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apparatus for as profound an insight into their subject-matter as our scholars are as yet competent to achieve. At the same time, there are many indications, and among a much less professional class, of a growing interest in the original language of the Old Testament. And it really is desirable that the ability to read the original should be as widely extended as it is possible. Many persons acquire such a tincture of the classical languages as enables them—without any pretensions to critical scholarship—to enjoy Virgil and Homer, with some appreciations of the original vesture in which those poets draped their thoughts. It is hard to discern why many of the same class should not attain sufficient acquaintance with the Hebrew idiom to be able to relish the linguistic form in which the utterances of Prophets and Psalmists are delivered to us. Especially when we consider that a certain progress in Hebrew is so very much easier to attain than is commonly imagined. In fact, the peculiarity of Hebrew is that the first, or uncritical, stage of its study is disproportionately easier than the later ones. We do not think that Hebrew is necessarily that kind of knowledge of which a little is dangerous. The danger lies in the presumptuousness of the half-learned, not in his imperfect knowledge. There are half-learned people who know very precisely what they do not know. The real critical depth of this philology must always remain the peculiar province of persons with special gifts and special opportunities for their culture. The number of these will increase; but nothing is so likely to promote that increase, as a much more widely diffused interest in the language itself. As the rank and file increase, so will the officers.
With these views, we welcome Dr. L. Tafel's Prospectus of a work promising to popularize the study of Hebrew, and specially among those who have not the advantage of oral instruction. He proposes to publish a literal interlinear translation of both Testaments, together with their Original Texts; and further, for the special behoof of beginners, to print the earlier portions of each with an interlinear transcription which will indicate the pronunciation, even down to the accented syllable of a word. Subsidiary notes are to elucidate such difficulties as the new translation does not solve. Judging from the specimen before us, Dr. Tafel seems competent for the task he proposes to undertake. The texts are correctly printed, the translation faithful (we have only noticed heaven for heavens], the transcriptions exact, and the notes pertinent. If sufficiently encouraged, the work will be published by subscription, in parts of 120 pages Text, and 15 or 20 pages Notes, at intervals of two months; and it is expected that seven or eight parts will contain the New Testament (with which the editor will commence the publication), and twenty parts will complete the Old Testament. The price of the Greek parts to be one dollar fifty cents each ; and that of the Hebrew ones to be two dollars each. Type and execution are to be highly commended. Communications to be addressed to Dr. Leonard Tafel, No. 48 North 9th Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
We venture to suggest a small addition to the Editor's plan -a device at least as old as the time of Hutter, 1587. It would not entail much more trouble if he were to print the first few chapters of Genesis in such a style of transcription as to indicate by italics those letters of each word which are extraneous to the root. For example, were he to print bereshit bara Elohim, &c. a beginner would at once recognise those elements of a word which consist of affixes and flexional additions; and this alone would be no small assistance in a language so peculiarly constructed as Hebrew. We wish the project all success.
THE LIFE OF JESUS, FROM THE GOSPEL RECORD, Vindicated and de
fended against the attacks of Dr. Strauss, and of Infidelity in general. From the German of Dr. J. I. F. Immanuel Tafel. Chicago :
Myers and Chandler. London: Alvey, Bloomsbury Street. ALTHOUGH the subject of this book is the same as Professor Parson's, its treatment is entirely different. His is not controversial, this is. But the controversy is with one who has treated thegospel as Dr. Colenso has treated the Pentateuch-attempted to prove it utterly unreliable as history. Strauss does not assail the gospel as an avowed enemy, but as a pretended friend. He does not deny that such a person as Jesus existed, or that His history has a basis in fact, he only wishes to persuade us that Jesus was a mere man, arround whom a halo of traditional glory had gathered, to which is due all that, according to the gospels, is supernatural or divine in His character. In short, the person of Jesus was real, His character is ideal. It does not seem to have occcurred to Strauss how absurd is it to suppose that men who could conceive so perfect a character as that of Jesus, and who could put such words of wisdom in His mouth and perform such wonderfiul and beneficent works by His hands, should yet be so ignorant and unskilful as to construct a history that falls to pieces at the least touch of the critic's hand. But the truth is, the divine and supernatural must be got rid of at all hazards, and any ingenious theory that may obviate the necessity of adhering to the literal truth of the narratives in which they are set forth, answers the purpose which such writers have in view. Such theories have only a transient existence. Nobody seriously believes them. When they cease to have the charm of novelty they cease to please. Other books have to be written to supply the natural man with another religious novelty, giving a new theory of the life of Jesus, or presenting it in a new phase. Hence, Renan's Life of Jesus and Ecce Homo. Although in these and similar works, there is a certain affirmative element, which may be the means of preserving a quasi faith in divine revelation, yet they are essentially negative. This is the case more especially with the work of Strauss. It was to refute the arguments of this subtle writer that Dr. Tafel took up his pen. He does not rest his vindication of the gospel solely, or even principally, on the fact of its containing another and higher sense than the literal. He meets the enemy on his own ground, and combats him with his own weapons of history and logic. He superadds, indeed, the spiritual sense, as lending dignity, beauty and instructiveness to the historical fact, but never claims exemption from criticism on this ground.
