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Adjournment. [H. Of E. Senate.] Proceedings. [dbckmbeh, 1801.

Mabch, 1801.]

Being to whom I feel myself responsible for all my conduct. May the Almighty keep you in his holy protection. Farewoll.

A message from the Senate informed the Honse that the Senate have appointed a committee on their part, jointly, with such committee as may be appointed on the port of this Honse, to wait on the President Of The United States, and to inform him that Congress is ready to adjonrn without day, unless he may have any further communications to make to them.

The House proceeded to consider the foregoing resolution of the Senate, agreed to the same, and appointed Mr. Pinoknet and Mr. Grove the committee on the part of this House.

Mr. Pinoknet, from the joint committee of the two Houses, appointed to notify the President

* The administration of Mr. Adams foil upon difficult times, and Involved the necessity of measures always unpopular in themselves, and nevermore so than at that time. The actual aggressions of Franco upon our commerce, her threats of war, and insults to our ministers, required preparations to he made for war; and these could not be made without money, nor money be had without loans and taxes. Fifteen millions was the required expenditure of the last year of his administration; a large sum lu that time, but almost the whole of which went to three objects; the army, the navy, and the public debt. The support of the Government remained at the moderate sum which It had previously presented; to wit, $560,000. The duties still remained moderate—the ad valortmi, 10, 124, 15 and SO per centum; and the latter more nominal than real, as It only fell upon a few articles of luxury, of which the importation was only to the value of $430,000. The main levy fell upon the 10 and

Of The United States of the proposed recess of Congress, reported that the committee had, according to order, performed that service, and that the President signified to them that he had no further communication to make, but the expression of his wishes for the health and happiness of the members, and a pleasant journey on their return to their homes and families.

Ordered, That a message be sent to the Senate to inform them that this House, having completed the business before them, are now ready to adjourn without day; and that the Clerk of this House do go with the said message.

The Clerk accordingly went with the said message; and being returned, Mr. Speaker adjourned the House, tine die.*

12J per centum classes, of which to the value of 26> millions were Imported; of the 15 per centum class only 74 millions were imported; and the average of the whole was 18 per centum and a fraction. The specifics were Increased, but not considerably; and the cost of collecting tho whole was 44 per centum. Direct taxes and loans made up the remainder. The whole amount collected from duties was about 10 millions: to bo precise, $10,126,213; that Is to say, nearly twenty times as much as the support of tho Govern ment (comprehending every civil object) required. The administration of Mr. Adams, though oondemnod for extravagance, was strictly economical In the support of the Government, and in the collection of the revenue; the army and tho navy, those oormorant objects of expenditure, brought the demands for money which Injured the administration.





New Bampshtre.—Simeon Olcott, James Sheafe.
Vermont—S. R. Bradley, Nathaniel Chipman.
Massachusetts.—Jonathan Mason.
Rhode Island.—Christopher Ellery, Theodore Foster.
Connecticut.—Junes Htllhouse, Uriah Tracy.
New York.—John Armstrong, G. Morris.
New Jersey.—Aaron Ogden, Jonathan Dayton.
Pennsylvania.—George Logan, Peter Muhlenberg.
Delaware.—William H. Wllles, Samnel White.
Maryland.—John E. Howard, Robert Wright
Virginia.—Btevens T. Mason, Wilson C. Nicholas.
North Carolina.—Jesse Franklin, David Stone.
South Carolina.—John C. Calhoun, Jacob Read.
Georgia.—A. Baldwin, Jamoa Jackson.
Tennessee.—William Cocke, Joseph Anderson.
Kentucky.—John Breckenridge, John Browne


New Hampshire.—Ablel Foster, Joseph Pearce, George B. Upham.

Vermont—Lewis R. Morris, Israel Smith.

Massachusetts.—John Bacon, Phanuel Bishop, Manasseh Cutler, Richard Cutts, William Eustis, Seth Hastings, Silas Lee, Eben Mattoon, Nathan Read, William Shepard, Josiah Smith, Joseph B. Varnum, P. Wadsworth, Lemuel Williams.

Rhode Island.—Joseph Stanton, Thomas Tillinghast

Connecticut.— Samuel W. Dana, John Davenport, Calvin Goddard, Roger Oris wold, Ellas Perkins, John C. Smith, Benjamin Talmadge.

New Tort.—Theodore Bailey, Lucas Elraemlorph, E. Livingston, Samnel L. MitchllL Thomas Morris, John Smiii, David Thomas, Philip Van CorHandt, John P. Van Sat, Killlan K. Van Rensselaer, Benjamin Walker.

