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regard to your stay in India, this question has been long ago decided ; and so great is the distance which separates us, that before this can reach you, the time fixed for your departure will have arrived. I am not certain whether the event of the war which our wise ministers have at last declared may not have induced them to beg you to continue your stay in India some time longer. No one was better able than they to appreciate the certainty of this event, so that we ought to suppose they have taken all those measures which the moment required; but every thing, however, shews that they were taken as much unawares as if that event had been little expected. It is consequently not inprobable, that when they found war unavoidable, that is to say, on the day when they declared it, they may have dispatched orders to you to remain in India. But as I am entirely ignorant on this subject, I cannot reason on it. Should this not be the case, I hope nothing will prevent me from having the pleasure of seeing you next year, supposing at that period that you have still a counto y to revisit. When I make use of this expression. do not imagine that my dissatisfaction with the conduct of the government has made any change respecting the means and resources of this country; I have never becm among the number of growlers (ahoyeurs) on this subject. It is not so much opinion (if I do not deceive myself), as a pe fect knowledge equivalent to a certainly, which induces me to say that the country possesses not only abundant and ample means of defence, but means sufficient to make our ent my repent of his hosile conduct, and to force him to fear, and consequently to respect us. But hitherto there has been so much indecision, timidity, and slowness in all the measures taken to obtain resources, and all our courage at this moment exhibits so much the impression of fear, that I cannot have the satisfa ticn of being warranted in doing justice under that point of view to the talents which have been called into action, and to the dispositions which have been made.——My plan of political conduct, as you must have seen, dolfers more and more from that of government. In regard to the opinion I expressed on the peace, I have the satisfaction to find that justice is done to me in all countries. Not only have subsequent events proved that the small body with whom i acted in concert on this occasion, were composed of the only persons who then knew how to appreciate this measure and its consequences; but it has been generally acknowledged, that we rightly foresaw what would take place. All the infamous

calumnies of government have fallen, with double force on their own heads. In every thing I have since done, and in every thing I have abstained from doing, you will, I hope, perceive those sentiments, and those principles, from which no opinion, however unfavourable it may be to the personal conduct of any individual, shall never make me deviate.--Had I been certain of an opportunity, I should have written you a detail of what has taken place since April last, in regard to the projected change in the government, and would have explained to you (as far as I had been able to understand) the basis of the conduct which Pitt has since observed. It gives me great pleasure to see that, while my quarrel with Addington becomes every day more serious, all the notives which made Pitt and me differ in epinion and conduct daily decrease.——We have not yet been able to assimilate cornpletely our plans of political conduct. Our situation, indeed, in one essential point of view, is entirely different.—Though he did not recommend Addington to his present em. ployment (and, indeed, who is there that knows him would have done it?) he never

theless gave him a certain portion of in-

fluence more active than my opinion would have permitted me to grant, in the formatien of the new administraion. He advised their measures a long time after I had ceased to have any intercourse with them, and he approved of them in different points, which appeared to me the most criminal, and which were indeed so, as proved by the event. He is consequently more hampered in his conduct than I am, and he does not at present enjoy the in-stimable advantage which I pos. sess of never having concealed nor compomised my opinion, in regard to matters of so much political importance; but, I believe that his ideas on their political conduct are not much different from mine, if they differ at all, and to all this must be added a resent- ** ment justly merited from the personal conduct of Mr. Addington towards him. He does not endeavour to conceal his sentiments, If he has written to you (which he certainly must have done had he not contracted the bad habit of never writing to any one) he must have expressed to you, I am persuaded, all these sentiments without reserve; and it is under this persuasion that I enlarge so much to you on his opinions. The measure indeed, which he has lately adopted (I allude to his motion of adjournment or his vote : of censure, ill judged in itself, as I think it was, and unfortunate in its result, since it lessened his public influence) has at least the merit of expressing, in an unequivocal slidh

ner, his disapprobation of the conduct of go vernment. I will not hazard a conjecture in regard to the new events which may take place before your arrival, and the only advice I wish to give you is, what I have more than

