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21 And he said unto her, What wilt thou ? She saith unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in thy kingdom. 22 But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye
ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able.
23 And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with : but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to
Hacam or sage.
made the petition ; meaning that they but is more frequently used to express an made it through their mother. This re- evil or afflictive lot. The allusion in quest Grotius naturally conjectures arose some passages appears to be to the emout of the promise just made to the apos- poisoned cup given to malefactors. “Betles, of sitting on twelve thrones ; and it hold, they whose judgment was not to may be added, that as the imagery in that drink of the cup have assuredly drunken ; passage is taken from the Sanhedrim, the and art thou he that shall altogether go request had the same reference; for on unpunished ? Thou shalt not go unputhe right hand of the Nase, or president nished, but thou shalt surely drink of it.” of the sanhedrim, sat the Ab Bethdin or (Jer. xlix. 12.) “O Jerusalem, which father of the court, and on the left the hast drunk at the hand of the Lord the
There was nothing cup of his fury, thou hast drunken the therefore in the request of the sons of dregs of the cup of trembling, and wrung Zebedee inconsistent, in their view, with them out.” (Isaiah li. 17.) the general promise that the twelve apos- Baptized with the baptism, 8:c.—The tles should sit upon twelve thrones; but being immersed and overwhelmed with they desired the two most elevated places, waters is a frequent metaphor, in all lanthe two offices under Christ of the great- guages, to express the rush of successive est dignity. The request proceeded from troubles. This repetition of the same a criminal ambition.
term is not peculiar to the Hebrew style, Verse 22. Ye know not what ye ask.- but is found also in the ancient Greek This not only reproves the request itself, writers. Griesbach leaves out this clause but intimates that they were iguorant of respecting baptism from his text; but the true nature of his kingdom, where it is found in the greater number of mss., the highest cminence was that of the and not only coincides with the context, severest labours and the most painful suf- but is found in the parallel place, Mark ferings. Christ himself obtained not his x. 38, where he retains it. crown by wars and victories, but by shame We are able. -How rashly this was said and death.
appeared from the sequel, when they all To drink of my cup. It was anciently forsook him and fled. the custom, at great entertainments, for Verse 23. Ye shall indeed drink, &c.— the governor of the feast to appoint to Both were to endure afflictions for the each of his guests the kind and propor- truth's sake, and thus to drink of the same tion of wine which they were to drink, cup and be baptized with the same bapand to assign to every one his cup. Hence, tism, though in a lower measure ; for both in sacred and profane writers the the sufferings of Christ were in themselves, cup is metaphorically used for the portion as in their design, peculiar to himself. of good or evil that befals men in life; Thev drank of the same cup, but he
give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of
24 And when the ten heard it, they were moved with indignation against the two brethren.
25 But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them.
e Luke xx. 25.
drained its bitterness. James, the bro- brothers of our Lord; but that he admither of John, was put to death by Herod ;
nisters all the affairs of his kingdom, and and John, besides the ordinary persecu. assigns its offices and rewards, in perfect tions which he endured with his brethren, conformity to the will and counsels of the was banished into Patmos.
Father. Betwixt the persons of the ever Is not mine to give, but it shall be given blessed Trinity there is a perfect consent, to them for whom it is prepared of my Fa- and the laws by which they will distribute ther.—The words “it shall be given,” the rewards of heaven are revealed. For are not in the Greek, and have been un- it is to the final honours of eternity that happily supplied by our translators, as our Lord must be considered as referring; though there had been an ellipsis. But since we know the fact, that no superiority ουκ εστιν εμον δουναι, αλλ' οις ητοιμασται υπο of one or a few was established among TOV Talpos uov, is to be rendered, is not mine the apostles on earth. But at his second to give, except to them for whom it is pre- coming he will reward every man accordpared by my Father; ama, but, being used ing as his work shall be. The highest for el fin, except. Thus el un, in Matthew dignities are therefore prepared for those xvii. 8, is expressed by alla in the pa- who are by holiness, zeal, and labour best rallel place, Mark ix. 8: “they saw no prepared for them. Thus is both the faman,” alla, “save,” except Jesus only. vouritism of earthly attachments, which It is worthy remark, that in few of our might be supposed to exist between our English translations of the Bible, before Lord and Salome and her sons, and that that of king James, are there any supplied which is supposed to arise from an eternal words. The Bishops' Bible has, “is not election of persons to eternal glory, mine to give but to them for whom it is equally shut out. The rule of distribuprepared of iny Father.” Thus the mean- tion is fixed. he that by diligent “occupaing is obvious ; the passage neither states tion” of