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, general Bollivar's address to
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Jildress of the Proprietors of the National Iłogister to their Patrons. in commencing a new volume of the National Registra at the beginning of a new year, the Pronrietors feel themselves called upon to thank their friends and the public for the liberal patron•se ... loci., for the soort time they have had any concern in it, has been bestowed upon their ps per. Their industry will keep pace with this liberality; and their efforts will be unceasing to render the Register the first print of its class in the United States. Time, however, must test that fact. It may have been observed by the reader, perhaps, that, the National Register deals very little in surmises, rumors, and reports, which abound so much in the ordinary newspapers, and which are mostly inserted, in the first instance, with a view to deceive, or for the purpose of speculation, and are copied to fill up dull columns. The great object with the Proprietors of this paper is to make it a record of political and other truths, as far as truth is attainable from the various publications which give currency to the incidents of human life and the transactions which mark the course and characters of nations. After the greatest care and sifting, however, the degr . of truth acquired is in most cases very imperfect, arising from either ignorance or design. The propagation of error is wonderfully facilitated in the common journals, from the ease with which knavish and unlettered men glide into the management of them. A certain bold and flippant air put on in a paragraph gives to it an apparent value, although it may be full of unjust thoughts and ungrammatical expressions, which tend to corrupt the understanding and debase the language of the reader; for an ignorant and illiterate press has the same pernicious effect on the mind that low company has on the manners. The preceding reflections are not made with any particular view of assuming a superiority in these respects over many other publishers of pe riodical works, but whilst no pretension is made
to absolute purity of thinking and writing, a hope may be allowed to the Proprietors of the National Register, that, is aiming to acquire an accurate diction and a sound mode of reasoning in their pages, they recommend their print more effectually to the community at large; because, as they suppose, if it be an object to improve the intellect at all, it is an object to improve it in the best manner; especially where the means of doing so are as cheap and convenient as in cases where the naeans are worse. In discarding reports, rumors, and surmises, nothing is lost to the reader; he, on the contrary, gains by just so much as there would sobsequently be a necessity of contradicting in the perusal of some of the daily gazettes, half a man's time is lost in unreading what he had previously read– They exist upon all kinds of absurdities and contradictions, and the extent of their devouring coturnns requires such garbage where with to fill them, as more salutary nutriment is not generally within their reach. When it is considered how very few people reason vigorously upon every thing which they peruse, and how much easier it is barely to remember than to reason efficiently, the fairness and the force of these observations must be admitted. The human mind is never engaged, however slightly, with impunity; if it is does not detect and resist error and falsehood, it is sure to receive then, and to give to them a sanction, more or less weighty, by recollection. Like most others who have a commodity to dispose of the Proprietors do not altogether rely for success on mere utiliy: they seek, of course, to make the contents of their sheet as pleasant, as various, and thereby as agreeable, as possible, so that the freshness of novelty may yield a zest to what is useful. In the publication of some of the larger documentary communications made by the President to Congress during the session of that body, this print will not, it is probable, be so rapid as some of its cotemporaries; but they will, in it, be more correctly and completely printed. The garbled state in which some of the documents are now thrown before the public by the daily newspapers, has determined the Publishers of the National Register to insert them entirely, and in their regular order. With the best compliments of the season to their Patrons, the Proprietors take this occasion to remind them of the conditions of subscription to their paper. All who are in arrears on the 1st of January, 1819, either by dues up to, or ad
vances from, that date, will oblige the concern by reunitting or calling and paying the amount at an early day . This request will, it is likely, be more particularly attended to, when it is recollected that the Register does not reap any profit from an advertising custom. Another request, which is equally a condition, and very essential to the Pub. lishers, is, that all letters addressed to them re specting the paper should be post-paid. They have been already subjected to heavy expenses on this account. LAWRENCE, WILSON, & Co. City of Washington, January 2, 1819.
a stra to No oi i to A i. Of the difference, on the parallel of 45 degrees, of the latitude by observation (with a sextant, quadrant, or other instrument proper for the purpose,) and the true latitude on that parallel, taking into view the spheroidal figure of the Earth lf we admit a degree of latitude on the Earth's surface to be equal to 69 2 of our miles, the circumference, supposing its form to be that of a perfect sphere, is 249.12, and the diameter 792.J.735 nmiles. But it has been ascertained, upon principles that will not, probably, be now controverted, that the true figure of the Earth is that of an oblote spheroid, the ratio of whose polar axis to the equatorial diameter is as 318 to 319 The polar diameter, according to this proposition, is 7994 877 of our miles. The diameter of a perfect sphere equal to the spheroid above stated, is found, by taking a geometrical mean of these two diameters, to be 79.17. 296 miles: if we divide this by 635, twice the ra. tio of the polar axis, we have 1244.85 miles, equal to the difference, on the parallel of 45 degrees of the latitude by observation, supposing the Earth to be a perfect sphere, and the true latitude, allowing for its real spheroidal form. The latitude by observation should, therefore, be 45° 19 4,” 61 (bec. l'ho following rule will give the corresponding latitude, by observation, on any parallel, from Uto 90 degrees: Let a represent the equatorial diameter, and v the polar axis of the earth. .x tangent of the true latitude on the parallel, tangent latitude, by observation Accord. ing to this rule, 45 degrees (allowing for the spheroidal form of the Furth, and the ratio of the diameters above stated) will correspond with 45° 10 4, 606 dec. by observation \\ 1 Li. A M LAM! Bl, RT. I), cem'yer 28, 1818.