once suggested, rot to engage for any thing

until you return, but to retain the liberty of acting according to such motives as you shall judge proper to direct your conduct when you are on the spot, and according as the different relations between persons at the head of affairs in the different subdivisions of parties shall have enabled you to judge what suits you best. In regard to the idea thrown out in the extract you have sent me from your letter to Mr. Addington, you ought, in rmy opinion, to consider it only as one of those remote events which may take place. As for eternal enmity, I detest the idea; and, if I have an eternal enmity, it is against the partisans of a principle so detestable. But rnuch is due to public opinion, as well as to the personal situation and character of individuals, which ought to be respected long after they have ceased to have resentment, or to take pleasure in giving proofs of it; and nothing appears to me less probable than to see Pitt and me at any near period (I believe I may say at no period of our lives) reconciled, and disposed to establish with Addington relations of confidence and friend. ship.–The papers, if you have them, will inform you that all our conversation at present turns on invasion, and that we at length begin to take measures for enabling us to face our enemies, if they should be able to effect a landing, which, though very improbable, is not certainly in any manner impossible. To speak of conquering or subjugating ten or twelve millions of men, if prepared for battle, and directed by a government desirous and capable of animating their efforts, would be completely ridiculous. But experience has shewn, that the number of inhabitants alone, and even advantage of local situation are nothing, if the direction of the defence remains in the hands of men dis'tinguished only by their imbecility and weakness. In Holland even, and still more in Germany, Italy, and Swisserland, the countries were given up, not by the inhabitants, but by the weakness of their governments, and in like manner if in this Island, or in Ireland, we should experience any consider. able check, we shall owe it not to the timidity or ignorance of the nation, but solely to those of government. You must be already enabled to judge how far these qualities exist in the present government, if (as I suppose) you have, before you receive this letter, read

the correspondence of Lord Hawkesbury with Otto and Lord Whitworth, and coinpared the dates of the different counter-orders in regard to the Cape, during the course of our communications with France.—It would be superfluous to add to the length of this letter, by expatiating on the pleasure which I experienced, on finding in your letter those expressions of friendship which revive our old and continual intimacy. I never did more for you, than you would have done for me on a like occasion, and if the intrigue planned against you is totally without effect, and your measures are justified before they have been condemned, I cannot flatter myself with having contributed to this result by iny efforts, but you may, in my cpinion, consider the affair as terminated. It does not appear that a single word of it was mentioned in Parliament before Christmas, and I really believe that you have nothing to fear. The only thing to be apprehended on this subject, can be only the pain and disagreeableness of a contest of this particular naturc. Letter from Mr. H. nry IPe'esley to Marquis l/ellesley, bis brother. Dated London, July 28, 1803.

MY DEAR MoR NING to N, I have

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28th, and I hope this letter will reach you in

time to enable you to make preparations for quitting India in January next. I shall now communicate to you, as shortly as possible, every thing that has taken place, in regard to India, since my arrival, and then you will be enabled to judge what degree of support you have to expect from the present ministers, and whether the Board of Control has not been actually transferred from the Council to the Court of Directors. I arrived in London in June, and immediately waited on Lord Castlereagh, who received me with the greatest politeness. He spoke of you in the most favourable terms. He approved of all your measures, but at the same time, it is perfectly evident that he cannot obtain what the Court of Directors has resolved not to grant. He spoke a great deal of the Col: lege, and appeared to be fully convinced of the importance as well as the necessity of the institution. He believed he should be able, he said, to make the Directors consent to its continuance according to your plan, with some modifications, which you would not think of much consequence. He told me that the Directors had written to him on this and on other subjects, several cool letters, and that nothing could be more disagreeable than the situation in which he was placed. I told Lord Castlereagh, that on this occasion the Court of Directors had decidedly broken their word, for one of the principal condi tions on which you was to remain still a year longer in India, was, that they should not at all interfere in your nominations; that they had displaced a man who had passed through all the inferior ranks in the service of the Company.——I then told him that your health was very good, and that there was no sacrifice you was not ready to make for the public service; but that I thought it impossible you could remain in India beyond January next, unless you were strongly solicited on that subject by his Majesty's ministers, and by the Court of Directors. That in regard to his Majesty's ministers, I thought they were of opinion that your stay in India was a thing very desirable under many points of view; and that, in regard to the Court of Directors, they ought to know whether they wished for it or not.——He made no reply to the first point. In regard to the second he was very explicit, for he told me that the Court of Directors had been so incensed on account of the opinions which you had manifested in some of your dispatches, (which proves that they have not the least idea of the true interests of India, and that in this respect they are obstinate fools), that he was persuaded they would rather wish to see you resign, though it was impossible for them not to acknowledge that your stay in India might be very useful to the public interest. —-in another conversation I had with Lord Castlereagh, he spoke a great deal of the Mahratta negotiations, and I succeeded in convincing him of the justness of your measures at Poonah, and of the great advantages that must result from them, if we should establish our influence in that Court. He again asked me, if you had come to a fixed determination, in regard to the period of your return to England? I repeated what i had said to him on another occasion, to which he made no reply. He spoke to me of the domination of Barlow, and asked me if I thought you would approve of it I told him that you had the best opinion of Barlow; but, that you thought no servant of the Company oright to succeed to the Governor-Generalship. I told him also that the new nomination was useless, as Barlow had been previously destined to succeed you provisionally, and that it was better to wait for your return before any person was presented for this new nomination. In my opinion

there is a certain secret intrigue, in regard.