his Lord's goods inakes his five that the Son had no power to dispose of “pounds gain ten pounds," shall have the honours of his own kingdom, nor “authority over ten cities." that eternal glory is to be given only to Verse 24. Were moved with indignation. the elect chosen by the Father in Christ, –St. Mark says, “were much displeased," from the foundation of the world; but a strong emotion of anger having been simply that Christ had no power, as Sa- excited in their minds; which our Lord lome and her sons supposed, to grant the calmly, and with impressive dignity, rehonours of his kingdom on the principle strains, by calling them unto him, and of favouritism, or from the interest which teaching them all a lesson of the deepest Salome might have in his regards from wisdom as well as piety, and which, if her assiduous attendance upon him, observed, would banish all ambition and and ministering to him, or from the affec- all contentions from among the disciples tion which might be thought to arise of Christ for ever. from the natural relationship between him Verse 25. Exercise dominion over them, and James and John, who are called the 80.—This passage sufficiently shows that
26 But it shall not be so among you : but whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister ;
27 And whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant:
Christ's “ kingdom is not of this world;" thing our Lord says to the contrary, be that is, it is not conformed either in its set up in the Christian church, provided SPIRIT, End, or form, to the civil govern- it were not carried to the extent of sevements established among men. It does rity; in other words, that the same kind not, however, follow from these words, of coercion and compulsion might be apthat his church is without government, plied to spiritual matters as to those of or that it has not officers who are com- civil life. But the fact is not only, that missioned by him to bear rule. This these verbs, in their compound form, are conclusion would be contrary to his own frequently used in no stronger sense than act; for he gave “thrones” to his apos- when simple ; but that St. Luke, in the tles, and appointed them to “judge,” parallel place, Luke xxii. 25, uses them govern, preside over “the twelve tribes” only in the simple form to express the of the spiritual Israel. See note chap. xix. very same thing, which is decisive of the 28. They too appointed presbyters or question. It is not, therefore, merely the elders, to teach and enforce the laws of DEGREE but the kind of dominion exerChrist in the church, to “reprove the cised by the princes of the Gentiles in unruly,” and to reject obstinate offenders their kingdoms, which our Lord excludes from the communion of saints. The from his church. And when it is conmeaning must therefore be collected from sidered, that the government which Christ the occasion; and as it is clear that the and his apostles have established in the request of the sons of Zebedee arose out church is wholly adapted to it as a spiriof the notion, more or less still retained tual society, and consists,-1. In direction; by all the apostles, that the kingdom of 2. In brotherly reproof when a fault has Christ, however spiritual in some respects been committed ; 3. In faithful but pait might be, yet, nevertheless, was to be tient admonition when it is persisted in ; embodied in the form of a civil govern- and, 4. In exclusion from the table of the ment over the Jewish nation, so that it Lord, the visible sign of communion, but should regain its independence, and be with no infliction of civil disabilities or ranked again among the kingdoms of the penalties ;-nothing is more different in world; our Lord's words oppose this kind than this species of government from earthly notion, by declaring that in his that exercised in a civil community, and kingdom there should be no such domi- which in its mildest form must accomnion or authority as the princes and plish its ends by the threat or by the great men, the apxovles, and the peyadou, of actual infliction of fines, imprisonments, the Gentiles, the splendour and power of or corporal chastisement. By virtue of whose governments they envied, exer- this power operating upon the fears of cised among their subjects. Those who men, civil rulers acquire authority, and take the compound verbs, kalakupieuw, and effect the ends of the institution of civil kaletovoiasw, to have more force than the government. But it shall not be so among same verbs in their simple form, suppose you ; you are to obtain authority in the them to indicate the tyrannical and arbi- churches, and to effect the ends of their trary power which the Gentile rulers institution, by moral influence: whosoever usually exercised; but they do not seem will be great among you, let him be your mito have considered that the fair inference nister, diakovos, coadjutor or helper ; and from this would be, that the same KIND whosoever will be chief among you, let him of dominion and authority might, for any be your servant, dovos, or, as St. Mark
28 Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.
f Phil. ii. 7.
expresses it, “servant of all.” In this tion, whet her from death, captivity, or any passage our Lord, according to the style other state of misery. In the Septuagint frequently used by the Hebrews, expresses it generally corresponds with the Hebrew himself in parallelisms, where the second 7.), which signifies a piacular sacrifice; clause is exegetical of the preceding one, in which sense it, or some word derived with which it corresponds, and expresses from it, is constantly used in the New the idea with greater force.