about 15 miles from this place, discovered, on the site where he had fixed his dwelling, a number of graves, the size of which appeared uncommonly small. This awakened his curiosity, and led him to a minute examination, which convinced him they were the remains of human beings much smaller than those of the present day. He seemed warranted in this conclusion, as well fron, the uniform appearance of the skeletons (the length of which in no case exceeds 4 feet) as from the teeth, which bore the evident marks of those belonging to adult persons He communicated these ficts to a gentleman of this lace, who, on Sunday last, together with two other gentlemen, accompanied ors. Valler and Grayson to the place of interment. They found, as had been stated, in a wood adjacent to the house, a great number of graves, situated on small tumuli or hillocks, raised about three feet above the surface; they examined several the first of which, by actual measurement, was discovered to be only 23 inches in ength. The grave was carefully cased on both sides, as well as at the head and "foot, with flat stones; in the botton also a stone was fixed on which the body was lying, placed on the right side, with the head to the east. Time had completely destroyed all the soft parts of the body, as well as decomposed the bones, which, however, still preserved their relative situation. The teeth, which were expected to furnish the best and perhaps only data to judge, were found in a state airnost perfect, being defended by the enamel, which seems only to yield to chemical decomposition. To the astonishment of all, they proved to be teeth of a being, who, if it had not attained the age of pub, ty, had unquestionabl arrived at that period of life when the milk tee yield to the second or permanent set. The molares and incisores were of the ordinary size of the second teeth. The jaw bone seemed to have its full complement, unless it was the dentis sapienta, or what is better understood by the wisdom, teeth, which make their appearance from 18 to 22 or 23. I he next grave examined was on an adjacent mound, and measured 27 inches; it resembled in every respect the first, except that the top of it was covered with flat stones placed horizontally. Several others were openc d, all of which present an uniform appearance, and none, although many were measured, proved to be in length more than 4 feet 2 or 3 inches Fl on these facts the mind is brought to the tt resistible conclusion, that these are the remains of beings differing altogether from, and inferior in general size to, ourselves. For, if in the subject first mentioned, we suppose it to be : a being of the usual growth, the fact of its having attained the age of 7 or 8 years, as seems proved from the teeth, is directly opposite to and at war with the circumstance of its being only 23 inches long, the usual length of a clai!d 8 or 10 months old, and justifies the conclusion that, by nature, it was destined to be of interior size. As to the time that those bodies have been deposited, there is no clue by which to form any certain opinion. The bones have been thoroughly changed by time, nothing remaining but the | line or earthy particles of them, which can undergo no further change, and may as well be supposed to have been in this state five centuries as one.—it is certain they have been there an immease length of time from the large growth of timber on the mounds, and the roots of trees that
had unade their way through the graves. This subject certainly invites the attention of the learned and curious, and opens an ample field for investigation, at least to form some plausible conjecture of a race of beings who have inhabited our country at a period far beyond that of which tradition gives us any account. o this city early on Friday evening, in a small boat, and looded opposite the barracks, near Haddrell's Point, where they secured their boat, and left her, crossing over, through the woods, to the northern post road. Having reached it, they dis. guised themselves, by blacking their faces with gunpowder, and hanging moss round their hats, which hung down over their faces. Soon after they arrived at the road, Solomon Cumbo, who had been down to market, came up: they stopped and robbed him of al...out 25 dollars 1)uring the act, Cumbo's horse took fright, and ran back to the Ferry, leaving him with the robbers. They took him with them into the bushes, and if the evidence of Daniel James is to be relied upon, who was admitted as States’ evidence, Cumbo joined them in eating and drinking through the night, and proposed to them that they should way-lay the mail, which would pass that spot about 7 o’clock next morning, and rob it—stating to them at the same time, that he left a traveller at the Ferry house, who was to come on early in the