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to the nomination of Barlow, and it is this. —When the ministers proposed Lord Wm. Bentinck for Madras, the Court of Directors made the most formal objections to that Homination; but they were at length obliged to yield, consoling themselves with the idea that one of their own servants would be appointed Governor-General.——I saw Addington at a dinner given by Lord Castlereagh. He spoke to me of you in the most pompous and most affectionate terms. He spoke to me also of the nomination of Barlow, as a measure that ought to be very agreeable to you. The result of my conversations with Lord Castlereagh, has convinced me that ministers feel the importance of your continuance in India, and that they are very de

sirous you should remain there, but they are

not sufficiently strong to contest that point with the Court of Directors, who are equally determined to force you to return. I think they might make new and successful attempts to induce the Court of Directors to solicit the prolongation of your stay, but after having seen them recently violate the engagement they entered into, not to interfere in any of your nominations, it would neither be prudent nor dignified, to take any step which might give reason to suspect that you wished to remain in India, or that any other motive but a full persuasion that it is only for the public good could induce you to remain an hour longer than the period you had fixed for your return.—I received from the President a civil but a very cool reception. He spoke to me of ameliorations in commerce, but did not say a word of my, personal services. He seemed disposed to find some fault in every thing that we did at Poonah, and we separated after a conversation of ten minutes, with his telling me that he had so much business, that he had not had time to read the dispatches (though they had been five days at the India House), but that he hoped to have frequent opportunities of talking with me on the affairs of India. I have not seen him since, (though I remained a fortnight at London to have an opportunity) and the Court had not even the civility to ask me to one of the dinners which are given every Wednesday. I have since been obliged to return to Chester House on account of my health, which is still very bad. ——Another motive which induces me to wish for your return, is the situation of the different parties in England. I suppose you have received a letter on this subject from Lord Grenville; but I will tell you every thing I know, and what I had in part from an intimate friend of Pitt.——lt appears

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that Addington proposed, some weeks ago, to Pitt to join the ministry, on certain conditions. Pitt, on this overture of Addington, began a negotiation with him; explained the conditions on which he wished to form part of the ministry; declared that he would not insist on the introduction of any person to whom the King might have any objection; but that he would insist on the whole affair being kept secret until it was totally arranged; and that, at the same time he would reserve to himself the power of withdrawing from the negotiation, should it be conceived that his services could not be useful to the public.——On these conditions he gave the outlines of his plan to Addington, mentioned several persons whom he wished to propose, among whom was Lord Grenville; still, however, continuing to declare that he would not introduce any person in opposition to the King, but that he would reserve to himself the power of retiring. Addington proposed this plan to his colleagues, who rejected it, and the negotiation was broken off——At present all Addington's friends declare that Pitt refused to join the ministry, because he wished they would allow him to introduce Grenville, &c. Pitt, as you must have seen, has since opposed Addington in the House of Commons, and they are no longer on speaking terms. Lord Grenville (who is the organ of Canning) told me that Pitt has such a contempt for Addington, that he would not at present act with him on any conditions whatever. At the same time, Pitt daily opposes in the House of Commons the Defence Bill, as a counsellor would do, and by the means which he employs, he has rendered it fit for answering the proposed end, which it never otherwise would have done. On one occasion he divided the House, and, to the astonishment of every body, his division was under fifty. I nevertheless think, as many others do, that it is impossible things should long remain on their present footing, and I believe that Pitt will return to office in the course of a year. This makes me wish that you should be on the spot, to form part of the new ministry, which would then be excellent, if Pitt were at the head. What do you think, pray ? You would be able to obtain every thing you wish in regard to India, and, if you thought proper, to return again as Governor General.——August 5 –-I began this letter at London, but having met Lord Castlereagh, he told me that the dispatches would not be sent off before ten days.——Pole had been with Addington to speak to him of me, and he has promist d me that he will consult Lord Castlereagh on

the means of forcing the Directors to re

ward me for my services in India. I however expect nothing from them.'


Order issued by the Court Chancellor at Shockholm on the 7th of Sep. 1804.—Signed by C. B. Zi B ET and A. D. H U M M El.

His Majesty the King has been pleased to inform me, by his gracious letter of the 26th of August, that for a long time the prevalent tone of most French Journals and Daily Papers has been marked by a want of due respect for Kings and Princes, and for every lawful government; that this insolence, so worthy of chastisement, has continued to increase, and the consequences thereof have lately appeared in one of the newspapers most generally known, which has dired to insert expressions attacking the King's exalted person, and, consequently, the dig tity of the Empire; and as this cannot be passed over without animadversion, his Majesty has been pleased to order: ——I. That from the hour when this notification is made public, the importation into the Swedish Empire, and the provinces belonging thereto, of French journals, Weckly Magazines, and Daily Papers, is strictly prohibited; and that no exception can be granted or demanded.— II. That all importation of Books and Writings, which may be printed in France in future, is likewise prohibited; those, however, which have already appeared, are not included, provided their contents be not contrary to the regulation of the ordinances still in force; but, with respect to French books, which may be ... in future, exceptions may be admitted, if an humble request be made for the purpose through the otice of the King's Court of Chancery.—— In consequence whereof, I am required to publish this gracious command and ordinance of his Majesty the King, that all people may conform themselves thereto.


