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and solemn scenery. To the left, in the fore ground, a stag is quietly grazing: the only animal exhibited. The trees are touched in an artist-like manner.

279. Scene on the Banks of the Jumna, near Delhi.

T. Daniell. A MAGNIFICENT composition : in the usual style of this celebrated artist. The tone of colouring is tender, and the whole scenéry seems to be a happy representation of nature.

287. Civita Castellana.

R. R. Reinagle. A very beautiful and classical composition, somewhat in the style of Zuccarelli. The landscape seems true Italian, Mr. Reinagle is forming his taste on very correct principles, and successfully exhibits, to the eye of an Englishman, the trees, mountains, and rivers of Italy. The tone of colouring is warm but natural.

Purchased by Viscount Ashbrook.

Published by LONGMAN, HURST, Rees, and ORME

Paternoster Row; J. HATCHARD, Bookseller to Her Majesty, 190, Piccadilly; and WILLIAM Miller, Albemarle Street.

William Savage, Printer, Bedford Bury.

THE DIRECTOR

No. 18. SATURDAY, May 23, 1807.

Grecia capta ferum victorem cepit, et artes
Intulit agresti Latio.

HOR.

As in referring to the Temple of Elis, I have mentioned a painter among the artists employed, it may be proper to take a short view of the rise of this art. The painters of note first mentioned in history, Zeuxis and PARRHASIUS, are about the time of the Peloponnesian war, which began 430 years A. C. and lasted 27 years. Socrates is introduced by Xenophon, conversing with Parrhasius. In the course of perhaps fifty years antecedent, there flourished

VOL. II.

Y

POLYGNOTUS, AGLAPHON*, and PaNÆUS. The Art of Painting seems to have advanced with surprising rapidity to perfection; for we find few or no memorials of it in Homer, or in the Greek tragedians.

It is true that the use of colours is very antient: they are still to be seen on the walls of the temple of the Thebais in unfaded lustre ; and three thousand years have not diinmed them on the sides of the stones which inclose Egyptian mummies. But this is a very different thing from the lively representations of pictures: nor can the gigantic figures which some travellers say are coloured on the walls of the Egyptian temples, be allowed much praise as works of art.

Moses mentions pictures two or three times; but the word probably means painted idols, as in Jeremiah 22d, “ he painteth it with vermilion.” Jezebel painted her face; and in the Iliad both He

See Pliny, lib. 15..ch. 8, 9, &c. and Cicero in Brut.

len and Andromache are described as working flowers of various hue.

« The apples of gold in pictures of silver,” mentioned in the Book of Proverbs, were probably woven, or done in similar embroidery. To the same infancy of skill in this art may be referred the Mexican paintings, the monstrous designs of the Chinese artificers, and the sumptuous carpets of Persia. No proportion was observed ; and the only effect produced, or intended, was a display of forms and gaudy colours, without an attempt at exactness. But Zeuxis painted a boy with grapes, so naturally executed, that the birds pecked them; and the artist was therefore angry with himself, for having failed in the figure of the boy, whose presence ought to have frightened them. This shews a considerable proficiency in the art. But, as Zeuxis deceived the birds, Parrhasius with his curtain, deceived even his rival.

In the next age, that of Alexander the Great, about 330 years A. C. flourished

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