From the .7lbany Daily ddvertiser of Dec. 2, 1818. Mostgoy Eny cincuit. Breach of Promise of . Marriage. The circuit court in and for the county of Montgomery, was opened before his honor Mr. Justice Spencer, on Monday, the 16th inst. and continued during the week. Among the trials which excited a great degree of interest and feeling, was that of an action brought by a lady residing in Canajoharie, against a physician living at Saratoga, for a breach of promise of marriage. The respectability and standing of the parties, the novelty of the case, and the peculiar circum stances attending it, engaged a more than ordinary attention On the part of the plaintii; it was proved that the defendant... had, paid his ad; dresses to her, and cwen solicited the consent of her father to a union, which was given. A number of letters written by the defendant to the plaintiff, were read in evidence, which contained the warmest professions of friendship and esteem, and breathed in every line the soft accents of love. This correspondence, which had continued for a considerable length of time, was broken off by the defendant. From some pretended cause, his heart became estranged from the former object of his love—he had met with another young lady (the friend of the plaintiff,) whose glittering purse perhaps dazzled his eyes, and with a magnetic power attracted his wavering heart. He addressed her—gained her heart—and added to his faithiess conduct the sanction of matrimony, leaving the former idol of his affections a prey to tender anguish. The defence relied on was, that the plaintiff had released him from his engagement, by advising him to marry her friend. As evidence of this, but most fatally for the defendant, and most unfortunately for his learned counsel, a letter was introduced written by the plaintiff to him. . It was the last which she had addressed to him, composed at a time when her heart was wrung with the painful conviction that she had ceased to interest him, and when the more painful intelligence was communicated that he was on the eve of being united to another. Under these truly afflicting circumstances, so trying to the tender sensibilities of the female bosom—she addressed hion—not with harsh epithets of censure and re. reach; but in the most tender and affectionate anguage. In the spirit of grief, she told him of the information which she had received, requesting him to inform her without reserve, whether he was indeed about to be united to another; and without evincing a spark of jealousy or resentment, she offered the warmest tribute of friendship and respect to the amiable qualities of her friend—recommending her as every way calculated to make him happy, and if he had determined to make her his wife, telling him to do so with. out delay. As for herself, she had become reconciled to her unhappy situation, though lan. guage was inadequate to describe the deep an guist, which had rent her bosom The fair pros. s of connubial happiness which smiling hope
d held up to her view, were blasted forever.'
That she considered marriage as the socied in. stitution of Heaven, and it would be betraying the feelings of her heart if she ever bestowed her hand on another. She breathed forth pray. ers for his happiness, and wished him to remem. ber her in his supplications to the Throne of Grace. There never was a more pathetic and eloquent appeal to the feelings of an audience, or which called more loudly for exemplary damages from a jury. The tear of sympathy stole from every eye, the glow of honest indignation flushed every countenance. The counsel of the defendant, by the introduction of this letter, were truly heaping damages on the head of their client. The letter of the lady evinced a mind highly cultivated and refined, a heart possessing, in an eminent degree, the softness of her sex, and a composure and tranquility, which could alone be derived from religion and virtue. His honor the judge, in a very feeling and elo. quent charge to the jury, after remarking on the rare occurrence of actions of this nature, dwelt with much force on the peculiar circumstances attending the one before them. A lady of refined manners and good education, alive to every noble sentiment, and, to add to the interest which she excited, being in delicate health, had been made to pine in solitude, and consigned to celibacy, through the faithless conduct of one who had gained her affections, and solemnly promised to be her companion and protector through life. In summing up the evidence, he adverted, with much emotion, to the letter of the lady, to which he paid the highest tributes; observing, at the same time, that so far from evincing a disposition to release the defendant from his engagement, it showed the very reverse—it presented the defendant in a more odious view, and exhibited the brightest part of the lady's character. That the receipt of such a letter, written under such cir|cumstances, was enough to break the heart of any other man. He told the jury that this was the most aggravated case which had ever come before him, and that it was their duty to lay a heavy hand on the defendant. To the honor of a jury, composed of the honest yeomanry of the country, be it said, they returned to the bar with a verdict for the fair plaintiff of five thousand dollars. Breach of Promise of Jarriage—In the report of this trial in our paper of yesterday, the names of the parties were omitted. Many inquiries have been since made respecting them, which it was not in our power to answer; but we learn by a Johnstown paper now before us, that the name of the lady is Miss Lucy Liubbard, of Canajoharie, and that of the defendant Dr. John II. Steele, of Saratoga.-[Ed...Alb. D. .Adv. PROGRESS OF CIRI ME. From the Charleston City Gazette of the 14th December, 1818. highway Robb Eny! On Saturday last, two men, named Solomon Cumbo and Daniel James, were brought before J. H. Mitchell, esq, justice of peace, for havin committed a robbery on the Georgetown road, near this town. The subjoincid are the particulars, as they came out on the examination: It appears that four men, of the names of Danel James, John Robinson, and Jim , Sea
morning, and who had a considerable sum of mo.