Decaen, Captain General of the French est 1blishment to the Cape of Good Hope, to the Minister of Marine and Colonies. Head Quarters at the Isle of France, May 15.

I love the honour to announce to you, Citizen Minister, that Rear Admiral Linois arrived and anchored at the lose of France the 1st of April, with the Marengo, the Semmilante, and Le Berceau. This un

expected return naturally excited my surprise, particularly after what the Rear Admiral had said to me, in a letter dated Batavia, the 16th of December. After enumerating the naval forces of the English, he said, “as they have many points to guard, their sorces must be necessarily much divided, and I hope to do them considerable mischief by appearing rapidly in different parts of the Indian seas, at great distances from each other;” and in his postscript he added, “I have just completed six months provisions at Batavia for the squadron.” The dispatches of the Rear Admiral, sent by Le Belier, apprized you of these circumstances, and must have inspired you with hopes of more favourable results. I was so confident in my expectations of his success, that when signals were made for his squadron being in sight, I augmented it in my imagination by the persuasion that the China §. had been met, attacked, and the greater part of it captured. I cven supposed that the two other frigates which were not present, as well as the Dutch brig which was placed at the disposal of the Rear Admiral, had remained to escort the vessels which the Rear Admiral had taken, and that he had come on before to clear the way of the English cruizers, if there had been any about the Isle of France. But I was deceived in my expectations; above all, when my aide-de-canip returned with a letter to me from the Rear Admiral, which begins thus—“I cannot have the pleasure of seeing you until the ships of my squadron are under the protection of the batteries, and I beg you will give orders for our entering the so as soon as possible " To this i. the Rear Admiral added a detailed account of his cruize. I here insert an extract from it; after which you will judge whether it was not natural that I should express some astonishment the next day, when the Admiral and his Officers came to pay me a visit.—-—On the 13th February, at day break, they perceived twenty-seven ships N. N. E. The great number of ships left them no doubt but that it was the China convoy. The Rear Admiral had with him then only Le Berceau and L'Avanturier; the frigates La Belle Poule and La Semillante having been car. ried two leagues by the force of the currents. At a quarter past cleven four of the enemy's ships came down to reconnoitre their squadron; the others lay to. The Rear Admira!, profiting by a mist which prevented the enemy from seeing his inapauvres, collected his frigates and kept the

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wind in line of battle.

in the evening the Admiral made a signal

of his intention to avoid an engagement { night; he waited till break of day to attac

the enemy, endeavouring, however, to gain the wind.——If the appearance of the enemy during the day had only been a stratagem to hide their weakness, they might have profited by the darkness of the night to attempt to alter their position, and on that occasion the Admiral might have taken advantage of their movements, but he was soon convinced that their security was not merely an appearance. Three of their ships had cleared for action, and the fleet kept their position during the night and re. mained well together. The Admiral still endeavoured to gain the wind, and observe them more nearly.——On the 14th, at six in the morning, the enemy were within half gun-shot: the circumstances of the case not permitting the Admiral to undertake anything against them, he profited of the opportunity to summon on board his ship the captains of the division, in order to make known to them his intentions, which were, at the first encounter to menace the centre of their line, and to cut off the ships of the rear. All the captains expressed the most ardent desire to second the projects of the Admiral: the same ardour prevailed amongst the crews; and it was not without admiration that he saw some of the sick, then very numerous in the division, quit their hammocks, to take their post in the action.——At half past seven the enemy hoisted their colours; and the division likewise hoisted its colours. Although he endeavoured to distinguish accurately the vessels of the fleet, the Admiral could not discover its real force: twenty of its vessels appeared to be ships of two decks; he thought he recognized a fligate. The o of war carried a blue flag, as well as di

three ships. These last made part of eight vessels which appeared charged more particularly with the protection of the convoy. ——According to the information which the Admiral had received from neutral vessels coming from China, he knew that there were seventeen of the Company's ships, six

country ships, and the brig, in all twenty .

four vessels, ready to sail. The three-d ditional vessels which he saw might well be supposed to be the announced escort;-At eight the breeze having freshoned, th; fleet sailed to the southward, and formo line. Eight or ten ships formed a double line. The division bore down upon the head of the line, but the wind having "

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