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FEBRUARY, 1803.]
Mississippi Question.

(SENATE. Spain to cultivate a good understanding with this exports are sold, and will continue to be so, in country. He could give no credit to the sugges- the Atlantic States. The same gentleman (Mr. tion, that the First Consul had required Spain MORRIS) says, we must line our frontier with to take that step. He knew that character too custom-house officers, to prevent smuggling. well to believe that he would attempt to throw If there is any force in what he says upon this 2 responsibility upon others, for his measures, subject, we ought not only to take New Orleans aor indeed could it be shown that the First and the Floridas, but Louisiana, and all the Consul would be in any way benefited by it ; British possessions on the continent. Another he knows the American character too well to reason urged with great earnestness by the genbelieve that any of the reasons that have been tleman from New York, (Mr. MORRIS,) is, that assigned by his friends who have preceded him France, without this acquisition, is too powern this argument, would form a justification for ful for the peace and security of the rest of the declaration of war, without a previous demand world—that half the nations that lately existed or a redress of the wrongs that we have sus are gone that those that are left are afraid to ained. He knows that our countrymen, with act, and nation after nation falling at her nod

courage and perseverance that does promise that, if France acquires the Floridas and New juccess in any war, are at all times ready when Orleans, it will put England and Spain comt is necessary to assert their rights with arms, pletely in her power, giving to those places an put that they will not be employed in wars of importance that they do not merit; and yet that imbition or conquest; and above all, he sees gentleman and his friends have repeatedly ashe folly of going to war with Spain, and taking serted that war would not result from our takrom her a country that we should be obliged in ing immediate possession of those places; inhonor and justice to give up to the French, deed, they say, it is the only way to avoid perhaps the instant after we had taken posses- war. At one moment the country is representsion of it; for if France would reinstate us in ed as so important as to make the First Consul he rights and privileges that we hold under the sovereign of the world; at the next, we are our new treaty with Spain, I demand of the told that we may take it without any sort of risk, gentleman from New York, if he would wish and without a probability that either France or his country to hold possession against France; Spain will go to war with us for the recovery of ind if he would, upon what ground he would a country so all-important to them. In the lanustify it?

guage of the gentleman from Pennsylvania, I The cession was made to France before the say, this idle tale may amuse children, but will njury done us by the Spanish officer ; knowing not satisfy men. his, we take the country ; upon France de- ! Mr. PRESIDENT, we have nothing to fear from nanding it of us, we should be bound by every the colony of any European nation on this conprinciple of honor and justice to give her pos- tinent; they ought rather to be considered as a lession, upon her engaging to respect pro- pledge of the good conduct of the mother counperly our rights. Spain having injured us try towards us; for such possessions must be urely will not justify our committing an out- held only during our pleasure. age of the most injurious and insulting nature Can France, in fifty years, or in a century, ipon France. Would conduct like this com- establish a colony in any part of the territories sort with the gentleman's ideas of national hon- now possessed by Spain, that could resist the yr, about which we have heard so much in power of the United States, even at this day, he course of this debate? Can it be, that an for a single campaign? What has been our ict, which, if perpetrated by an individual, progress since the year 1763, in settling our would be robbery, can be justifiable in a na- Western country? In forty years, under the ion? And can it be justifiable in the eyes of most favorable circumstances that a new counnen, who believe there is precious try could be settled, we have only a population or important as national honor? Can the use of between five and six hundred thousand souls, ulness or convenience of any acquisition justify and this country is settled by men who knew it is in taking from another by force what we perfectly-by men who either carried all their lave no sort of right to

friends with them, or who knew that change There were not in America men more at- of residence would not prevent their frequently ached or more faithful to the Government of seeing and hearing from their nearest relatives. he United States than they were; and I will Can it be expected that any country will be yenture to predict, from my knowledge of them, peopled as fast, from a nation at the distance hat they will be the last to submit to the yoke of three thousand miles, as our Western country of despotism, let it be attempted to be imposed has been? And yet we are taught to be appreupon them by whom it may. If there is one hensive of a colony to be landed to-morrow or art of America more interested than any other next day from Europe. Sir, if we are wise n preserving the union of these States, and and true to ourselves, we have nothing to fear he present Government, it is the Western. from any nation, or combination of nations, mportant as the Mississippi is to them, their against us. We are too far removed from the ree intercourse with the Atlantic States is theatre of European politics, to be embroiled nore important-all their imports are received in them, if we act with common discretion. hrough that channel, and their most valuable Friendship with us, is the interest of every

Vol. II.-44

Mississippi Question.

