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eight hundred and fifty-two, and on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November of every second year thereafter.

$ 35. The Legislature shall not establish a State paper. Every newspaper in the State which shall publish all the general laws of any session within forty days of their passage, shall be entitled to receive a sum not exceeding fifteen dollars therefor.

§ 36. The Legislature shall provide for the speedy publication of all statute laws of a public nature, and of such judicial decisions as it may deen expedient. All laws and judicial decisions shall be free for publication by any person.

$ 37. The Legislature may declare the cases in which any office shall be deemed vacant, and also the manner of filling the vacancy, where no provision is made for that purpose in this constitution.

$ 38. The Legislature may confer upon organized townships, incorporated cities and villages, and upon the board of supervisors of the several counties, such powers of a local, legislative and administrative character as they may deem proper.

$ 39. The Legislature shall pass no law to prevent any person from worshiping Almighty God according to the dictates of his own conscience, or to compel any person to attend, erect or support any place of religious worship, or to pay tithes, taxes or other rates for the support of any minister of the gospel or teacher of religion.

$ 40. No money shall be appropriated or drawn from the treasury for the benefit of any religious sect or society, theological or religious seminary, nor shall property belonging to the State be appropriated for any such purposes.

$ 41. The Legislature shall not diminish or enlarge the civil or political rights, privileges and capacities of any person on account of his opinion or belief concerning matters of religion.

§ 42. No law shall ever be passed to restrain or abridge the überty of speech or of the press; but every person may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments, on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of such right.

§ 43. The Legislature shall pass no bill of attainder, ex-post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts.

§ 44. The privilege of the writ of habaes corpus remains and

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shall not be suspended by the Legislature, except in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety require it.

§ 45. The assent of two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the Legislature shall be requisite to every bill appropriating the public money or property for local or private purposes.

§ 46. The Legislature may authorize a trial by a jury of a less number than twelve men.

§ 47. The Legislature shall not pass any act authorizing the grant of license for the sale of ardent spirits or other intoxicating liquors.

§ 48. The style of the laws shall be “ The People of the State of Michigan enact."



§ 1. The Executive power is vested in a Governor, who shall hold his office for two years. A Lieutenant Governor shall be chosen for the same term.

$ 2. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor or Lieutenant Governor, who has not been five years a citizen of the United States, and a resident of this state two years next preceding his elec tion; nor shall any person be eligible to either office who has not attained the age of thirty years.

$ 3. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be elected at the times and places of choosing the members of the Legislature. The person having the highest number of votes for Governor or Lieutenant Governor shall be elected. In case two or more persons shall have an equal and the highest number of votes for Governor or Lieutenant Governor, the Legislature shall, by joint vote, choose one of such persons.

$ 4. The Governor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the military and naval forces, ard may call out such forces to execute the laws, to suppress insurrections and to repel invasions.

§ 5. He shall transact all necessary business with officers of government, and may require information, in writing, from the officers of the Executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

$ 6. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

7. He may convene the Legislature on extraordinary occasions, $ 8. He shall give to the Legislature, and at the close of his official term to the next Legislature, information by message of the condition of the State, and recommend such measures to them as he slaii deem expedient.

§ 9. He may convene the Legislature at some other place when the seat of government becomes dangerous from disease or a comraon enemy

§ 10. He shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies as occur in the Senate or House of Representatives.

11. He may grant reprieves, commutations and pardons after convictions, for all offences except treason and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions, and with such restrictions and limitations, as he may think proper, subject to regulations provided by law, relative to the manner of applying for pardons. Upon conviction for ireason, he may suspend the execution of the sentence until the case shall be reported to the Legislature at its next session, when the Legisiature shall either pardon, or commute the sentence, direct the execution of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He shall communicate to the Legislature at each session information of each case of reprieve, commutation or pardon granted, and the reasons there

$ 12. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his removal front office, death, inability, resignation, or absence from the State, ize powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Governor for the residue of the term, or until the disability ceases. When the Governor shall be out of the State in time of war, at the head of a military force thereof, he shall continue Commander-inChici of all the military force of the State.