New Jersey.—John Condit, Ebeneaer Elmer, Wiloim Helms, James Mott, Henry Southard.

Pen nsylrania.— Thomas Boude, Robert Brown, Andre* Gregg, John A. Hanna, Joseph Heister, Joseph HempUE, William Hoge, William Jones, Michael Leib, John gmilie, John Stewart, Isaac Van Horne, Henry Woods.

Delaware.—James A. Bayard.

Maryland.—John Archer, John Campbell, John Dennis, Daniel Heister, Joseph H. Nicholson, Thomas Plater, Sannel Smith, Richard Sprigg.

Virginia.—Richard Brent, Samnel J. Cabell. Thorns) Claiborne, John Clopton, John Dawson, William B. Gta, Edwtn Gray, David Holmes, John Geo. Jackson, Anthony New, Thomas Newton, John Randolph, John Smith, John Stratton, John Taliaferro, Philip R. Thompson, Abram Trig, John Trigg.

North Carolina.—Willis Alston, William B. Grove, Archibald Henderson, William H. Hill, James Holland, Casta Johnston, Nathaniel Macon, Richard Stanford, John Stack?. Robert Williams.

South Carolina.—William Butler, BenJ. Hnger, Thaus Lowndes, Thomas Moore, John Rntledge, Thomas Somur.

Georgia.—John Milledge, Benjamin Taliaferro.

Mississippi.—Narsworthy Hunter.

Tennessee.—William Dickson.

Kentucky.—Thomas T. Davis, John Fowler.

Ohio.—Paul Fearing.


Monday, December 7, 1801. The first session of the Seventh Congress of the United States commenced this day, conformably to the constitution, and the Senate assembled at the Capitol in the City of Washington.


Theodork Foster, from Rhode Island. Nathaniel Chtpman, from Vermont. William Hill Wells and Samcel White, from Delaware.

John E. Howard, from Maryland.

Stevens Thompson Mason and Wmoscabt Nicholas, from Virginia.

Abraham Baldwin, from Georgia.

Joseph Anderson and Wllliam Cocke, from Tennessee.

Stephen R. Bradley, appointed a Senator the State of Vermont, for the remainder of the term for which their late Senator, Elijah Pai"^ was appointed; John Breckenridob, appointed a Senator by the State of Kentucky; OhkbtoPher Ellery, appointed a Senator by the State

1801.] President's Message. [senate. President's Message.


>f Rhode Island, for the remainder of the term br which their late Senator, Ray Greene, was ip pointed; Jameb Jackson, appointed a Senator ay the State of Georgia; George Logan, appointed a Senator by the Executive of the State af Pennsylvania, in the place of their late Senator, Peter Muhlenberg, resigned; Simeon OlCott, appointed a Senator by the State of New Hampshire, for the remainder of the term for which their late Senator, Samuel Livermore, was appointed; Ubiah Teaot, appointed a Senator by the State of Connecticut; and Robert Weight, appointed a Senator by the State of Maryland, severally produced their credentials, and took their seats in the Senate.

The Vice President being absent, the Senate proceeded to the election of a President, pro tempore, as the constitution provides; and Abraham Baldwin was chosen.

The President administered the oath, as the law prescribes, to Mr. Bradley, Mr. BreckenEidok, Mr. Ellert, Mr. Jackson, Mr. Olcott, Mr. Tract, and Mr. Wright, and the affirmation to Mr. Logan.

Ordered, That the Secretary wait on the President Of The United States and acquaint him that a quorum of the Senate is assembled, and that, in the absence of the Vice President, they have elected Abraham Baldwin, President of the Senate, pro tempore.

Ordered, That the Secretary acquaint the House of Representatives that a quorum of the Senate is assembled and ready to proceed to business, and that, in the absence of the Vice President, they have elected Abraham BaldWin, President of the Senate, pro tempore.

A message from the House of Representatives informed the Senate that a quorum of the House is assembled, and have elected NathanIel Macon their Speaker, and are ready to proceed to business.

Ordered, That Messrs. Anderson and JackSon be a committee on the part of the Senate, together with such committee as the House of Representatives may appoint on their part, to wait on the President Of The United States and notify him that a quorum of the two Houses is assembled, and ready to receive any communications that he may be pleased to make to them.