If there are any young men in the church who are ever troubled with difficulties or doubts as to the literal consistency or truthfulness of any part of the gospels, or who have occasion to meet, and try to repel or resolve such doubts in others, we would advise them to read “Tafel's Life of Jesus.” It would also be an excellent book to put into the hands of any whose faith in the gospel history may have been shaken by infidel writings or communications. And while it may do much to reassure the wavering mind, it will impart to it positive views of a truly satisfying and elevating kind. It would do much to disabuse the minds of those who have acquired the notion that because we believe in an internal, we contemn the literal sense of the Word.
RESULTS OF AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE MANU
SCRIPTS OF SWEDENBORG.
[The following is the result of a searching investigation into the manuscripts of Swedenborg, commenced at the end of September, 1868, in Stockholm, and finished in February, 1869, in London. The manuscripts of Swedenborg are at present in four different places : Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 19, 28, 33, 39, 40, 49, 50, are in the keeping of the Swedenborg Society—they were borrowed in 1857 and 1859 by the Society for the use of the late Dr. Immanuel Tafel, and after his death were removed to London. A portion of No. 34 is in the University Library at Upsala, No. 9 in the Library in Linköping, and the remaining manuscripts are in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. The history of the various manuscripts as given in the following pages was obtained partly from the records of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, the archives of the Swedenborg Society in London, and the papers of the Nordenskjöld family, preserved by the members of the family in Berlin.
R. L T.]
I.- Manuscript Works, UNPUBLISHED, the Originals of which are still extant.
A. Theological Works.
B. Scientific Works. II.- Manuscript Works, PUBLISHED, the Originals of which are still extant.
1. From the Original Manuscripts
A. Theological Works.
B. Scientific Works.
A. Theological Works.
B. Scientific Works.
1. Those of which Copies have been preserved.
1.—MANUSCRIPT WORKS UNPUBLISHED THE ORIGINALS
OF WHICH ARE STILL EXTANT.
A. Theological Works. 1. Part of the Doctrine of Charity, 9 pages folio (No. 11 Swedish Catalogue *).
The portion not published consists :-Ist, of a Synopsis of the
whole work; 2, of a recast of the first and of a portion of the
second chapters; very important. 2. Index of a large work on Conjugial Love, 75 pages, oblong folio (Nos. 7 and 46).
This Index is contained in two separate volumes. As it is all
that has been preserved to us of this important work, it is of the utmost value to the Church. The lost work consisted of
over 2000 numbers. 3. A Sketch of an Ecclesiustical History of the New Church, 1 page, folio, in a volume entitled, “Index of the Concordia Pia ;" but which is almost entirely blank (No. 47, S. C.). One other page in this volume contains an unpublished statement of the doctrine of the Lord.
4. Index Biblicus, of the Historical Books of the Old Testament, 2 volumes, 581 pages, oblong folio (Nos. 40 and 41, S. C.).
5. Index Biblicus, of the Proper Names in the whole Bible, 275 pages, oblong folio (No. 39, S. C.).
6. Index Biblicus, of the New Testament, 435 pages, large oblong folio (No. 5, S. C.).
These three works are portions of Swedenborg's Concordance of
the Bible, which he consulted in the preparation of his theo* This Catalogue is that prepared by Secretary Wilcke, about 1790, according to which the Manuscripts are numbered in the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm,