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strength and designs of the enemy, and by and peculiar characters, and therefore all of this means is enabled to take the most suc- the same family or kind ; so that the word cessful measures. A general ought likewise used as the generical name, equally exto be fond of glory, to have an aversion to presses every one of them, and some other flattery, to render himself beloved, and to words expressive of the peculiar qualities of keep a strict discipline.
figures of each are added, in order to deThe office of a general is to regulate the note them singly, and make up what is called march and encampment of the army; in the the specific name. Thus the word rosa, day of battle to choose out the most advan- or rose, is the generical name of the whole tageous ground; to make the disposition of series of flowers of that kind, which are the army; to post the artillery ; and where distinguished by the specific names of the there is occasion, 10 send his orders by his red-rose, the white-rose, the apple-rose, &c. aids-de-camp. At a siege, he is to cause the GENEVA, gin, a hot fiery spirit, too place to be invested; to order the ap- much used by the lower classes of people in proaches and attacks ; to visit the works, this country, as a dram, and is unquestionand to send out detachments to secure his ably most injurious to their constitution convoys.
and morals. A liquid of this kind was forGENERAL issue, in law, is that plea which merly sold in the apothecaries shops, drawn traverses and denies at once, the whole de from the juniper-berry, but distillers now claration or indictment, without offering have completely supplanted the trade of the any special matter, whereby to evade it: and apothecary, who sell it under the name of it is called the general issue, because, by im- geneva, or gin, in which, it is believed, portingan absolute and general denial of what juniper-berries make no part of the compo. is alleged in the declaration, it amounts at sition. It is composed of oil of turpentine, once to an issue ; that is, a fact affirmed on and malt spirits. A better sort is said to one side, and denied on the other. This is be drawn off by a slow fire, from juniperthe ordinary plea upon which most causes berries, proof-spirits, and water, in the are tried, and is now almost invariabiy proportion of three pound of berries to four used in all criminal cases. It puts every gallons of water and ten of spirit. The cething in issue, that is, denies every thing, lebrated Hollands yeneva is manufactured and requires the party to prove all that he chiefly at a village near Rotterdam, from has stated.
the same materials, making use of French It is a frequent question what can be brandy instead of malt-spirits. given in evidence by the defendant upon
GENIOSTOMA, in botany, a genus of this plea, and the difficulty is to know when the Pentandria Monogynia class and order. the matter of defence may be urged upon
Essential character: calyx turbinate, fivethe general issue, or must be specially cleft; corolla one-petalled, with a villose pleaded upon the record. In many cases, throat, and a five-parted border ; capsule for the protection of justices, constables, oblong, two-celled, many-seeded. There excise officers, &c. they are by act of par is but one species, a native of the isle of liament enabled to plead the general issue, Tanna, in the South Seas. and give the special matter for their justifi. GENISTA, in botany, a genus of the cation under the act in evidence.
Diadelphia Decandria class and order. Na. GENERATING line, or figure, in geo- tural order of Papilionacea or Leguminosæ. metry, is that by which its motion prodnces Essential character : calyx two-lipped, two any other plane or solid figure. Thus, a and three-toothed; banner oblong, reflex right line moved any way parallel to itself, downwards from the pistil and stamens. generates a parallelogram ; round a point There are seventeen species. in the same plane, with one end fastened in GENIUS, in matters of literature, &c. a that point, it generates a circle. One en- natural talent or disposition to do one tire revolution of a circle, in the same thing more than another; or the aptitude a plane, generates the cycloid; and the revo- man has received from nature to perform lution of a semi-circle round its diameter, well and easily that which others 'can do generates a sphere, &c. See CYCLOID, but indifferently, and with a great deal of SPHERE, &c.
pains. GENERATION. See Physiology. GENTIAN, in pharmacy, is to be found
GENERICAL name, in natural history, in many countries, but particularly in some the word used to signify all species of natu- parts of France, on the Alps, Pyrenees, ral bodies, which agree in certain essential and the mountainous districts of Germany. That used in this country is mostly brought of any class or order of natural beings, whefrom Germany. The roots are the only ther of the animal, vegetable, or mineral part of the plant made use of in medicine. kingdoms, all agreeing in certain common Gentian stands at the head of the stomachic characters. bitters.
GEOCENTRIC lalitude of a planet, is GENTIANA, in botany, a genus of the its distance from the ecliptic as it is seen Pentandria Digynia class and order. Natural from the earth, which, even though the order of Rotaceæ. Gentianæ, Jussieu. Es- planet be in the same point of her orbit, is sential character: corolla monopetalous; not constantly the same, but alters accapsule superior, two-valved, one-celled, cording to the position of the earth in with two longitudinal receptacles. There respect to the planet. are fifty-three species.
GEOCENTRIC pluce of a planet, the place GENUS, among metapbysicians and lo- wherein it appears to us from the earth, sup. gicians, denotes a number of beings, which posing the eye there fixed : or it is a point agree in certain general properties, com- in the ecliptic to which a planet seen from mon to them all ; so that a genus is an ab- the earth is referred. stract idea, expressed by some general GEODESIA, the same with surveying. Dame or term.
