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Reform iy The Chuhch From
the investigations making by Governmcnt into the state of the Church, and the language used by the adherents of the Ministry, it can hardly be doubted that an important reformation of the Church is at hand. It was currently reported, that the work of drawing up the Bill for this purpose, had been intrusted to the Reverend Sidney Smith, but he has contradicted this report. At a late election dinner at Wycombe, the Honourable Colonel Grey, son of Earl Grey, made the important statement, that the Reform Bill having become the law of the land, the people had a right to expect other reforms, equally advantageous. "No doubt they would soon have a practical and beneficial Church Reform—not a niggardly bit-by-bit Church Reform, like the Pluralities Bill of last session—but as full and efficient, and satisfactory a Church Reform as our own Reform Bill." At a meeting; on the 5th November, of the Electors of Southwark, Mr. Brougham said, "that a most important measure, which must soon be brought forward, without which the Reform Bill would be quite imperfect, was a Reform in the Church. It was well known, that the great body of the Clergy of the Establishment who did all the work, received less wages than a gentleman paid his footman, while those who did no work, received enormous incomes. There were in the Church of England, 2999 clergymen, who had incomes less than L. 100 ayear. This was less, including hoard wages and livery, than was paid a footman. There were between 700 and 800 clergymen, who had but half that income ; while some—he would not at present go as high as the Bishops—even the Dean of Durham had I..9000 a-ycar, for doing nothing. He would support an effectual reform in the Church, by which all who laboured in the vineyard should receive adequate wages; but those who did not work should receive no pay." If these opinions are those entertained by Minister.', we may see much
sooner the beneficial effects of the Reform Bill than is generally anticipated. There is undoubtedly a considerable portion of those who call themselves liberals, who expected that the passing of the Reform Bill was to close the account between the aristocracy and the people, and who most absurdly supposed, that by due management on the part of the Ministry, further concessions might be withheld. Such pseudo-liberals utterly forget that the Bills were secured, not by the Ministry, but by the people; and that the conduct of the Court and the Tories, by causing the necessity of a demonstration of the power of the people, shewed every one, even the most ignorant, the means by which the victory was obtained. To suppose that the people will stop short, and allow the enemy to entrench themselves anew, betrays the utmost ignorance of the state of feeling throughout the country. The people, flushed with their recent success, will never be content till all the more flagrant abuses of the state are corrected ; and any Ministry, Whig, or Tory, which attempts to control them in their just expectations, will speedily be hnrled from their places, however high they may stand in the favour of the Crown, or in the good graces of the Aristocracy.
The Dissenters arc actively bestirring themselves. The evils of which they complain are great; and a simultaneous effort is all that is necessary to get rid of them. Taxation without representation is tyranny; and a compulsory assessment for a sinecure Church, while the assessed find themselves obliged, by their conscience, to pay for more efficient religious services, can be viewed in no other light. The system of patronage by which the grea-t man of the parish provides for a family dependent, without regard to his fitness fur the duties imposed on him, is a futile source of heart-burning in Scotland, and its abolition is loudly called for by many zealous adherents of the establishment itself.
The Elections Nothing is more
difficult, during the progress of a general election, than to estimate the numbers of the members likely to be returned by the different parties. Every one acts on the notion, that to admit that the chance of his favourite candidate is doubtful, is to engure his defeat. From all that we can learn, the result in Scotland will not disappoint the friends of liberty. Of the Scotch counties, Perthshire and East Lothian are perhaps the most decidedly Tory. Yet Lord Ormelic, the eldest son of the Marquis of Breadalbane, and a true Whig, is secure of the former, and Sir David Baird, a liberal, is equally sure of the latter. The Tory candidate for Perthshire is Sir George Murray, backed by his numerous connexions, and all the power of the Athol family, and the victory cannot otherwise be considered than as great and glorious. It is most fortunate for Penhshire that a candidate so well fitted as Lord Oimelie has been found to break up the bondage in which the county has long been held by the Tories. To great hereditary possessions and family influence, he joins talents and information, which render him worthy to represent such a county. The antagonist of Sir D. Baird is Mr. Balfour of Whittingham, a nabob wallowing iu wealth, the son-in-law of the Earl of Lauderdale, who now, in his latter days, has become a Tory, after passing through nearly all the shades of political opinion. But neither the political influence of the Earl, nor the gold of his aon-in-law, avail him in the hour of need, and both must yield to the straight-forward honesty and independence of Sir D. Baird. From these specimens, we may judge of the prospects of the Tories in the Scotch counties. In the burghs, «gaiu, matters have still a worse aspect for them. The most servile and corrupt is Edinburgh. It has been, since the Union at least, the scene of perpetual jobbing, and, for the last half century, the headquarter of Toryism in Scotland. The Dundases long held the undisputed political Bway, and the representation of the City of Edinburgh became almost the appanage of their family. Yet here the Tories liavo only started one candidate, and the return of the Lord Advocate and the Hon. James Abercrombie is all but certain. The Tory candidate, Mr. Blair, has never once ventured to meet the electors in publie, to declare to them his political opinions. We have, therefore, no fear that Scotland will do her duty at the ensuing election, and that a very great majority of the Scottish representatives to the new Parliament will be men of liberal opinions.
Sir Waltek Scott A meeting of
the creditors of Sir Walter Scott was held at Edinburgh on the 29th of October,
when an offer was made, by the family of our illustrious countryman, to pay to hh creditors, on the 2d of February, a sum of money, which, in addition to that in the hands of his trustees, and the amount insured on his life, will pay nine shillings in the pound. The whole amount to be thus distributed, will be L.53,000, which with the former dividends, and payments received from co-obligsnts, is equal to the whole claims against Sir Walter Scott in 1823. The meeting was very numerously attended, and the proposal was adopted without a dissentient voice. The following resolution was also carried unanimously :—" And while the meeting state their anxious wish that every creditor who is not present may adopt the same resolution, they think it a tribute justly due to the memory of Sir Walter Scott, to express, in the strongest manner, their deep sense of his most honourable conduct, and of the unparalleled benefits which they have derived from the extraordinary exertion of his unrivalled talents under misfortunes and difficulties, which would have paralyzed the exertions of any one else, but in him only farther proved the greatness of mind which enabled him to rise superior to them." The proceedings of this meeting seem to have been overlooked iu London, for on the 9th November we find a meeting was held at Bridgewater House, the residence of Ixird I,. Gower, at which it was determined, " That a subscription be forthwith entered into, for the purpose of not only preserving Abbotsford, but of securing its proper maintenance iu the family of Sir Walter Scott." Subscriptions are likewise raising in all parts of the country for the erection of monuments to the memory of Sir Walter Scott. His Majesty has subscribed L300 for the monument to be erected at Edinburgh.
The Lonn Chief Justice.— The Right Honourable Charles Abbot, Lord Tenterden, Chief Justice of the Kiad's Bench, died on Sunday the 4th of November. He attended the trial of Mr. Pinney, the Mayor of Bristol, on the 27th of October, but he was evidently labouring-under the effects of great weakness. He was unable to leave his house after his return home from the Court, and the symptoms of his complaint became rapidly more alarming. His Lordship was in his 71st year. Lord Tenterden was elevated to the Bench in 181fi, when his Lordship succeeded Mr. Justice Le Bl.mc. In 1010, Lord Ellenborough having resigned the office of Chief Justice of the King's Bench, over which Court he had presided from the year 1802, he was succeeded by Lord Tenterden, then Sir Chas. Abbot. Hia Lordship was an able lawyer and a good judge, except when his political prejudices interfered. Sir Thomas Ocnman, the Attorney-General, was immediately appointed Chief Justice. The salary of the office has been reduced from L. 10,000 to 1-8000 a-year. Poors' Laws Commission.—Sometime ago a Commission, to inquire into the state of the Poors' LaWs, was appointed, from which much benefit may ultimately be derived. Their first step was to send forth printed queries, directed to persons the most actively engaged in the administration of the Pool's' Laws; one set of queries being framed expressly for the rural districts, and another for the towns. As answers to these queries were returned, commissioners itinerant were deputed from the Central Board, to examine witnesses on the spot, to inspect books, and visit workhouses. During the last three months, the greater part of the country, including almost all the parishes distinguished by peculiar management has been visited by these Commissioners, and they are expected to complete their labours in * few weeks. A bill on the subject is to be brought into Parliament very soon after it meets.
Bristol Riots The trial of Mr.
Pinney, the Mayor of Bristol, for neglect" of duty, in not having used due vigour in his magisterial capacity, during the memorable riots at Bristol, was In ought to a close on the 1st November. The following is the verdict of the Jury:—" We unanimously find Charles Pinney, late Mayor of Bristol, not guilty. We arc of opinion that, circumstanced as he was— menaced and opposed by an infuriated and wreckless mob; unsupported by any force, civil or military, and deserted in those quarters where he might most reasonably expect assistance, the late Mayor of Bristol acted to the best of his judgment, and with the highest zeal and personal courage."
Captain Ross.—During the month several meetings have been held in London, with the view of fitting out an expedition in search of Captain Ross and his companions, who sailed in spring 1829 to the Arctic Seas, with the view of discovering the so much sought for north-west passage to America. Captain Ross had two vessels, a steamer and a ship, but the crew of the latter having mutinied, he proceeded on his expedition with the steamer alone, in which were only himself and nineteen men. At a meeting, on the first November, at which Admiral Sir George Cockburn presided, he stated his opinion, from all the facts which had come to light, that Captain Ross was still
alive, and in the neighbourhood of the spot where the Fury was wrecked in Parry's last voyage. It appears that the Hudson's Bay Company has formed depots of provisions to a considerable extent in the line of Captain Ross's assumed route overland. The sum necessary for two years' maintenance of the proposed expedition, and which, with husbanding, may suffice for three years, is L.5000, of which sum Government has subscribed L.2000, and the remainder is in the course of being raised by private subscription. Captain Back, the energetic companion of Franklin, will command the expedition.
Cheap Publications The miserable prosecutions of the poor wretches who sell cheap publications, has continued in London during the month. Hardly a day elapses that some of the venders of the Poor Man's Giuirdian—for this is the publication marked out for prosecutionare not sent to the jails, to be there kept for two or three mouths at the public expense, and to complete their education for the commission of more serious offences. Some of the police magistrates are utterly disgusted with these proceedings, and refuse to convict upon the evidence of the informers, who make a livelihood by enforcing the laws enacted to keep the people in ignorance. How long will our rulers permit those laws to disgrace our statute book? Where is all the love for the liberty of the press which so many of our present Aliuistry professed when out of office?
Thibute To Ministers.—On the 6th November, a deputation, headed by Sir John Key, Lord Mayor of London, waited upon Lords Grey, Althorp, and John Russell, to present their Lordships with gold cups, the produce of a penny subscription among the people. Lord Brougham, in consequence of illness, could not receive the deputation. The Lord Mayor, in his address, said, " that the people could readily, from amongst themselves, have contributed for a much more expensive proof of their approbation, but it was wished to afford as large a number as possible the pleasure of uniting in thus testifying their gratitude. It was on that account that the subscription of each individual was limited to so small a'sum as one penny, by which means an opportunity had been afforded to 3.l0,000 individuals to contribute to the subscription." The cups bore the inscription, " Take away the wicked from before the King, and his throne shall be established in righteousness."—Proverbs, Chap, xxv., Verse 5. They weigh eighty-five ounces, and will contain five pints of wine each.
War With Holland.—On the 13th November, a meeting, rather numerously attended, was held in the City of London Tavern, to petition the King against the prosecution of the war with Holland. The time at which the meeting was held shews that the object was not for the purpose of endeavouring to avoid the calamities of war, but with the view of removing the Ministers from office. The convention with France was already signed, and so far carried into effect, that an embargo, had been laid on Dutch vessels, and resolutions passed at public meetings can only have the effect of making the war more bloody and more protracted, by encouraging the King of Holland in his obstinacy. A similar meeting was held at Edinburgh on the 22d November.
Ireland.—The maintaining a sinecure Church in idleness by means of 50,000 bayonets, continues to drench the soil of our unfortunate sister isle with blood. On the 8th of October, a body of thirty policemen proceeded to the parish of Aglish, in the neighbourhood of Waterford, to post notices for the payment of the arrears of tithes; and being followed and hooted by a crowd of 200 or 300 persons, the majority of them women and children, the police fired, and 12 people were killed, and from 20 to 30 wounded. Not one of the crowd was armed, and there were not even stones thrown at the police before they fired. We refrain from any comment on tlns atrocious affair, as it must shortly become the subject of judicial investigation, the inquest having returned a verdict of wilful murder against Captain Burke and the party of police under his command, for killing Catherine Foley, and. Joseph Sinnot, two of the persons who fell on the above occasion. The anti-tithe meetings have for the present been suppressed by the numerous prosecutions instituted by government against those present at them, in most of which prosecutions they obtained verdicts against the accused. The sentences were extremely severe, when it is considered that the illegality of such meetings was far from being generally known. Fines of L.50 and L.100, with four to six months' imprisonment, were in many instances inflicted. The prosecutions against the press continue. Those against Mr. Halkett of the Tipperary Free Press, for publishing, as an advertisement, the resolutions of a political club, are almost unparalleled in the history of the eountry, and have called forth the sympathy of every friend of liberty in the three kingdoms. On the whole, the conduct of the Whig ministry towards Ireland, reminds one rather of the despotic governments of the Continent than of
the free institutions of Britain. Although, however, the ministry has been so fur successful in their plans, the great object iu view has not been attained. The tithes are not paid. The people allow their effects to be sold when purchasers can be found, and their persons to be imprisoned, but the accursed impost they will not payWere the Irish clergy dependent for their subsistence upon tithes, some sympathy might perhaps be felt for them, but while the Irish Church possesses 990,000 Eng. Ush acres of land, worth at least a million a-year, for the support of some two thousand clergymen, with half a million of Episcopalian parishioners, there are ample revenues for the payment of the clergy, without oppressing the impoverished peasantry by the exaction of tithes. Scotland contains nearly two millions and a half of people, and her clergy are at least as efficient as those of any other Church, yet they do not cost more than a quarter of a million annually. In such circumstances, we say to the Irish, persist, by all legal means, iu your opposition to the payment of tithes. Your resistance hitherto has been noble, and it only requires a few months' longer perseverance to ensure you the victory.
THE CONTINENT. France.—The Duchess de Berri, who, by her ill-advised attempts to secure the throne of France for her son, has caused the greatest misery to thousands of the ignorant but devoted adherents of the wretched race of Bourbon, was apprehended at Nantes, on the 7th of November. She was betrayed by Etienne Gonzague Deutz. This person, who is a native of Cologne, and brought up in the Jewish religion, had repaired to Rome, in the year 1826, to his uncle, of the same name, a celebrated Jewish rabbi, and he there renounced the Jewish, and assumed the Catholic, faith. He then lived, for a considerable period, on the pecuniary supplies afforded him by Cardinal Albani. In 1831, after making a voyage to America, he returned to Europe, and Drack, his brother-in-law, being attached to the suite of the Duke of Bourdeaux, he thus obtained the means of introduction to the Duchess de Berri. He was employed by her in several delicate missions to foreign courts. These missions he executed to the satisfaction of the Duchess, and thus the good opinion she entertained of him was strengthened. After the arrival of the Duchess in France, Deutz continued to be employed by her, and, in one of his missions to Germany, he became acquainted, at Frankfort, with an individual attached to the French police. Here the first overtures for betraying the Duchess were made. On quitting Frankfort, lie went to Rome, and received, from thePope, letters to the Duchess de Bcrri. From Rome he proceeded to Portugal, where he had an interview with Don Mi. gnel, who also delivered him letters to the Duchess. Having then gone to Paris, he made a final arrangement regarding the sum which he was to receive for his