Testament with reference to the death of Verse 28. Even as the Son of Man Christ. “In whom we have redemption, came not to be ministered unto, 8c.-Notep, TNV atout pwow, through his blood.” Eph. i. in the same manner as, the Son of Man 7. “ Ye were not redeemed, elut puente, came not into the world to exercise power with corruptible things, as silver and and dominion, to rule over men and to be gold; but with the precious blood of served by them; but by laborious and unin. Christ, as of a Lamb without blemish and termitted application, by “going about without spot.” Thus, that deliverance doing good,” to serve and benefit them. of man from sin, misery, and all other
And to give his life a ransom for many. - consequences of his apostasy from God, The doctrine of the atonement, the great which constitutes our redemption by foundation and topstone of the Christian Christ, is not granted without a considesystem, is here most clearly laid down. ration as an act of mere prerogative. That which was given by Christ was his The ransom, the redemption-price, was life, upon that great principle which exacted and paid ; one thing was given runs through all the dispensations of re- for another,—“ the precious blood” of vealed religion, that, without the shedding Christ, “as of a Lamb,” that is to say of blood, there is no remission : that sacrificially offered for captive and conwhich man had forfeited by his sin was demned men. In this manner, " he gave life ; " for the wages of sin is death;" and himself a ransom, avtiAvtpov, for all,” so that which alone could free him from that there is no further satisfaction or this penalty was the substitution of a price to be paid by any. LIFE in place of his own, to
- Here avtı signifies not which all the sacrifices of animal life un- merely for the benefit of many, but in der the patriarchal and Mosaic dispensa. their stead, in their place, which is the tions looked forward as instituted types. strong and original sense of this preposiChrist is said to give his life ; which not tion, as in the following passages :-2 Sam. only intimates that his sufferings and xviii. 33, “Would to God I had died, artı death were voluntarily undergone, but oov, for thee,” in thy stead. “Archelaus that he had a power over the disposal of did reign in Judea, artı, in the room of, his life which no merely human being is his father Herod.” If he ask a fish, invested with. “I have power to lay will he, artı, for a fish, in place or instead down my life, and I have power to take of a fish, give him a serpent?” But be. it again," are words which no man but cause holdwy is here used without the our Lord ever used; and they prove that article, it has been argued, that the sense his humanity was impersonated in a is, that Christ gave his life a ransom inhigher nature, possessing a sovereign au- stead of many ransoms, that is, instead of thority, and having life and death at com- the numerous and frequently repeated mand. The precise nature of the act by oblations of the Mosaic law. But how. which Christ, who might have prevented ever true it is, that the one sacrifice of it, submitted to die, is expressed by the Christ took the place of the many typiterm Aut pov, a ransom, or price of redemp- cal sacrifices previously instituted, this
29 8 And as they departed from Jericho, a great multitude followed him.
30 I And, behold, two blind men sitting by the way side, when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried out, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou son of David.
31 And the multitude rebuked them, because they should hold their peace : but they cried the more, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou son of David.
g Mark x. 46; Luke xviii. 35.
important doctrine is no where expressed out the article is used for all mankind : in such terms as occur in the text, which And many, rolloi, of them that sleep in by a Jew accustomed to sacrificial phrases the dust of the earth shall awake, some to would be understood to enunciate the everlasting life, and some to shame and unmeaning proposition, that the death of everlasting contempt.” With respect to Christ was a price paid to redeem the those who deny that on todoever signisacrifices of the law! Besides, in the fies all mankind, it is sufficient to quote sense of abolishing the Mosaic sacrifices, Romans r. 19: “For as by one man's the words are broken off from the scope disobedience many, Ol nooi, were made and intent of the passage, which is to sinners, so by the obedience of one show that Christ not only came to minis- shall many, oi nom101, be made righteous.” ter to others, but to do even more than The text, therefore, not only expressly this for others, namely, to give his life for lays down the doctrine of the atonement, them. Nor is there any weight in the but extends its intent and design to all argument from the absence of the article; mankind. still persons, not things, are intended, as Verse 29. And as they departed from in chap. xxvi. 28, “ This is my blood of Jericho.-St. Mark says, "As he went the new covenant, which is shed for out from Jericho ;” but St. Luke, accord. many, tepu noAlwy, for the remission of ing to our translation, As he was conde sins."
Christ was once offered to bear nigh to Jericho.” This apparent discrethe sins, homwv, of many,” Hebrews ix. pancy altogether arises from a wrong ren28. Some, however, who admit, that the dering of ev tw eynišelv, which ought to text signifies that the Son of man gave be translated indefinitely, while he was his life a ransom for many persons, deny near, that is, before he had gone far from that follo1, without the article, is equiva- the city. lent to tartes, all, though they acknow
Verse 30. Two blind men. The evangeledge that on todo has that import; lists Mark and Luke mention but one, whilst others again contend, that neither whom the former calls, “Bartimæus, with nor without the article is it to be the son of Timæus ;” and, as the name is taken in that extensive sense. In answer particularly mentioned, we may conclude to the first it may be observed, that the that, either from his family, or some other text before us, and i Tim. ii. 6, are in circumstance, he was a well-known chatheir sense strictly correspondent, and racter, which may account for his case that, in the latter, the apostle declares, only being noticed. He was also, probathat Christ“ gave himself, artidut pov umep bly, the speaker both for himself and Tartu, a ransom for all,” thereby show- companion. ing that he understood tool, as used by Verse 31. And the multitude rebuked the evangelist, to be fully equivalent to them, because they should hold their peace. παντες In like manner, in the Septua- —This is both an awkward and an obgint version of Daniel xii. 2, nomor with- scure rendering. Eπετιμησεν αυτοις ought