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which arsenic has been united, are gold, silver, hy Bagoas, who had murdered his predecessor, tin, lead, nickle, zinc, antimony, and bismuth and succeeded by Darius Codomanus. it also forms an amalgam with mercury, by keep

ARSHIN, in commerce, the most common ing them some hours over the fire, constantly Russian measure of length = 16 vershok = 31548 agitating the mixture.

Arsenic is capable of Paris lines. It is also a Chinese measure, but combining with two different proportions of one Chinese arshin = 302 Paris lines. Three oxygen; by the first is forined the white oxide arshins = 1 fathom, and 500 fathoms = 1 already described, or arsenious acid, as it is verst. denominated by Fourcroy, on account of the ARSIA, in ancient geography, a small river many acid properties which it exhibits; by the which had a northern course, and served as a second is produced arsenic or arsenicai acid, boundary between Histria and Illyria, to the which was discovered in 1775 by Scheele, whó north of the Flanatic gulf. It there terminated also made himself acquainted with its most re- Italy on the north-east of the Polatic promonmarkable properties.

tory. In pharmacy, the white oxide of arsenic is ARSINOE, in ancient geography, the name of directed by the London Pharmacopæia to be various towns mentioned by Strabo, Ptolemy, sublimed; after which it is to be boiled with an Stephanus, &c. viz. of five towns in Cilicia, one equal weight of carbonate of potash, in order to of which had a station for ships; of three in or near form the liquor arsenicalis, sometimes called Cyprus; viz. one inland, formerly called Marium, Fowler's solution, or the tasteless ague drop. another north of it between Acamas and Soli, and This contains one grain of arsenic in two drams, the third in the south, with a port, between Ciis given in doses of a few drops in intermittent trum and Salamis. A sea-port in Cyrene, forferers, and in several eruptive diseases. Caution merly called Teuchira. A town in Egypt near is necessary in the exhibition of so dangerous a the west extremity of the Arabian Gulf, and south remedy. Arsenic has been used externally in of Hierapolis, called also Cleopatris. Another cancer, lapus, &c. in form of an ointment. For in the Nomos Arsinoites, mentioned on some an account of arsenic, as a poison, its symptoms, coins of Adrian, and formerly called Crocodiloeffects, and remedies, see Poison.

rum Urbs, from its abounding with crocodiles; ARSENICAL MAGNET, MAGNES ARSENICALIS, Ptolemy calls this town an inland metropolis, is a preparation of antimony, with sulphur and with a port called Ptolemais. A sea-port of Lywhite arsenic.

cia formerly named Patara, but called Arsinoe ARSENIUS, a deacon of the Roman church of by Ptolemy Philadelphus after his queen. And great learning and piety, who was selected by the three towns of Troglodytæ, the chief of which pope as tutor to Arcadius, son of the emperor Theo, was situated near the mouth of the Arabian gulf, dosius. _ Arsenius arrived at Constantinople A.D. which towards Ethiopia is terminated by a pro383. The emperor happening one day to go into montory called Dire. This Arsinoe is called the room where Arsenius was instructing his pu- Berenice, with the distinction Epidires; because pil, found Arcadius seated and his preceptor situated on a neck of land running out a great standing; at this he was exceedingly displeased, way into the sea. Also the name of several took from his son the imperial ornaments, made princesses of Egypt; particularly, 1. the daughter Arsenius sit in his place, and ordered Arcadius of Ptolemy Lagus, and wife of Lysimachus king for the future to receive his lessons standing un- of Thrace: 2. the wife of Ptolemy Philadelphus, covered. Arcadius, however, profited but little who named several towns after her. by his tutor's instructions, for some time after he ARSINOE, in entomology, a species of papiformed a design of despatching him. Arsenius, lio, found in the island of Amboyna, the wings however, hearing of the design, retired to the deo of which are tailed, indented, fulvous, spotted serts of Sceté, where he passed many years in with black; and the posterior ones marked both devotion, and died aged ninety-five.

above and beneath with two ocellated spots. It ARSENIUS, bishop of Constantinople, in the is figured by Seba and Cramer. thirteenth century, excommunicated Michael Pa- ARSINÓITES, Nomos, an ancient district of leulogus, for taking the imperial crown from Egypt, west of the Heracleotes, on the western John Lascaris the son of Theodore. Though banks of the Nile. Michael solicited absolution, the bishop refused, ARSIS, and Thesis, in prosody, are names unless he would restore the crown; in conse- given to two proportional parts into which every quence of which Arsenius was banished to a foot or rhythm is divided. By arsis and thesis small island, where he died.