breach of trust. This sum, according to some accounts, was 300,000 francs (L. 12,000;) according to others, 1,000,000 francs (L.40,000.) To carry his plan into execution, he went to Nantes, and requested an interview. The persons to whom he applied having some suspicion, at first refused his request, but, as he declined to rommunicate his dispatches, or the result of his journey to any other person than the Duchess, they were at last forced to comply. The Duchess had formerly resided in the house of the Demoiselles Duguigny, at Nantes, and she returned thither on the afternoon of the 6th. Deutz was admitted to an interview just as the Duchess was about to sit down to dinner. After a few minutes' conversation he left the house, and gave the police officers the signal which had been agreed on for her arrest. The house was immediately surrounded, and the adjoining streets were filled with troops. Admission was at first refused to the soldiers, but, on a threat that the door would be broken open, they were at length permitted to enter. It was now about half past four in the afternoon, but, although the most minute search was made, the Duchess could not be found. Various places of concealment were found in the house. In one of them, a considerable sum, in five franc pieces, with the effisy of Henry V., as well as some medals, bearing the representation of a car, which the Duke holds in one hand, while in the other he wields a trident, with which he subdues the demon of revolution. Like St. Michael, he is represented trampling it under foot. Notwithstanding the bad success which had hitherto attended the search, the municipal authorities did not despair; but it was resolved to desist until the following morning. Three gens d'armes were therefore placed in each room, and the house was carefully surrounded with troops. In order to discover whether any person was concealed in the chimnies, fires had been lit in all the fire places. In the third story of the house there was a small room, and towards morning it occurred to the soldieis, stationed in it, that the fuel had been disturbed, and, shortly afterwards, one of them remarked, that he heard a noise. To ascertain, if possible, the cause,
the fire, which had fallen low, was increased by means of turfs, and some newspapers; and the smoke, which had penetrated to the place of concealment, together with the heat, rendered remaining there longer impossible. The place of concealment was very small, and had no window; and, during the whole sixteen hours in which the Duchess and her three companions had been in it, they were forced to remain in a standing posture. The back of the chimney, which consisted of an iron plate, turned on its centre, thus forming a door to the concealed apartment. Her attendant Mademoiselle Kersabice, in the costume of a peasant girl, came out first; then the Duchess, who was followed by the Count da Messnars, and M. Guibourg. The Duchess, in coming into the room, immediately said, " It is unnecessary for you to continue your search; I am the Duchess de Berri." She was completely disfigured, by the dust and dirt of the hole in which she had been confined; but, though much exhausted, retained her presence of mind. After a process verbal of the circumstances had been drawn up, and the Duchess had been formally identified, she was removed along with her companions, to the Chateau de Mantes, where the apartments of the governor were assigned to her; and she was shown every attention. The French Government, which had, sometime previously, anticipated the probability of apprehending the Duchess, had prepared for her reception the Chateau de Blaye, near Bourdeaux, whither she was removed, shortly after her apprehension. Along with the Duchess were seized a great number of letters from many of the Potentates of Europe, and, among others, from Don Miguel, who had sent her a sum of money. These letters, which are curious, it is proposed by the French Government to publish. They will, in all probability, show some traces of the means by which the despots of Europe endeavour, at present, to keep down their subjects.
The apprehension of the Duchess de Berri is generally believed to have been, the cause of considerable embarrassment to the French Government, as it can neither punish her severely, nor inflict a lenient punishment, without giving occasion for much murmuring. To divest itself, as much as possible, of responsibility, the matter has been referred to the Chambers, and an ordonnance of Louis Philippe has been passed, ordaining a project of law, for the purpose, to be brought in.
Belgium And Holland.—The subject which has chiefly fixed public attention, during the month, is the Belgian question. On the 22d October, a Conven