[FEBRUARY, 166 commercial and manufacturing nation. Our in- have been at least as usefully employed for his terest is not to encourage partialities or preju-country as he has been in his atteinpt to cher dices towards any, but to treat them all with that it will not succeed, and he would have justice and liberality. He should be sorry to avoided the palpable contradictions of his om reproach any nation-he would rather suffer arguments that he has run into. The gentlema former causes of reproach to be buried in obliv- himself, without intending it, has assigned ion; and he was happy to perceive that preju- cient reasons why we might expect entire st dices which were incidental to the war that we faction. He has said, truly, that America, had been forced into in defence of our liberties, ted, holds the command of the West Indies it with a nation from which we are principally her hands. This must be known to all the se sprung, were fast wearing off. Those prejudices tions that have colonies there; it must likevie had been very powerfully revived, soon after our be known to the proprietors of Louisiana se Revolution had established our independence, the Floridas, that, circumstanced as we at by the aggressions of that nation, in various ent are, there will be perpetual sources of coeways, more flagrant and atrocious than any thing tention between them and us. Every thies we have to complain of at this day,

that has happened as to the Mississippi will be The gentleman from Pennsylvania said that reacted as to the great rivers that head in why this is not an apposite case; that at that time is now the Mississippi Territory, and en there was no blockade. It is true there was themselves into the Gulf of Mexico, after ass not a blockade of one of our ports, nor is there ing through West Florida. In the infancy of now, (the river Mississippi is open for the pas- the colonies that may be settled in Florids & sage of our boats and vessels,) but we were in Louisiana, the mother country can count opo jured, in a commercial point of view, in a more nothing but expense, particularly if they are to material manner than we should have been by be the causes of perpetual quarrels with the the blockade of the Delaware or the Chesa-country. In twenty years, the population of peake; for all the countries (except Great Brit- the United States will be nine or ten millions ain) to which it was desirable for us to trade of people; one-third of that population vi were declared to be in a state of blockade, and probably be on the Western waters. This vil all our vessels going to those countries were give a force in that quarter of the Union egne subject to seizure. Let gentlemen call to mind to that with which we contended with Grest what was the conduct of our Government at Britain; and our united force will be snch ths: that time. The House of Representatives had no nation at the distance of three thousand the subject under consideration, when the then miles will be able to contend with as for any President appointed an Envoy Extraordinary object in our neighborhood. These consider to demand satisfaction of Great Britain. What tions, with a belief that, if we are treated with was the conduct of the members of the House justice and liberality, we shall never violate the of Representatives, who were acting upon the rights of other nations, or suffer ourselves to be subject, before it was known to them that the involved in the wars that may take place among Executive had taken any measures to obtain the great European nations, are arguments that satisfaction for the injury sustained? Did they cannot be withstood, if the Governments a attempt to counteract the Executive? No; they France and Spain are in the hands of wise med; suspended all Legislative discussions and Legisla- for they must see that they have nothing to tive measures. And even the injuries done us by hope from a contest with us, and that a union of the actual invasion of our territory, the erection our force with a rival nation would be productive of fortifications within our limits, the withhold- of very serious danger and inconvenience to them. ing the posts that belonged to us by treaty, and Mr. DAYTON said, he lamented exceedingly the robbery and abuse of our citizens on the the indisposition of the honorable member from high seas, did not provoke us to declare war, Virginia, (Mr. NICHOLAS,) not only because it nor even to dispossess the invaders of our terri- had compelled him to abridge his arguments, .tory of what actually belonged to us. The Ex- which always entertained, even when they ecutive proposed to negotiate, and it was thought failed to convince, but because to that distrae improper to obstruct it. How gentlemen who tion of mind which sickness often produces approved of the interference of the Executive could alone be ascribed the doubts expressed by upon that occasion, can justify their attempt to that member, respecting the views of the adrodefeat the efforts of the present Administration cates of the original resolutions. The difficulty to obtain redress for the injury that we now of the opposers of the resolutions, would, he complain of, they must answer to their con- said, have been less, if the gentlemen who sup sciences and their country. Fortunately for ported them had settled among themselves the United States, not only the President, but what was their object, and had ascertained a majority of both Houses of Congress, upon with whom we were to make war. To both the present occasion, have put themselves in these points, Mr. D. said, the fullest and clearest the gap between the pestilence and the people. answers had been given. Our object, says be

If the gentleman from New York had exert-is to obtain a prompt redress of injuries imme ed his ingenuity as much to state the grounds diately affecting our Western brethren, who look upon which an expectation of the complete suc- to us for decisive and effectual measures, and cess of our Envoy might be founded, he would have told us that a delay of remedy will be

EBRUARY, 1803.]
Mississippi Question.