are usually meant no more than a proportional ARSENOTHELYS, among ancient natura- division of the metrical feet, made by the hand lists, the same with hermaphrodite. The Greeks or foot of him that beats the time. And in use the word both in speaking of men and measuring the quantities of words the hand is beasts, it is formed from apouv and Indus, male elevated, as well as let fall; that part of the and female.

time which is taken up in measuring the foot, ARSENVAL, in geography, a town of France, by lifting the hand up, is termed arsis or elein the department of the Aube, and chief place of vatio; and the part where the hand is let fall, a canton in the district of Bar-sur-Aube, twenty- thesis or positio. Vid. Augustin de Musica, lib. three miles east of Troyes.

ii. cap. 10. In plaudendo enim quia elevatur ARSES, or ARSAMES, king of Persia, succeed- et ponitur manus, partem pedis, sibi elevatio ed Artaxerxes Ochus about A. M. 3612, and af- vendicat, partem positio. ter a short reign of less than four years

as slain
Arsis and thesis

musical terms

re used

Stor # motorence, besticine, extinguished the knowledge of the past, and re.

tarded the revival of art; yet it cannot be denied,

ta team which that several important discoveries altogether un-
o r

et liberal, known to the ancients were made in those ages.
it into a te her senses, and Of this kind were the inventions of paper, paint-
you read i s not these ing in oil, the mariner's compass, gunpowder,
P ILT 2.5 bee Su Doetry, printing, and engraving on copper: see the
Witne, malo u ne, arening and archi- several articles. After the invention of the com-

pass and printing, two grand sources were opened
18 al 13 au fos na smer - for the improvement of science. As navigation
ring s t arter the parent 13220 w29 extended, new objects were discovered to
2,5 sment that noe anne D Ese awaken the curiosity and excite the attention of

11:2, s nebant rolure and others the learned; and the ready means of diffusiog
> prance, 23 TILBC bannng, at sery. knowledge afforded by the press, enabled the in-
L ommet pony'D 127 en ror s me to genious to make them publicly known. Igno

ve etter. Men nust wanralv lap c rance and superstition, the formidable enemies of
"33W 'Dre and D SUL Dort bensions before philosophy in every age, began to lose some of
neng baran to deberite own erier life that power which they had usurped, and different
20zle Indeed this sentirnet by fart; 33 states, forgetting their former blind policy, adopted

nation has been known so barbarong and iz- improvements which their prejudices had before
irant as not in some letres to have onlarated condemned.
the rudiments of these necessary arts; and hence In countries, however, where civil and ecce
posesty they may appear to be more excellent siastical tyranny prevailed, the progress of
ant worty, as having claim to a preference de- useful and elegant arts was slow, and struct
Tived from their seniority. The arts, however, with many difficulties. Particular evenis,
of elegance are not destitute of pretensions, if it deed, have occurred in all ages and nations
be true that nature formed us for something have roused the exertions of genius, and furt
nore than mere existence. Nav farther, if well- occasion for making important and useful
being be clearly preferable to mere being, and coveries. The history of Greece and Roz
Uss, without the other, be contemptible, they even of modern Europe, will afford many
may have reason perhaps to aspire even to a facts that confirm and illustrate this obst
Venonty. Harris, ubi supra, p. 54. We can add but a few other miscellaneous

story of the ongin and progress of par- In different countries the progress of
2 2 2 recited under their respective de- arts has been extremely different. The
A t the course of this work. It may compass was used in China for nang

boneer, in general, that most before it was known in Europe, yet
PDP 21. Denissary to the subsistence, instead of suspending it in order to
pod 219 ) the e venience and comfort of freely, it is placed upon a bed of sand

narahat a Dery party origin. every motion of the ship disturbs

l 's must be paris coeral with Water-mills for grinding corn are Chapter De

S um b er for, acting, and babita- Vitruvius, and wind-mills were knots

m o n amoucity, Eure and in Arabia as early as the serents o places a

og at 7 af nen an u 3 no mention is made of them in

3P e n ting und the reach oi tra- fourteenth; and that they were the loss or di

? nu are m ain crept ato etist- England in the reign of Heart
In this sense

tegel ane rosset invenuse of history. from 2 household book of the
T 1,24 mint, bre , accustomed to a be family, stating an alorice for the

ng in dl tart, Camat rest till it finds or two to draw in the mill and com
i s a brain to every art.

to the mill and fro.' Watermelis ir le has been generally admitted that the arts in England have been of a late dire

Had their rise in the East, and that they were cients had mirror-glasses, and earpi work in silve


imitate crystal vases and goblet,
parted from thence to the Greeks, and from
Tu to the Romans, The Romans, indeed, thought of using it in windows. In

489 hare beer chi tiv indebted to the Greeks, century, the Venetians were the only con


had the art of making crystal gizs kr

celled a point of inven AR'I

Samen monited this superi- A clock that strikes the hours was miss s e t their woch (niem order Europe till the end of the twelfth center

res a trom the anum. hence the custom of employing men to en to the e n d that the hours during night; which to this

thu : and tinues in Germany, Flanders, and Es ** / Takes the (slileo was the first who conceived an idea

comaved and a pendulum might be useful for measures

e than Hutes was the first who put the who hers, that the execubu, br making a pendulum clock, HE RUT H Beam ID Total invernal a spiral spring for a

SOME though a watch tras far from being a new in 0911120178 pon.. Pamer was made no earlier than the for y ed and teenth century, and the invention of print

Schoner s & coniun kler Sh minutactures

is du
a gt

the cox
the van
to have
which ar

for the me
them or to
doing this
of tbe Exch

those days o

i's money

nos to lose m

Astra, in for the erysipe

ASTRA, in and sweeping

thar sweep



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long established in Greece before silk-worms in their modern perfection. Some important were introduced there. The manufacturers were action even of doubtful event, a struggle for provided with raw silk from Persia : but that liberty, the resisting a potent invader, or the commerce being frequently interrupted by war, like, have also had beneficial influences on the two monks, in the reign of Justinian, brought progress of art. Greece, divided into small eggs of the silk-worm from Hindostan, and states frequently at war with each other, advanced taught their countrymen the method of managing in literature and the fine arts to unrivalled perthem. The art of reading made a very slow pro- fection. The Corsicans, while engaged in a pegress. To encourage that art in England, the rilous war in defence of their liberties, exerted a capital punishment for murder was remitted, if vigorous national spirit; they founded a univer

the criminal could but read, which in law lan- sity for arts and sciences, a public library, and a 2:2guage is termed benefit of clergy. One would public bank. After a long stupor during the * imagine that the art must have made a very rapid dark ages of ecclesiastical tyranny, arts and lite

progress when so greatly favored: but there is a rature revived among the turbulent states of ignal proof of the contrary; for so small an Italy. The Royal Society in London, and the

dition of the Bible as 600 copies, translated into Academy of Sciences in Paris were both instituted Fo? Inglish in the reign of Henry VIII. was not after prolonged civil wars that had aniinated the

holly sold off in three years. And the people people and roused their activity. On the other mate England must have been profoundly ignorant hand, as the progress of arts and sciences towards

Queen Elizabeth's time, when a forged clause perfection is greatly promoted by emulation, no

ded to the twentieth article of the established ihing is sometimes more fatal than to remove this Tored passed unnoticed till about a century ago. spur; as when some extraordinary genius appears es The circumstances which arouse the national to soar above rivalship. Thus mathematics

r it upon any particular art, promote activity long seemed to be declining in Britain: the

prosecute other arts. When the Romans great Newton, having surpassed all the ancients, C o je to excel in the art of war, they rapidly im- left the moderns without any hope of equalling cserved in other arts. Nævius composed in verse him; for what man will enter the lists who de

- n books of the Punic war; besides comedies, spairs of victory? calcete with bitter raillery against the nobility. The useful have in all ages paved the way for crius wrote annals, and an epic poem; and the fine arts. Men upon whom the fornier had

us Andronicus became the father of dramatic bestowed every convenience turned their thoughts y in Rome. And the Roman genius for to the latter. Beauty was studied in objects of

ne arts was much inflamed by Greek learn- sight; and men of taste attached themselves to T h en free intercourse between the two na- the fine arts, which multiplied their enjoyments is was opened.

and improved their henevolence. Sculpture and progress of art seldom fails to be rapid, painting made an early figure in Greece; which a people happen to be roused out of a tor- afforded plenty of beautiful originals to be copied

ate by some fortunate change of circum- in these imitative arts. Statuary, a more simple s public liberty now gives to the mind a imitation than painting, was sooner brought to which is vigorously exerted in every new perfection: the statue of Jupiter by Phidias, and

The Athenians made but a mean figure of Juno by Polycletes, though the admiration of he tyranny of Pisistratus; but, upon re- all the world, were executed long before the art their freedom and independence, arts of light and shade was known. Another cause d with arms, and Athens became the concurred to advance statuary before painting in satre for science as well as for the fine Greece, viz. a great demand for statues of their he reign of Augustus Cæsar, which put gods. Architecture, as a fine art, made a slower to the rancor of civil war, and restored progress. Proportions upon which its elegance

Rome with the comforts of society, chiefly depends, cannot be accurately ascertained, an auspicious era for literature; and but by an infinity of trials in great buildings ; a da cluster of Latin historians, poets, and model cannot be relied on: for a large and small phers, to whom the moderns are indebted building, even of the same form, require differr taste. A similar revolution happened ent proportions. Literature as a branch of the any about 350 years ago. That country fine arts deserves a separate consideration. See been divided into a number of small re- LITERATURE,

the people excited by mutual petty The cause of the decline of the fine arts may is, became ferocious and bloody, flaming be illustrated by various instances. The perfecvenge for the slightest offence. But being tion of vocal music is to accompany passion, and

under the Great Duke of Tuscany, these to enforce sentiment. In ancient Greece, the lics enjoyed the sweets of peace and a mild province of music was well understood; and ament; when the retrospect of recent ca- being confined within its proper sphere, it had es roused the national spirit, and produced an enchanting influence. Harmony at that time t application to arts and literature. The was very little cultivated, because it was of very ration in England in 1660, which put an little use; melody reaches the heart, and it is by to an envenomed civil war, promoted im- it chiefly that a sentiment is enforced, or a pasements of every kind, and arts and industrysion soothed: harmony, on the contrary, reaches le a rapid progress. Had the nation, upon the ear only; and it is a matter of undou!!! t favorable turn of fortune, been blessed with experience, that the melodious airs and succession of able and virtuous princes, arts of very simple harmony. Artists, in l. ad sciences might much earlier have flourished ignorant why hai mony was so little re



when the subject of a fugue or point is inverted Hel. We, Hermia, like two artificial gods,
or reversed; i. e. when one part rises and the Created with our needles both one flower,
other falls. These two words are Greek: arsis Both on one sampler, sitting on one cushion;
comes from aipw, tollo, I raise or elevate; Deons Both warbling of one song, both in one key';
depositio, remissio, a depression or lowering.

As if our hand, our sides, voices, and minds.
Had been incorporate.

These terms were applied by the ancients to the
motion of the hand in beating time.

Why, I can smile, and murder while I smile;

And cry, content, to that which grieves my heart; ARSON, in English law, is the malicious and

And wet my cheeks, with artificial tears. wilful burning of the house or out-house of ano

Weaker than a woman's tear, ther man, which is felony. This is an offence of Tamer than sleep, fonder than ignorance, great malignity, and more pernicious to the pub- And artless as unpractis'd infancy. lic than simple theft; because, first, it is an

Dryden. Troilus and Cressida. offence against that right of habitation which is Rich with the spoils of many a conquer'd land, acquired by the law of nature as well as by the All arts and artists Theseus could command, laws of society; next, because of the terror and Who sold for hire, or wrought for better fame

Dryden. confusion that necessarily attends it; and, lastly, the master painters and the carvers came. because in simple theft the thing stolen only

The rest in rank : Honoria, chief in place

Was artfully contriv'd to set her face, changes its master, but still remains in esse for

To front the thicket, and behold the chace. the benefit of the public; whereas by burning,

Vice is the natural growth of our corruption. How the very substance is absolutely destroyed. It is irresistibly must it prevail

, when the seeds of it are also frequently more destructive than murder it- artfully sown, and industrionsly cultivated. Rogers. self, of which too it is often the cause; since What are the most judicious artisans, but the murder, atrocious as it is, seldom extends be- mimics of nature ?

Wotton's Architecture. yond the felonious act designed; whereas fire

Best and happiest artisan, too frequently involves in the common calamity

Best of painters, if you can, persons unknown to the incendiary, and not in.

With your many-color'd art, tended to be hurt by him, and friends as well as

Draw the mistress of my heart.

Guardian. enemies. If the house be a man's own, the act

Thus artists melt the sullen ore of lead, is not felony and punishable with death, but only

With heaping coals of fire upon its head; a great misdemeanor, and punishable by fine,

In the kind warmth, the metal learns to glow, imprisonment or pillory.

And loose from dross the silver runs below. ARSUR, Asor, Arsar, or ARSID, a hamlet on

Parnell. the coast of Syria, which has sometimes received

Sweet artless songster! thou my mind dost raise the name of a city, because Solomon is supposed To airs of spheres, yea, and to angels's lays. to have built the city Asor upon the site. It

Drummond. contains a fortress and mosque, in the last of In oratory, the greatest art is to hide art. Swift. which are a few Mahommedan monks.

If we compare two nations in an equal state of civi. ARSURA, in ancient customs, a term used lisation, we may remark that where the greater freefor the melting of gold or silver, either to refine dom obtains, there the greater variety of artificial

Cumberland. them or to examine their value. The inethod of wants will obtain also. doing this is explained at large in the Black Book their profit upon 'all the multiplied wants, comforts,

The merchant, tradesman, and artisan will have of the Exchequer, ascribed to Gervaise in the and indulgences of civilised life. chapter De Officio Militis Argentarii, being in

In every quarter of this blessed isle, those days of great use, on account of the vari- Himself [the mind) both present is and president, ous places and different manners in which the Nor once retires, a happy realm the while, king's money was paid. Arsura is also used for That by no officers lewd ravishment, the loss or diminution of the metal in the trial. With greedie lust and wrong consum'd art, In this sense a pound was said, tot ardere dena- He all in all, and all in every part, rios, to lose many penny-weights.

Does share to each his due and equal dole compart. ARSURA, in medicine, is used by some writers

Fletcher's Purple Island, for the erysipelas.

Among the several artifices which are put in pracArsura, in metallurgy, is used for the dust tice by the poets, to fill the minds of an audience with and sweepings of silversmiths, and others who terror, the first place is due to thunder and lightning.

Addison, work in silver, melted down, and which they call Poets, like painters, thus unskill'd to trace their sweep

The naked nature and the living grace, ART,

Lat. ars, from apern, With gold and jewels cover ev'ry part, AR'IFUL, manly energy, strength, or And hide with ornaments their want of art. AR'TFULLY, skill. The power of doing

Pyre's Essay on Criticism. AR'TFULNESS, any thing arising from a O still the same l’lysses, she rejoin'd; Ar'lisan, clear and perspicuous know

In useful craft successfully refin'd; AR'TIST, ledge of what the practice

Artful in speech, in action, and in mind. AR'TLESS, of it requires. Artful sig- Methinks her patient sons before me stand,

Embosom'd in the deep where Holland lies, AR'ILESSLY, mifies evil intention. One

Where the broad occan leans against the land,
AR'UFICE, who exercises a mechanical

And sedulous to stop the coming tide,
AR'LIFICER, art is an artisan, he who ex- Lift the tall rampire's artificial pride. Goldsmith,
AR'TuCIAL, cels in the fine arts is an

A man will no more carry the artifice of the bar ARTIFICIALLY. artist. Any skilful work- into the common intercourse of society, than a man man is an artificer; artifice in its present use who is paid for tumbling on his bands will continue to iroplies deception.

tumble when he should walk on his feot. Johnson.

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He feels no ennobling principle in bis own heart, which case the progress of the stream is not conwho wishes to level all the artificial institutions which sidered with regard to itself, but only as it conhave been adopted for giving a body to opinion, and cerns the works; every one of which modifies permanence to fugitive esteem.