A message from the House of Representatives informed the Senate that the House agree to the resolution of the Senate for the appointment of a joint committee to wait on the PresIdent Op Tns United States, and have appointed a committee on their part.

Mr. Anderson reported, from the joint committee, that they had waited on the President Of The United States and acquainted him that a quorum of both Houses is assembled, and that the President Of The United States informed the committee that he would make a communication to them by message to-morrow.

Tuesday, December 8. Jonathan Dayton and Aaron Ogden, from the State of New Jersey, and Jesse Franklin, from the State of North Carolina, severally attended.

Besolved, That two Chaplains, of different denominations, be appointed to Congress for the present session, one by each House, who shall interchange weekly.

President's Message. The following letter and Message were received from the President Of The United States, by Mr. Lewis, his Secretary:

Decembee 8, 1801. Sir: The circumstances under which we find ourselves at this place rendering iuconvenient the mode heretofore practised, of making by personal address the first communications between the Legislative and Executive branches, I have adopted that by Message, as used on all subsequent occasions through the session. In doing this I have had principal regard to the convenience of the Legislature, to the economy of their time, to their relief from the embarrassment of immediate answers, on subjects not yet fully before them, and to the benefits thence resulting to the public affairs. Trusting that a procedure founded in these motives will meet their approbation, I beg leave, through yon, sir, to communicate the enclosed Message, with the documents accompanying it, to the honorable the Senate, and pray you to accept, for yourself and them, the homage of my high respect and consideration.*

THOMAS JEFFERSON. The Hon. the President of the Senate.

Fellow-citizens of the Senate,

and House of Representatives: It is a circumstance of sincere gratification to me that, on meeting the great council of our nation, I am able to announce to them, on grounds of reasonable certainty, that the wars and troubles which for so many years afflicted our sister nations, have at length come to an end; and that the communications of peace and commerce are once more opening among them. Whilst we devoutly return thanks to the beneficent Being who has been pleased to breathe into them the spirit of conciliation and forgiveness, we are bound with peculiar gratitude, to be thankful to him that our own peace has been preserved through so perilous a season, and ourselves permitted quietly to cultivate the earth, and to practise and

• This Is the first Instance of a Message being sent tn tho two Houses at the commencement of a session. Though veiled and commended by temporary reasons, founded in the convenience of the members and placed in the fore part of the letter, yet the concluding reasons (which are of a general and permanent nature) disclose the true reasons for the change—which was, to make It permanent: and permanent it has been. It was one of Mr. JetTcrson*s reforms—the former way of assembling the two Houses to hear an address in person from the President, returning an answer to It. the two Houses going In form to present their answer, and the intervention of repeated committees to arrange the details of these ceremonious meetings, being considered too close an Imitation of the royal mode of opening a British Parlla* Senate.]

improve those arts which tend to increase onr comforts. The assurances, indeed, of friendly disposition, received from all the powers with whom we have principal relations, had inspired a confidence that onr peace with them wonld not have been disturbed. But a cessation of irregularities which had affected the commerce of neutral nations, and of the irritations and injuries produced by them, cannot but add to this confidence, and strengthens, at the same time, the hope that wrongs committed on uuoffcnding friends, under a pressure of circumstances, will now be reviewed with candor, and will be considered as founding just claims of restitution for the past, and new assurances for the future.

Among our Indian neighbors, also, a spirit of peace and friendship generally prevails; and I am happy to inform you that the continued efforts to introduce among them the implements and the practice of husbandry, and of the household arts, have not been without success; that they are becoming more and more sensible of the superiority of this dependence for clothing and subsistence, over the precarious resources of hunting and fishing; and already we are able to announce that, instead of that constant diminution of their numbers, produced by their wars and their wants, some of them begin to experience an increase of population.

To this state of general peace with which we have been blessed, one only exception exists. Tripoli, the least considerable of the Barbary States, had come forward with demands unfounded either in right or in compact, and had permitted itself to denounce war, on our failure to comply before a given day. The style of the demands admitted but one answer. I sent a small squadron of frigates into the Mediterranean, with assurances to that power of our sincere desire to remain in peace; but with orders to protect our commerce against the threatened attack. The measure was seasonable and salutary. The Bey had already declared war. His cruisers were out. Two had arrived at Gibraltar. Our commerce in the Mediterranean was blockaded, and that of the Atlantic in peril. The arrival of our squadron dispelled the danger. One of the Tripolitan cruisers, having fallen in with and engaged the small schooner Enterprise, commanded by Lieutenant Sterret, which had gone as a tender to our larger vessels, was captured, after a heavy slaughter of her men, without the loss of a single one on our part. The bravery exhibited by our citizens on that element will, I trust, be a testimony to the world that it is not the want of that virtue which makes us seek their peace, but a conscientious desire to direct the energies of our nation to the multiplication of the human race, and not to its destruction. Unauthorized by the constitution,