[SENATE. uinous to them; and our views and wishes are | Maryland could not hope for even that gloomy o take possession of the place of deposit guar-consolation which we heard of on a former inteed by treaty, whether it be in the hands of melancholy occasion. He could not flatter himhe one nation or the other, and to hold it as a self that he and his State would be left to be ecurity that the trade of so important a river the last victim. hould not be liable to similar interruptions in But, Mr. PRESIDENT, every other gentleman 'uture. We are not, as the gentleman from appears to admit the truth of the prefatory deVirginia would insinuate, for rushing into a claration of rights; they admit, too, that if we war, but we are for repelling insults, and insist- cannot be possessed of them otherwise, we must ng upon our rights, even at the risk of one. seize on them by force; but they refuse to give It was easy to foresee that the opposers of the the means and the power to the President, in esolutions offered by the honorable gentleman whom they have told us, over and over again, rom Pennsylvania, must resort to other means they repose implicit confidence. Is any one of the han fair argument, to justify them in the course resolutions too imperative on the President, we which they were about to pursue. Our most will agree so to alter as to make it discretionary, precious rights flagrantly violated, treaties per- | if desired by any gentleman on the other side; idiously broken, the outlet or road to market for without their leave, we cannot now amend of half a million of our fellow-citizens obstruct- our own resolutions. d, our trade shackled, our country 'grossly It is my consolation, Mr. PRESIDENT, said Mr. nsulted, were facts too notorious, and too out- D., and it ought to be matter of triumph to my ageous to allow them the least plausible ground honorable friend, the mover of these resolutions, of reasoning. Deprived of every other means that, whatever may be their fate, the introducof attack, they have resorted to that of alarm. tion and discussion of them will have produced They charge us with a thirst for war, and enter no little benefit. They have brought forward nto a description of its horrors, as if they sup- gentlemen to pledge themselves, in their speechposed that it was in our power to produce, or es, to employ force on failure of negotiation ; n theirs to prevent it. That which requires which, though late, is better than never. They he concurrence of two parties, viz: contract must be allowed the merit, too, of producing or negotiation, they consider most easy; and the resolutions which they offer as a substitute. war, which may always be produced by one These milk-and-water propositions of Mr. party only, they consider as most difficult. BRECKENRIDGE will at least serve to show that Nay, sir, they do what is more extraordinary something should be done, some preparations and unpardonable, they shut their eyes to the made; and therefore even to these, feeble as fact that hostility has already been commenced they are, I will agree, if more cannot be carried. against us. Attacked and insulted as we had But let the relative merits of the two be combeen, do we now, asked Mr. D., call for war ? pared. Ours authorize to call out of those Let the resolutions give the answer. They be- militia nearest to the scene, and most interested zin with a declaration of certain rights, indis- in the event, a number not exceeding fifty putable in their nature, indispensable in their thousand, and to give them orders to act, when possession, to the safety, peace, and union of the occasion requires it, in conjunction with the his country. Not a member opposed to us has army and navy; theirs authorize an enrolment Controverted them, except the honorable gentle- of eighty thousand, dispersed over the whole man from Maryland, (Mr. WRIGHT.) He denied Continent, without any authority to act with he truth of all except one of them, and even of them, however pressing the danger, nor even to 1 part of that one. His honorable friends from march them out of their own State. Ours the Western country, who are in the habit of authorize the President to take immediate posacting with him, cannot thank him for such session of some convenient place of deposit, as lefence. The formerly well applied words, guaranteed by treaty, in order to afford imme"Non tali auxilio nec defensoribus istis egent," diate vent for the Western produce, and relief must be applicable on this occasion, and it may to our suffering fellow-citizens, and thereby put be as well to leave them with each other to it out of the power of a Spanish Intendant, settle the question of their rights. But there is whether acting from caprice, or orders from his one article of the Maryland member's creed Court, to obstruct so important an outlet ; which ought not to escape comment, because, if theirs give no such authority, but leave to the adopted, it would be fatal to the Union. I un- slow progress and uncertainty of negotiation that derstood him, said Mr. D., as stating, that inas- remedy, which, to delay, is almost as fatal as much as the produce which descends the Mis- to refuse. sissippi bears a proportion of about a twentieth The question being at length called for, on only to the exports of the whole Union, it was the motion of Mr. BRECKENRIDGE, for striking not reasonable to expect that the other portion out the first section of the resolutions proposed should be endangered to protect that minor part. by Mr. Ross, the yeas and nays were required, If maxims like this were to actuate our councils, and stood, 15 to 11, as follows: short indeed would be the duration of our in- 1 YEAs.-Messrs. Anderson, Baldwin, Bradley, dependence. Our enemies would have only to Breckenridge, Clinton, Cocke, Ellery, T. Foster, attack us by piecemeal, State by State, to make Jackson, Logan, S. T. Mason, Nicholas, Stone, Sumus an easy prey. The honorable member from ter, and Wright.