Burke. the course of the stream, and leads it out of its Art has been more particularly defined to be way. It is easy to trace the progress of the fora habit of the mind prescribing rules for the due mer, from its issue, as it flows consequentially; production of certain effects; or the introducing but a man ever so well acquainted with this will the changes of bodies from some fore-knowledge not be able to discover that of the latter, because and design in a person endued with the prin- it depends on the genius, humor, and caprice ciple or faculty of acting. The word has been of the engineer who laid the design.' sornetimes derived from apos, utility, profit; and The learned author of Hermes says, If it be is found in that sense in Eschylus.

asked, What art is; we have to answer, “ It is According to lord Bacon it is a proper dispo- an habitual power in man, of becoming the cause sition of the things of nature by human thought of some effect, according to a system of various and experience, so as to make them answer the and well-approved precepts.' 'If it be asked, designs and uses of mankind. Nature, accord- On what subject art operates; we can answer, ing to that philosopher, is sometimes free, and at On a contingent, which is within the reach of her own disposal; and then she manifests herself the human powers to influence.'. If it be asked, in a regular order; as we see in the heavens, For what reason, for the sake of what, art opeplants, animals, &c. Sometimes she is irregular rates; we may reply, . For the sake of some and disorderly either through some uncommon ac- absent good, relative to human life, and attaincident or depravation in matter, when theresistance able by man, but superior to his natural and of some impediment perverts her from her course; uninstructed 'faculties. Lastly, if it be asked, as in the production of monsters. At other • Where it is the operations of art end? We may times she is subdued and fashioned by human say, “ Either in some energy, or in some work.' industry, and made to serve the several purposes -Harris's Three Treatises, dialogue i. of mankind. Tbis last is what we call art. Arts are properly divided into liberal and meIn which sense, art stands opposed to nature. chanical :Hence the knowledge of nature may be divided Arts, LIBERAL, or Polite, are those that are into the history of generation, of pretergeneration, noble or ingenious, and worthy of being cultiand of arts. The first considers nature at liber- vated for their own sake, without any immediate ty; the second her errors; and the third her regard to any pecuniary emolument. Such as restraints.

depend more on the imagination, or on the laArt has been distinguished from science; by bor of the mind, than on that of the hand; or the latter being regarded as furnishing the prin- that consist more in speculation than operation, ciples of all art. Or science, scientia, all human and have a greater regard to amusement and knowledge, is said to be divisible into those purer curiosity than necessity. Such are poetry, sciences which relate to the ideas or laws of the music, painting, grammar, rhetoric, the military mind, and the relation they bear to each other; art, architecture, and navigation. They were and the mixed or applied sciences—that relation formerly to be summed up in the following Latin which the same ideas bear to the external world. verse : In this view the mixed and applied sciences are but other terms for all the fine and useful arts. Lingua, Tropus, Ratio, Numerus, Tonus, Angulus, Chambers has observed long ago, in the excellent preface to his original Cyclopædia: In the eighth century the whole circle of scier.ces An Art and a Science, only seem to differ as was composed of the seven liberal arts, as they less and more pure: a science is a system of were called; viz. grammar, rhetoric, logic, deductions made by reason alone, undetermined arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy; the by any thing foreign or extrinsic to itself; an three former of which were distinguished by the aft, on the contrary, requires a number of data, title of trivium, and the four latter by that of and postulata, to be furnished from without; quadrivium. and never goes any length, without at every turn

Arts, MECHANICAL, are those wherein the Deeding new ones. It is, in one sense, the hand and body are more concerned than the knowledge and perception of these data that con- mind; and which are chiefly cultivated for the stitutes the art; the rest, that is, the doctrinal sake of the profit attending them. Of which part, is of the nature of science; which attentive kind are most of those which furnish us with the reason alone will descry. An art, in this light, necessaries of life, and are popularly known by appears to be a portion of science, or general the name of trades and manufactures. Such are knowledge, considered, not in itself as science, weaving, turnery, brewing, masonry, clockbut with relation to its circumstances or appen- making, carpentry, joinery, foundry, printing, dages. In a science the mind looks directly &c. These arts, which indeed are innumerable, backwards and forwards to the premises and were formerly comprised in this verse: conclusions: in an art we also look laterally to the concomitant circumstances. A science, in Rus, Nemus, Arma, Faber, Vulnera, Lana, Rates. eflect, is that to an art, which a stream running They take their denomination from

μηχανη, , in a direct channel, without regard to any thing machine, as being all practised by means of but its own progress, is to the same streain some machine or instrument. With the liberal turned out of its proper course, and disposed arts it is otherwise; there being several of them into cascades, jets, cisterns, ponds, &c. In which may be learnt and practised without any


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