$ 13. During a vacancy in the office of Governor, if the Lieutenant Governor die, resign, be impeached, displaced, be incapable of performing the duties of his office, or absent from the State, the Presdont pro tempore of the Senate shall act as Governor, until the racancy be filled, or the disability cease. $ 14. The Lieutenant Governor shall

, by virtue of his office, be President of the Senate. In committee of the whole he may debate all questions; and when there is an equal division, he shall give the Casting yete:

$ 15. No member of Congress, nor any person holding office under the United States, or this State, shall execute the office of Gov


§ 16. No person elected Governor or Lieutenant Governor, shall be eligible to any office or appointment from the Legislature, or either house thereof during the time for which he was elected. All votes for either of them, for any such office, shall be void.

§ 17. The Lieutenant [Governor) and President of the Senate pro tempore, when performing the duties of Governor, shall receive the same compensation as the Governor.

§ 18. All official acts of the Governor, his approval of the laws excepted, shall be authenticated by the Great Seal of the State, which shall be kept by the Secretary of State.

$ 19. All commissions issued to persons holding office under the provisions of this constitution, shall be in the name and by the authority of the people of the State of Michigan, sealed with the Great Seal of the State, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of State.



$ 1. The judicial power is vested in one supreme court, in circuit courts, in probate courts, and in justices of the peace. Municipal courts of civil and criminal jurisdiction may be established by the Legislature in cities.

§ 2. For the term of six years, and thereafter, until the Legislature otherwise provide, the judges of the several circuit courts shall be judges of the supreme court, four of whom shall constitute a quorum.

A concurrence of three shall be necessary to a final decision. After six years the Legislature may provide by law for the organization of a supreme court, with the jurisdiction and powers prescribed in this constitution, to consist of one chief justice and three associate justices, to be chosen by the electors of the State. Such supreme court, when so organized shall not be changed or discontinued by the Legislature for eight years thereafter. The judges thereof shall be so classified that but one of them shall go out of office at the same time. Their term of office shall be eight years.

§ 3. The supreme court shall have a general superintending control over all inferior courts, and shall have power to issue writs of error, habeas corpus, mandamus, quo warranto, procedendo, and other original and remedial writs, and to hear and determine the same. In all other cases it shall have appellate jurisdiction only.

$ 4. Four terms of the supreme court shall be he held annually, at such times and places as may be designated by law.

$ 5. The supreme court shall, by general rules, establish, modify and amend the practice in such court and in the circuit courts, and simplify the same. The Legislature shall, as far as practicable, abolish distinctions between law and equity proceedings. The office of master in chancery is prohibited.

$ 6. The State shall be divided into eight judicial circuits; in each of which the electors thereof shall elect one circuit judge, who shall hold his office for the term of six years, and until his successor is elected and qualified.

§ 7. The Legislature may alter the limits of circuits or increase the number of the same. No alteration or increase shall have the effect to remove a judge from office. In every additional circuit established the judge shall be elected by the electors of such circuit, and his term of office shall continue as provided in this constitution for judges of the circuit court.

$ 8. The circuit courts shall have original jurisdiction in all matters civil and criminal, not excepted in this constitution, and not prohibited by law; and appellate jurisdiction from all inferior courts and tribunals, and a supervisory control of the same. They shall also have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, injunction, quo warranto, certiorari and other writs necessary to carry into effect their orders, judgments and decrees, and give them a general control over inferior courts and tribunals within their respective jurisdictions.

$ 9. Each of the judges of the circuit courts shall receive a salary payable quarterly. They shall be ineligible to any other than a judicial office during the term for which they are elected, and for one year thereafter. All votes for any person elected such judge for any office other than judicial, given either by the Legislature or the people, shall be void.

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