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The very learned Hickes, in his Thesaur. Linguar. Septemtrional, deduces from the Gotbic the following languages.



Rupic or Cimbrian


German Icelandic, Norwegian, Belgic, Frisic, English,
Swedish, Danish

and Scotch With respect to the Scotch, it is probable, in the absence of written records, that in very early times the West Goths from Denmark or Jutland invaded the Eastern side of Scotland, and having conquered the Celtic inhabitants, drove them westward into the highlands, or into Ireland, as the Celtic names of places all over the country, where Celtic or Erse is not spoken or understood, do still abundantly testify. These West Goths retained in their new settlements their ancient appellation, of which they were proud, but which sooner or later was contracted into 'St Goths or Scots. The Scottish dialect indeed is clearly but little removed from the Gothic and Anglosaxon.

The Anglosaxons, who were manifestly a Gothic vation, or of Gothic extraction, first landed in Britain by invitation of the natives in the year 450, and others following afterwards, they in the space of two hundred years firmly established themselves, their name, language, and laws, in their new settlements. The subsequent successes of the Danes could not in any considerable degree have altered the dialect which the Saxons had introduced, as in those early times the Danish and Saxon languages were pretty much alike. The Norman conquest, as it is improperly termed, in the year 1066, effected only a change of dynasty, with the addition of some feudal customs; but the Anglosaxon language and laws still continued in force, as they do in the main to this day, those laws being now known under the denomination of the Common Law of England. It is chiefly to the invention of printing, and the diffusion of knowledge since 1450, and not to invasions and other military achtevements, that we are to ascribe the differences that have arisen between the old Saxon and the English.' The English language, therefore, ought not to be considered as a heterogeneous jumble, a corrupted jargon, an undisciplined farrago of various languages from north, south, east, and west: but, as in truth it is, the remains of an ancient and highly cultivated language, augmented in modern times by many literary terms, borrowed mostly from the Greek and Latin.

It requires no other panegyric than its own importance and utility to recom. mend the study of Grammar. Can laws be understood, or promises bind, can history teach, or religion warn, can truth or conviction have any existence, wbere language admits of various meanings and constructions ? The easiest method of learning the principles of Grammar is undoubtedly the best, and the fittest time is the earliest possible. An English Grammar adapted to the several ages, capacities, circumstances, and prospects in life, of youth in genetal, bas long been wanted. The plan of the following treatise is new in several respects, and if the labour and pains bestowed on it shall be found to diminish those of the Teacher, and to accelerate the progress of the Pupil, and to encourage a spirit for reading and enquiry amongst youth in general, the Author will be happy in baving contributed in his mite towards the advancement of learning, and the improvement of the rising generation.

A few blank pages at the end of this work have been dedicated to the too much neglected study of ancient chronology, according to the system of the holy Scriptures, which the author has found much delight and satisfaction in tracing out, and which, it is presumed, the young student will find no less pleasure in carefully perusing.


24th April, 1817.

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GRAMMAR is the art of speaking and writing correctly, and its rules are deduced from the practice of the most approved speakers and writers in any language.

I. ORTHOGRAPHY explains the names and uses of the several characters that occur in writing, the nature and power

of letters, and the formation of syllables and words from simple sounds and letters,

II. ETYMOLOGY arranges the several words of a language into classes, and explains the nature and properties of each class. 1. Etymology, in a more strict sense, enumerates and de

fines the several parts of speech. 2. Accidence teaches the inflections which belong to the

declinable parts of speech. 3. Derivation treats of the formation of derivative from

primitive words. 4. Resolution, or Analysis, is the art of readily referring

to all the rules of etymology, III. Syntax, or CONSTRUCTION, teaches the arrangement, connection, and dependence of the several parts of a sentence. 1. Concord shews the manner in which the accidents of

one word agree with those of another, 2. Government teaches in what manner the accidents of

one word depend on the property of other words. 3. Position orders the several parts of a sentence aright,

or according to sense, idiom, and propriety. IV. PROSODY teaches the use of emphases in reading; also

the rules of versification.*

* Grammar is divided into four parts, Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosedy. Of these, Etymology and Syntax admit of several subdivisions, as above.