[MARCH, 1812 Nays.-Messrs. Dayton, Hillhouse, Howard, J. March current; and they were read and ordered Mason, Morris, Olcott, Plumer, Ross, Tracy, Wells, to lie on file. and White. On the question for striking out the remaining

THURSDAY, March 3. parts of the resolutions, the question was also

A message was received from the House taken, and carried by the same votes on each side.

| Representatives by Mr. NICHOLSON and Wr. The question being then called for on the RANDOLPH, two of the members of said Horse adoption of the amendments proposed by Mr.

in the words following: BRECKENRIDGE, the yeas and nays were called

“Mr. PRESIDENT: We are commanded, in the for, and the votes were as follows:

name of the House of Representatives and af :] YEAS.—Messrs. Anderson, Baldwin, Bradley,

the people of the United States, to impeach Breckenridge, Clinton, Cocke, Dayton, Ellery, T.

John Pickering, judge of the district court for Foster, Hillhouse, Howard, Jackson, Logan, S. T.

an's the district of New Hampshire, of high crima Mason, J. Mason, Morris, Nicholas, Olcott, Plumer,

and misdemeanors, and to acquaint the Senate Ross, Stone, Sumter, Tracy, Wells, and Wright.

that the House of Representatives will, in de NAYS.-None.

time, exhibit particular articles of impeachment So it was unanimously

against him, and make good the same. We are

further commanded to demand that the Senate Resolved, That the President of the United States be, and he is hereby authorized, whenever he shall

take order for the appearance of the said Jobs judge it expedient, to require of the Executives of

Pickering, to answer to the said impeachment." the several States to take effectual measures to arm,

THURSDAY EVENING, 6 o'clock. and equip, according to law, and hold in readiness to march, at a moment's warning, eighty thousand

Mr. Tracy, from the committee appointed on effective militia, officers included.

| the subject, made the following report, which Resolved. That the President may, if he judges it was adopted, and the House of Representatives expedient, authorize the Executives of the several i notified accordingly : States to accept, as part of the detachment aforesaid, Whereas the House of Represer stives have this any corps of volunteers who shall continue in service | day, by two of their members, Messrs. Nicholson sad for such time not exceeding — months, and perform Randolph, at the bar of the Senate, impeached Joha such services as shall be prescribed by law.

Pickering, judge of the district court for the distrist Resolved, That — dollars be appropriated for of New Hampshire, of high crimes and misdemeaners, puying and subsisting such part of the troops afore- and have acquainted the Senate that the Hoved said, whose actual service may be wunted, and for Representatives will, in due time, exbibit particular defraying such other expenses as during the recess of articles of impeachment against him, and make good Congress the President may deem necessary for the the same: and have likewise demanded that the security of the territory of the United States. Senate take order for the appearance of the said John

Resolved, That - dollars be appropriated for Pickering to answer to the said impeachment: erecting, at such place or places on the Western | Therefore, waters as the President may judge most proper, one | “Resolved, That the Senate will take proper order or more arsenals.

thereon, of which due notice shall be given to the After the question was taken,

House of Representatives." The resolutions were referred to Messrs. Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate BRECKENRIDGE, JACKSON, and SUMTER, to bring notify the House of Representatives of this rein a bill or bills accordingly.



Ordered, That Messrs. WRIGHT and Cocke be The VICE PRESIDENT being absent, the Senate a committee on the part of the Senate, with proceeded to the election of a President, pro such as the House of Representatives may join, tempore, as the constitution provides, and the to wait on the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES ballots being collected and counted, the whole and notify him that, unless he may have any number was found to be 18, of which 10 make further communications to make to the two a majority.