ney with him, of which they might easily become possessed —He accordingly blacked his face, as the others had done, and decorated his head with moss. When the mail came along in the morn ing in a sulkey, driven by a lad of 15 or 16 years old, they all went out into the road, and stopped the boy, making some inquiries of him how soon the stage from Charleston might be expected along, pretending they were desirous of getting a
assage in it to Georgetown. They did not take É. of the horse, although Cumbo advanced very near to his head; but one of the sailors told the boy they would not trouble him, and he might drive on. James, in his deposition before the magistrate, said it was him who gave this order, as “he conceived it would be a pity to rob the
mail, thereby breaking the chain of correspond
ence throughout the Union.” Soon after the mail had passed on, the expect. ed traveller, mentioned above, rode up—they stopped him, and, according to their account, robbed him of 17 dollars—when, getting alarmed, the four first named retreated through the woods to their boat, pushed off, and pulled towards James Island. Cumbo immediately went down to the Ferry, and informed that he had been robbed, as above stated, (carefully concealing, however, that he had any agency in the second rob bery) and that the sobbers were then pulling across the harbor for the opposite shore. A fer. ry-boat was instantly manned, into which three or four public spirited inhabitants of the viliage jumped, and pushed off in pursuit; but before they could overtake them, they had landed on James Island, and fled into the bushes. After some time spent in the search, one of them, Daniel James, came out from his hiding place, supposing they were gone, and was secured. The rest have not yet been taken. James immediately charged Cumbo, who had also gone in the pursuing boat, with being an accomplice, and with having recommended the robbery of the mail; and this was in part confirmed by the deposition of the post-boy, who described Cumbo as being disguised like the others, and of having evinced some disposition to stop his horse. On his part, however, Cumbo disclaimed all intention to participate in the robbery, and asserts that they had made a prisoner of him, and compelled him to take the part he did in the business.
STATISTICS. From the Georgia Journal of December 15, 1818. it to, Poirot Of the State Commissioners to the Executive, relative to the Boundary between this State and the Creek Indians. William Irabun, Governor, &c. of the State of Georgia. Sin, The honorable Wilson Lumpkin, United States' commissioner for determining the lines of the Creek lands, treated for by general Mitchell, in January of the present year, having notified us, that he should leave Milledgeville on the 20th ult. for the purpose of visiting the southern tract, and designating the boundary between that part of the state and the Indians, we accompanied him to Fort Hawkins The route by Fort Hawkins was adopted, that he might obtain necessary explana. tion from the agent, arrange the attendance of the Iolian commissioners, an interpreter and a military scort. These dispositions being effected,
we lef Fort Hawkins for Hartford, which place
we reached on Monday, 23d ult. and were there detained until Friday, the Indian deputation not presenting themselves to accompaay us before that time. Receiving no intelligence from our escort, it was resolved to pursue our course down the Ocmulgee without them, leaving directions for them to follow us. We crossed the river about 27 miles below Hartford, piloted by major ( othran, a gentleman minutely acquainted with he country we were about investigating. Progressing about 8 miles further down, brought us to a creek, which the Indians had been accustomed to call the Al-ca-sak-ali-kic, and on which the whites, who explored the country some years back, appeared to have bestowed the name of Bighouse creek. This stream, from its position, bearings, length and direction of its prongs, and indeed in most of its localities and natural circumstances, presents a striking correspondence with the signification of its Indian name,” the map forwarded from the war department, and with the agent’s description; “the first considerable creek, above Blackshear’s road,” given in conversation with the United States’ commissioner, and still more particularly in his communication to the ex. ecutive of Georgia, under date February 3d, 1818. Though these coincidences, and an accumulation of evidence derived from the most respectable sources, that this creek, had been commonly mentioned by the Indians as the Al ca-sak a li-kie, left no doubt in our own minds of this being the identical creek contemplated in the treaty, yet it was judged eligible to accompany the Indian commissioners to the one, which they were instructed to designate, on the present occasion. They at length conducted us to a small water course, about 5 miles below Blackshear's road, presenting more the appearance of a gully, or branch, than a considerable creek, and bearing so much down the river, that a line passing by its head must intersect the Ocmulgee from 10 to 12 miles below the before mentioned road, and informed us that this was the Al ca-sak-a-li-kie. As a line passing by any point of this creek would completely defeat the objects of the purchase, and its position flatly contravened the agent's criterion of “the first considerable creek above Blackshear’s road,”
* Al-ca-sa-ka-ii-kie, signifies, we are informed, “a kettle boiling in a creck"—and the creek called by the whit, s, Bighouse, has several springs, rising from limestone cavities, nearly circular, which initating torrents of gas, !...i. a striking resemblance to a large kettle in a state of ebullition.