Roman Characters.

Small Letters.--abcdefghijklmnopqrfstu v w x y z.

Double Letters.---æ æ et ff fi ffi A ff fb th fi ffi sk n m fr it &.

Italic Characters.

Small Letters.--abcdefghijklmnopqrss t u v w x y z.

Old English Characters.
Capitals. BCDEF 3 K L M N D P R S a k V 3.

Small Letters.--abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw 2 .

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Points or Stops

Marks $ 9. O[]{}
References, as + + 1 l *
Arithmetical Signs + or os

X or . , or
Roman Notation I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. L. C. D. M.
Arabian Digits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

OD $ ¢
Chemical Characters

Apothecaries Weight ft 3 3 gr. fs.
Geographical Marks oln
12 Signs of the Zodiac op 8 Iormem A
Planetary Characters O) $ $ $ Ġ 24 ħ li *

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A.B.-A. C.--A. D.-A. M.-A. R.-B.-B. A.-B.C.-B. D.-B. V.-C.C.C.---C.C.C.-C.P.S.-C.R.-C.S.-D.-D.C.L.-D.D.-E.-F.A Sor A.S.S.F.R.S.-F.R.S.E.-G.R.-1.H.S.-J.D.-J.R.-K.-L.-L.D.-LL.D.-L.S. -M.-M. A.-M. D.-M. P.-MS-MSS.-N.-N. B.-N. S.-0.-0. S.P.-P.M.--P.S.-Q.-R.S.-S.--S.A.-S.N.-S.S.S.--SS.T.P.-V.-W.--Abp.Admis.-Agt.--Ap.-Aug.-Bart.- Bp.-Capt.–Cent.-Ch.-Cit. Cl.-C0.Cochl.--Col.-Cong.-- Cr.-Cur. - Curt.-wi. -Deut. - Do.-Dr.-Dum. Eliz.-Eag.-Ep.- Esq.-Ex.- Exp.- Feb.- Fr.-Gen. - Genmo.- Gent. lihd.-Flonbie. -Ja.--Jac.—Jno.-Km.-Knt.-Ld.-Lp.-Ldp.--Lt.-Lieut.Mr.- Mrs. — Messrs. — No.-Rt.,Hon.-Rt. Wpiul.-- Rev.-S1. --St.- Xian.Xinas.-..-āāā.-e. g.-gr.h. S.--id-i. e. fb-lib.-m.-n. 1.---02.--.poæ.-4. d.-4. 1.-9.5.-scil.-v.--vid.-viz.--ye.-yn.—ys. &c.

Sounded va-

properly Sounded variously in Sounds,




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perlyin riously in


pai fail


aw brawl ay day


li' pin

13 Proper Diphthongs.

eu feud ew dew ey bey oi foil 0o \food

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6 Vowels.

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ow brown



1 lily

16 Improper Diphthongs.

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a name

Iplaid, again

a infather
au taught laurel, hautboy, aunt a


a fat e me

e me
vein reprieve, forfeit

e met

race i fine

o no pin

key, alley

10 not

u ball

floor, flood, foot

u tub prove


bound you, cough, thought, b bay

snow [rough, through d day
Loy joy

If for
u mute
aa Canaan Baal

V van bull

ae saenigma tub bury, busy ao gaol

hill y my

ea tear
bear, ineadow

Ik kind

ee deep
eo people leopard, dungeon

sc civil ocean
ia carriage filial, vial

n nay f for of

ie grief
die, sieve

p pipe
g frage
oa {boat Jabroad

biit hour

oe \foetus

join hallelujah ua guard assuage

zeal lily

ue guest cue, quench, antique t m may comptroller ui guide guilt, fruit, languid will n nay