Houses of Congress, they are ready to adjourn. Mr. Bradley had 13, Mr. Morris 3, Mr. Hill- A message from the House of Representatives house 1, and Mr. Logan 1.

informed the Senate that the House of Repre Consequently, the Hon. STEPHEN R, BRADLEY sentatives concur in the resolution of the Senate was elected President of the Senate, pro tempore. for the appointinent of a joint committee to

Ordered, That the Secretary wait on the wait on the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, and PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED States, and acquaint notify him of the proposed adjournment of the him that, in the absence of the Vice President, two Houses of Congress, and have appointed a they have elected the Hon. STEPHEN R. BRAD- committee on their part. LEY President of the Senate, pro tempore,

Mr. Wright reported, from the joint com Ordered, That the Secretary make a like com- mittee, that they had waited on the PRESIDENT OF munication to the House of Representatives. THE UNITED STATEs, and that be informed the

The PRESIDENT communicated the credentials committee that he had no further communicaof JAMES HILLHOUSE, elected by the State of tions to make to the two Houses of Congress. Connecticut a Senator of the United States for On motion, the Senate adjourned to the firs six years, commencing with the fourth day of Monday in November next.

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MONDAY, December 6, 1802. | Hunter, c'ecoased, appeared, produced his creThis being the day appointed by the consti- dentials, and took his seat in the House. tution for the annual meeting of Congress, the! But a quorum of the whole number of qualifollowing members of the House of Representa- / fied members not being present, the House adtives appeared and took their seats, to wit: journed until to-morrow morning, eleven o'clock. From New Hampshire.-Abiel Foster and Samuel

TUESDAY, December 7.
From Massachusetts.—John Bacon, Seth Hastings,

Another new member, to wit, THOMAS WYNN, Nathan Read, Josiah Smith, Joseph B. Varnum,

| from North Carolina, returned to serve as a Peleg Wadsworth, and Lemuel Williams.

member of this House, for the said State, in the From Rhode Island.-Joseph Stanton, jr., and Tho- | room of Charles Johnson, deceased, appeared, mas Tillinghast.

produced his credentials, and took his seat in From Connecticut.-John Davenport, Calvin God the House. dard, Elias Perkins, John Cotton Smith, and Benja. Several other members, viz: from New Hampmin Tallmadge.

shire, GEORGE B. UPHAM; from Massachusetts, From New York. Samuel L. Mitchill, John Smith,

PHANUEL BISHOP, MANASSEH CUTLER, and WilDavid Thomas, John P. Van Ness, and Killian K.

LIAM SHEPARD; from Connecticut, SAMUEL W. Van Rensselaer.

Dana and Roger GRISWOLD; from PennsylvaFrom New Jersey.-John Condit, Ebenezer Elmer, James Mott, and Henry Southard.

nia, Thomas BOUDE; from Virginia, Thomas From Pennsylvania.- Robert Brown, Andrew Gregg,

NEWTON, jr., and JOHN TRIGG ; from North Joseph Heister, Joseph Hemphill, William Hoge,

Carolina, JAMES HOLLAND; and from South Michael Leib, John Smilie, John Stewart, Isaac Van

Carolina, THOMAS MOORE; appeared, and took Horn, and Henry Woods.

their seats in the House. From Maryland.—John Dennis, Joseph H. Nichol And a quorum, consisting of a majority of the son, Thomas Plater, and Samuel Smith

whole number of qualified members, being presFrom Virginia.--Thomas Claiborne, John Clopton, ent, the oath to support the Constitution of the John Dawson, David Holmes, George Jackson, An- United States, as prescribed by the act, entitled thony New, John Smith, and Philip R. Thompson “An act to regulate the time and manner of

From North Carolina.--Nathaniel Macon, Speaker, administering certain oaths," was administered Richard Stanford, and John Stanley.

by Mr. SPEAKER to the new members. From Tennessee. - William Dickson.

Ordered, That a message be sent to the SenFrom the North-western Territory. -Paul Fearing. late, to inform them that a quorum of this House Several new members, to wit: SAMUEL Hunt, is assembled, and are ready to proceed to busifrom New Hampshire, returned to serve as a ness, and that the Clerk of this House do go member of this House, in the room of Joseph with the said message. Peirce, who has resigned his seat ; SAMUEL THATCHER, from Massachusetts, returned to

WEDNESDAY, December 8. serve as a member of this House, in the room of Two other members, to wit: from New JerSilas Lee, who has resigned; and David MERI-sey, WILLIAM HELMS, and from North Carolina, WETHER, from Georgia, returned to serve as a Willis ALSTON, appearad, and took their seats member of this House, in the room of Benjamin l in the House. Taliaferro, who has also resigned; appeared, produced their credentials, and took their seats

THURSDAY, December 9. in the House.

Two other members, to wit: WALTER BOWIE, A new delegate, from the Mississippi Terri- from Maryland, and Thomas T. Davis, from tory, to wit, Thomas M. GREEN, returned to Kentucky, appeared, and took their seats in the serve in this House, in the room of Narsworthy House.

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