mont Some of the democratic friends of Mr. Jefferson doubted whether this change was a reform, in that part of it which dispensed with the answers to the President. Their view of it was, that the answer to the Speech, or Message, afforded a regular occasion for speaking to the state of the Union, and to all the topics presented; which speaking, losing Its regular vent, would afterwards break out Irregularly on the discussion of particular measures, and to the Interruption of the business on hand. Experience has developed that Irregularity, and another—that of speaking to the Message on the motions to refer particular clauses of It to appropriate committees, thereby delaying the reference; and, In one instance during Mr. Fillmore's administration, preventing the reference during the entire session.

[dkcmbzk, 1801.

without the sanction of Congress, to go beyond the line of defence, the vessel, being disabled from Cobmitting further hostilities, was liberated with its em. The Legislature will doubtless consider whether, Jr authorizing measures of offence also, they will plan our K rce on an equal footing with that of its adversaries. I communicate all material informatics« this subject, that, in the exercise of this importsn function confided by the constitution to the Legislature exclusively, their judgment may form itself on i knowledge and consideration of every circumstance of weight

I wish I could say that our situation with all tie other Barbary States was entirely satisfactory. IHicovcring that some delays had taken place in & performance of certain articles stipulated by as I thought it my ;"uty, by immediate measures for fulfilling them, to vindicate to ourselves the right tf considering the effect of departure from rfpaUnoB on their side. From the papers which will be laid before you, you will be enabled to judge whether onr treaties are regarded by them as fixing at all tie measure of their demands, or, as guarding bm the exercise of force our vessels within their power; and to consider how far it will be safe sod expedient to leave our affairs with them in their present posture.

I lay before yon the result of the census lately taken of our inhabitants, to a conformity with vhiei we are now to reduce the ensuing ratio of repressstation and taxation. You will perceive that the itcrease of numbers, during the last ten years, procefding in geometrical ratio, promises a duplication ia little more than twenty-two years. We contempka this rapid growth, and the prospect it holds up to ns, not with a view to the injuries it may enable us to to to others in some future day, but to die settlement d the extensive country still remaining vacant withia our limits, to the multiplication of men susceptible»' happiness, educated in the love of order, habiraatel to self-government, and valuing its blessings sborc all price.

Other circumstances, combined with the incres* of numbers, have produced an augmentation of revenue arising from consumption, in a ratio far bevori that of population alone; and, though the changes a foreign relations now taking place, so desirably fa the whole world, may for a season affect this branch of revenue, yet, weighing all probabilities of expense," well as of income, there is reasonable ground of confidence that we may now safely dispense with all the internal taxes—comprehending excise, stamps, auctions, licenses, carriages, and refined sugars; to which the postage on newspapers may be added, to facilitate the progress of information; and that the remaining sources of revenue will be sufficient to provide for the support of Government, to pay the interest of the public debts, and to discharge th3 principals within shorter periods than the laws orlhcfreneralfspectation had contemplated. War, indeed, sod untoward events, may change this prospect of things and call for expenses which the imposts could not meet But sound principles will not justify onr taring the industry of our fellow-citizens to accumulat* treasure for wars to happen we know not when, and which might not, perhaps, happen, but from the temptations offered by that treasure.