y ye
third [sion
we answer swerve

ng ring
So as, isle, pas-
Lwo sword swollen

Ish show
(eau beauty beau

ch thine
w wish
wrong ieu adieu

Ith thin exist, Xeno- iew view

zh leisure y ye

[phon iou precious abstemious

uai quail b bay debt

uea squeak can victuals uee squeeze d day fixed or fixt leyeleye g go sign

ch much scheme, schism, chagrin k kill knight gh laugh ghost, fight p pipe cupboard

ng ring q queen conquer nk tlank t tuft nation ph physic nephew, phthisis

sh show

th thine co lth Ithin

thyme Renarks.-1. The English Alphabet contains twenty-six letters, of which seven are vowels, viz. a, e, i, o, u, y, w, and nineteen cousonants, viz.b,c,d,f, g, h,j,k, l, m, n, p, 9,7,8, t, v, x, z. Also w and y, at the beginning of a word or syllable, are accounted consonants.-2. The consonants are divided into eight mutes, viz. b, c, d, g, k, p, q, t; and eleven semivowels, t, h, j, l, m, n, 1,8,0, 1, 2; to which last add c and g soft, and w and y not used as vowels.-3. The mutes are subdi. vided into pure mutes, p, t, k, and semimutes b, d, and g hard.--4. The semivowels l, m, n, r are named liquids; and from the mutes b, c, d, g, k, p, q, t, are formed the aspirates-o, ch, th, gh, kh, f, quh, th; but the aspirations 'ch, gh, kh, and quh, which are one and the same, are not familiar to an English eas.-5. The English Alphabet is imperfect, the vowels w and y,

and consonants c, 9, and x being superfluous, and other simple sounds, both vowels and consonants, having no distinct characters to represent them. A perfect alphabet would contain thirty-two letters, as in the last column of the above table, of whřich ten letters would be vowels; and the twenty-two others, consonants. In this case the mutes would be p, t, k; the semimutes b, d, and g liard: the liquids l, m, n,r, ng: the aspirates f. v. hard. th soft: and the other semivowels.s, z.w.y, sh, zh.

15 Semivowels.

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8 Mutes.

8 Double Consonants. 8 Iniprop. Triphthongs.


I. Spelling is the art of reducing words to syllables, and syllables to letters. Reading is the converse of spelling. II. A Letter is a visible sign of an articulate sound. 1. A Vowel, or Monopthhong, is a letter that makes a full

and perfect sound by itself. 2. A Diphthong, or Proper Diphthong, is a sound com

pounded of the sounds of two vowels. 3. An Improper Diphthong is the meeting of two vowels,

whereof only one is sounded. 4. An Improper Triphthong is the meeting of three vowels,

of which only one or two are sounded. 5. A Consonant is a letter which either cannot be at all

sounded, or can only be imperfectly sounded, without

a vowel. 6. Mutes are consonants which cannot be at all sounded

without a vowel. 7. Semivowels are consonants which can only be imper.

fectly sounded without a vowel. 8. Liquids are semivowels which readily coalesce in sound

with other consonants.

III. A Syllable is any one complete sound.

1. A Monosyllable is a word of one syllable.
2. A Dissyllable is a word of two syllables.
3. A Trisyllable is a word of three syllables.
4. A Polysyllable is a word of two or more syllables.
5. The Antepenult is the last syllable but two.
6. The Penult is the last syllable but one.
7. The Termination is the last syllable, or sometimes the

last letter, or last two letters of a word. IV. A Word is an audible and articulate sign of thought. 1. A Primitive Word, Theme, or Root, is that whose

Etymology cannot be traced backward in the language

to which it belongs. 2. A Derivative Word is that which has a theme or root

in the language to which it belongs. 3. A Simple Word, whether primitive or derivative, is that

which has but one radical meaning, as me, my. 4. A Compound Word is that which is composed of two or

more simple words, as myself, whatsoever. 5. Homotonous words are words which resemble each

other in pronunciation, but differ in signification.

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