Animal Models in Light of Evolution

Front Cover
Universal-Publishers, 2009 - Medical - 443 pages
The central concern of this book is with the "prediction problem" in biomedical research. In particular, the authors examine the use of animal models to predict human responses in drug and disease research. The arguments discussed are drawn from both biological and biomedical theory (with numerous examples and case studies drawn from evolutionary biology, complex systems theory, oncology, teratology, and AIDS research), and analyses of empirical evidence (concerning, for example, data on intra- and inter-species differences revealed by recent results from genome analyses of various species, human population studies, and statistical studies of the predictive utility of animal models). This book comes to the unique conclusion that while animals can be successfully used for many endeavors in science such as basic and comparative research, they cannot be used to predict drug and disease response in humans. The arguments presented are rooted in the history, philosophy, and methodology of biomedical research. This book will be of interest to anyone involved, directly or indirectly, in biomedical research (including physicians, veterinarians and scientists), and anyone interested in the history, philosophy and methodology of science. In contrast to books written by and for the animal rights movement and books written by and for the animal-based research industry, this book honestly examines all sides of the scientific arguments for using animals in science and concludes that each group in turn exaggerates the flaws or strengths of using animals. There are areas in science where animals can be viably used but there are also areas where they cannot be so used. REVIEWS See Philosophies, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 17 August 2010
 

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Contents

ii Interspecific variation
237
iii In vitro studies
244
iv Symbiosis and its metabolic consequences
246
THE PREDICTION ISSUE
249
PREDICTIVE MODELS IN TOXICOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY
251
Claims about the predictive nature of animal models
262
Prediction in biological complex systems
265
Cancer
267

Animals and the germ theory of disease
56
Mechanism in 19th century physiology
59
MODELS AND SCIENCE
71
INTRODUCTION TO MODELS IN SCIENCE
73
Models in Engineering
75
Modeling Complex Systems
81
Dynamical Systems Theory
86
ANIMALS AS MODEL SYSTEMS
105
Homology and Isomorphism
108
Haus Taxonomy of Animal Models
115
Fidelity and Discriminating Power
120
Methodological Issues
123
ANIMAL MODELS IN THE LIGHT OF EVOLUTION
127
EVOLUTION AND GENETICS
129
Evolution Adaptation and the Origin of Species
130
Classical Genetics and the Evolution of Population Genetics
137
EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT
157
The Cuvier Paradox
160
The Hox Paradox
168
Genes and Development
176
ORGANISMS AND DELEGATED COMPLEXITY
181
Evolution and Delegated Complexity
186
Epigenetics and monozygotic twins
190
Cancer as a Disease of Delegated Complexity
193
Cancer and the Evolution of Mice and Men
200
The Unity of Biochemistry
203
EVOLUTION AND THE METABOLISM OF XENOBIOTICS
207
The Place of Evolution
214
The Metabolism of Xenobiotics
221
The Causes and Effects of Metabolic Variation
226
i Intraspecific variation
229
Smoking and Cancer
272
Drug Development
274
PREDICTIVE MODELS IN TERATOLOGY
281
i retinol vitamin A
284
ii DES
285
iii Thalidomide
288
EVIDENCE AND OPINION
293
The Famous Olson Study
294
Other Voices
303
IMPROVING PREDICTION GENETICALLY MODIFIED ANIMALS
307
Prediction Through Genetic Modification
309
Predictive Obligations?
319
IMPROVING PREDICTION PRIMATE STUDIES
321
Neuroscience
324
Toxicology
331
HIVAIDS
344
Monkeys
347
CONCLUDING REMARKS
351
A Question of Network Structure
354
APPENDICES
363
SOCIAL UTILITY OF ANIMAL MODELS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
367
Basic Research and Applied Research
369
CASE STUDY CANCER RESEARCH
387
GRANT PROPOSALS FOR BASIC BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
393
OLSON ARTICLE
399
HORROBIN ARTICLE
411
REFERENCES
415
INDEX
437
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
443
Copyright

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