with xxxi. 23, 24. 3. 10, 11. 23. 17. to God that his enemies might be treated in a
The second observation I make on the thirty- manner which had some resemblance to the first and hundred and sixteenth psalm is, that illness they had caused him; that as he had they perfectly agree with the occasion of the frothed and cast out his spittle, so God would two other psalms, and that some passages seem spit or vomit them out of his mouth; and as to refer to the supposed epileptic fit. The he fell to the ground through their hands, so cause is remarked Ps. xxxi. 10, 11. 14. The they might be degraded and cast out. The effects and consequences are spoken of in the former image is used by an inspired writer, same psalm, ver. 12, 13. The condition to Rev. iii. 16, Because thou art lukewarm, I which the illness had reduced David is de- will spue thee out of my mouth.' scribed Ps. cxvi. 11.-Ps. xxxi. 23, (22 in the Perhaps, sir, you will think another obser. English version,) : I said in my haste, I am cut vation which I am going to make, not suffioff from before thine eyes. All men are liars.' ciently solid. David says, while he is celeHowever the Hebrew words rendered in my brating the deliverance God had granted him, haste be translated, either with the Septuagint Ps. xxxiv. 20, that the Lord keepeth all the in my ecstacy, or with Symmachus in my swoon bones of the righteous man, not one of them is or fainting fil, or with the old Italian version, broken.' It is not worth while to refute the in my great dread, or with St. Jerome in my Jews on this article, for they quote these words stupefaction,* either of the senses supposes and in proof of a little bone, which they call lus, confirms my opinion. Suidas explains the word and which they place in the form of a small ecstacy, which the Septuagint uses here by almond at the bottom of the back bone. They θαυμασμος και αλλοίωσις.
. This last word is the pretend that David had this bone in view; same as that in the title of the thirty-fourth that nothing, neither fire, nor water, nor time, psalm, where David is said to have changed can destroy it, and that it is the germ of the countenance, for so I think it should be trans- resurrection of the body. Probably it was lated.
from this Jewish tradition that Peter LomIn regard to the two psalms before mention- bard, I the master of the sentences, derived his ed, which were always understood to be com- little piece of flesh, which every man inherits posed on this occasion, they both of them fur- from the flesh of Adam, and which renders us nish a great deal to establish our opinion. all corrupt, and on account of which we are
In the fifty-sixth psalm, there is a verse, the called the children of Adam. Much less will seventh I mean, which modern interpreters I pretend to dispute the application which St. seem not to have well understood. David John makes of this oracle to our Lord Jesus there, speaking of his enemies, says, according Christ, of whom it was both predicted and to our version, “Shall they escape by iniquity? prefigured, that not one of his bones should be In thine anger cast down the people, o God.' broken, chap. 36 ; Exod. xii. 46; Numb. ix. I think the words may be rendered, without 12. Nothing hinders our taking this verse in violence to the original, o God, because of its literal sense. David here blesses his God their iniquity spue them out, and cast down the people in thine anger ;t because the He- * Mag. Lex. Chaldaic. Thalm. et Rabbinicum Bux brew word palleth, which in the conjugation torf, in verb. palleth.
La Roque Voyage dans la Palestine. p. 140.
Pet. Lemb. lib. ii. Distinct. 30. N. p. m. 218. * Hierom, in Epist. 135.
Transmisit adam modicum quid de substantia ma in | Hammond's Annotations on Ps. Ivi. 7.
corpore siliorum, quando eos procreavit, &c.
for watching so marvellously to prevent him,/ed Platonic philosopher, to whom, after his that in spite of his violent epileptic fit, and death, altars were erected in divers places. of the fall, that might have broke all his 4. Far from deriving from my explication a bones, especially as he was so hurt by falling consequence so unreasonable, we ought, on against the posts of the gate, as to receive the contrary, naturally to conclude, that there marks or scars in his flesh, yet not one of his is a good and wise Providence, which knows bones was broken.
how to deliver its children by means unFor the rest, if any one should think pro- thought of, and even when their ruin seems per to take occasion, from this one convulsion certain. A Christian, now afflicted with this fit, to dispute the inspiration of the excellent sad disorder, may find in our sentiment a sopsalms of David, or only to diminish our es- lid ground of consolation. The man after teem for the works or the person of this prince, God's own heart had an epileptic fit ; but he the following considerations may set aside was not the less esteemed of God, and so a such a frivolous objection.
Christian may reason, believing himself to be 1. As soon as the malady is over, the mind beloved of God, and an heir of his kingdom, recovers its freedom and firmness, and is pre- though afflicted all his days with this malady, sently as well as before.
provided he imitate the zeal and piety of Da2. Even supposing frequent attacks to en- vid. I submit, sir, all my conjectures to the feeble the mind, yet this would not effect Da- penetration of your judginent, and I have the vid, for he had only one fit.
honour to be, with all imaginable respect, 3. Great men have been subject to this ill
Sir, Your most humble ness, but they have not been the less esteemed on that account; as for example a Julius
And most obedient servant, Cesar,* who was held by his army in more
DUMONT than admiration ; Plotinus too, that celebrat- ROTTERDAM,
September 2, 1725. Plutarch in Cæsare. T. 1.4, 715. Suidas in voce.