These views, however, of reducing our burdens, are formed on the expectation that a sensible, and at the same time a salutary, reduction may take plsce i» our habitual expenditures. For this purpose tli«» oF the civil Government, the army, and nnvy, will need re visaL When we consider that this Government is charged with the external and mutual relations only of these States; that the States themselves navo principal care of our persons, our property, and our reputation, constituting the great field of human concerns, we may well doubt whether our organization is not too complicated, too expensive; whether offices and officers have not been multiplied unnecessarily, and sometimes injuriously to the service they were meant to promote. I will cause to be laid before yon an essay towards a statement of those who, under public employment of various kinds, draw money from the Treasury, or from our citizens. Time has not permitted a perfect enumeration, the ramifications of office being too multiplied and remote to be completely traced in a first trial. Among those who are dependent on Executive discretion, I have begun the reduction of what was deemed unnecessary. The expenses of diplomatic agency have been considerably diminished. The inspectors of internal revenue, who were found to obstruct the accountability of the institution, have been discontinued. Several agencies, created by Executive authority, on salaries fixed by that also, have been suppressed, and should suggest the expediency of regulating that power by law, so as to subject its exercise to Legislative inspection and sanction. Other reformations of the some kind will be pursued with that caution which is requisite, in removing useless things, not to injure what is retained. But the great mass of public offices is established by law, and therefore by law alone can be abolished. Should the Legislature think it expedient to pass this roll in review, and try all its parts by the test of public utility, they may be assured of every aid and light which Executive information can yield. Considering the general tendency to multiply offices and dependencies, and to increase expenses to the ultimate term of burden which the citizens can bear, it behooves us to avail ourselves of every occasion which presents itself for taking off the surcharge; that it never may be seen here that, after leaving to labor the smallest portion of its earnings on which it can subsist, Government shall itself consume the whole residue of what it was instituted to guard.

December, 1801.] Praident's Menage. [semate.

In our care, too, of the public contributions intrusted to our direction, it would be prudent to multiply barriers against their dissipation, by appropriating specific sums to every specific purpose susceptible of definition; by disallowing all applications of money varying from tho appropriation in object, or transcending it in amount; by reducing (be undefined field of contingencies, and thereby circumscribing discretionary powers over money; and by bringing back to a single department all accountabilities for money, where the examinations may be prompt, efficacious, and uniform.

An account of the receipts and expenditures of the last year, as prepared by the Secretary of the Treasury, will, as usual, be laid before you. The success which has attended the late sales of the public lands shows that, with attention, they may be made an important source of receipt. Among the payments those made in discharge of the principal and interest of the national debt, will show that the public faith has been exactly maintained. To these will be added an estimate of appropriations necessary for the ensuing year. This last will, of course, be affected by such modifications of the system of expense as you shall think proper to adopt.

A statement has been formed by the Secretary of War, on mature consideration, of all the posts and stations where garrisons will be expedient, and of the nnmber of men requisite for each garrison. The whole amount is considerably short of the present Military Establishment. For the surplus no particular use can be pointed out For defence against invasion their number is as nothing; nor is it conceived needful or safe that a standing army should be kept up in time of peace, for that purpose. Uncertain as we must ever be of the particular point in our circumference where an enemy may choose to invade us, the only force which can be ready at every point, and competent to oppose them, is the body of neighboring citizens, as formed into a militia. On these, collected from the parts most convenient, in numbers proportioned to the invading force, it is best to rely, not only to meet the first attack, but if it threatens to be permanent, to maintain the defence until regulars may be engaged to relieve them. These considerations render it important that we should, at every session, continue to amend the defects which from time to time show themselves in the laws for regulating the militia, until they are sufficiently perfect: nor should we now, or at any time, separate, until we can say that we have done every thing for the militia which we could do were an enemy at our door.

The provision of military stores on hand will be laid before you, that you may judge of the additions still requisite.

With respect to the extent to which our naval preparations should be carried, some difference of opinion may be expected to appear; but just attention to the circumstances of every part of the Union will doubtless reconcile alL A small force will probably continue to be wanted for actual service in the Mediterranean. Whatever annual sum beyond that you may think proper to appropriate to naval preparations, would perhaps he better employed in providing those articles which may be kept without waste or consumption, and be in readiness when any exigence calls them into use. Progress has been made, as will appear by papers now communicated, in providing materials for seventy-four gun ships, as directed by law.

How far the authority given by the Legislature for procuring and establishing sites for naval purposes, has been perfectly understood and pursued in the execution, admits of some doubt. A statement of the expenses already incurred on that subject is now laid before you. I have, in certain coses, suspended or slackened these expenditures, that the Legislature might determine whether so many yards are necessary as have been contemplated. The works at this place are among those permitted to go ou; and five of the seven frigates directed to be laid up, have been brought and laid up here, where, besides the safety of their position, they are under the eye of the Executive Administration, as well as of its agents; and where yourselves also will be guided by ycur own view in the legislative provisions respecting them, which may, from time to time, be necessary. They are preserved in such condition, as well the vessels as whatever belongs to them, as to be at all times ready for sea at a short warning. Two others are yet to be laid up, as soon as they shall receive the repairs requisite to put them also into sound condition. As a superintending officer will be necessary at each yard, his duties and emoluments, hitherto fixed by the Executive, will be a more proper subject for le

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