See SURVEYING, A genus is an assemblage of several spe- GEOFFROYA, in botany, so named in cies ; that is, of several plants which re. honour of Monsieur Geoffroy, a member of semble one another in their most essential the academy at Paris, a genus of the Diaparts. Hence it is aptly enough compared delphia Decandria class and order. Natural to a family, all the relations of which bear order of Papilionaceæ or Leguminosæ. Es. the same surname, although every indivi- sential character: calyx five-cleft; drupe dual is distinguished by a particular spe- ovate; nut flatted. There are two species. cific name. In botany the establishment GEOGRAPHY, is that science which of genera renders the subject more simple exhibits the results of our investigations resand easy, by abridging the number of pecting the planet we inhabit, whether we names, and arranging under one denomina- consider its figure and the disposition or the tion, termed the generic name, several lands and water upon its surface, or the plants, which, though different in many subdivisions which the different nations who other respects, are found invariably to inhabit it have made, by which it is con: possess certain relations in those essential sidered as forming kingdoms and states. parts, the flower and fruit. Plants of this The general curvature of the earth's surkind are termed by botanists plantæ conge- face is easily observable in the disappear. neres, that is, plants of the same genus. ance of distant objects; and, in particular,
Linnæus's genera, contain a description when the view is limited by the sea, the of each particular part of fructificatiɔn, its surface of which, from the common provarious relations, and different modes with perty of a fluid, becomes naturally smooth respect to number, figure, situation, and and horizontal; for it is well known that the proportion. Thus, all the differeut species sails and rigging of a ship come into view of calyx, corolla, nectarium, stamina, &c. long before her hull, and that each part is furnish the observer with so many sensible the sooner seen as the eye is more elevated. and essential characters. These characters On shore, the frequent inequalities of the the author denominates the letters or alpha- solid parts of the earth usually cause the bet of botany. By studying, comparing, prospect to be bounded by some irregular and, as it were, spelling these letters, the prominence, as a hill, a tree, or a building, student in botany comes, at length, to read so that the general curvature is the less oband understand the generical characters servable. which the great Creator has originally im. The surface of a lake, or sea, must be printed upon vegetables : for the genera always perpendicular to the direction of a and species, according to Linnæus, are plumb line, which may be considered as the solely the work of nature; whilst the classes direction of the force of gravity; and by and orders are a combination of nature and' means either of a plumb line, or of a spirit art. Upon these principles, Linnæus, in level, we may ascertain the angular situahis genera plantarum, determines the gene. tion of any part of the earth's surface with rical characters of all the plants there respect to a fixed star passing the meridian; described.
by going a little further north or south, and Genus, in natural history, a sub-division repeating the observation on the star, we
may find the difference of the inclination of the form being the same as would be prothe surfaces at both points ; of course, sup- daced, if about three-eighths of the whole posing the earth a sphere, this difference in force of gravity were directed towards a latitude will be the angle, subtended at its central particle, the density of the rest of centre by the given portion of the surface, the earth being uniform. whence the whole circumference may be This method of determining the general determined; and on these principles the form of the earth is much less liable to earliest measurements of the earth were error and irregularity, than the measure. conducted. The tirst of these, which can ment of the lengths of degrees in various be considered as accurate, was executed by parts, since the accidental variations of cur. Picart, in France, towards the end of the vature produced by local differences of seventeenth century.
density, and even by superficial elevations, But the spherical form is only an approxi- may often produce considerable errors in mation to the truth. It was calculated by the inferences which might be deduced Newton, and ascertained experimentally from these measurements. For example, a by the French academicians, sent to the degree measured at the Cape of Gond equator and to the polar circle ; that, in Hope, in latitude 33° south, was found to order to represent the earth, the sphere be longer than a degree in France, in latimust be flattened at the poles, and promi. tude 46° north, and the measurements in nent at the equator. We may therefore Austria, in North America, and in England, consider the earth as an oblate elliptic
have all exhibited signs of similar irreguspheriod; the curvature being greater and larities. There appears also to be some consequently every degree shorter at the difference in the length of degrees under equator, than nearer the poles. If the den. the same latitude, and in different longisity of the earth were uniform throughout,
tudes. We may, however, imagine a regnits ellipticity, or the difference of the
lar elliptic spheroid to coincide very nearly length of its diameters would be so of the with any small portion of the earth's surwhole; on the other hand, if it consisted of face, althongh its form must be somewhat matter of inconsiderable density, attracted different for different parts: thus, for the by an infinite force in the centre, the ellip- greater part of Europe, that is, for England, ticity would be only zaz; and wbatever may France, Italy, and Austria, if the measure be the internal structure of the earth, its ments have been correct, this oscillating form must be between these limits, since spheroid must have an ellipticity of tso. its internal parts must necessarily be denser The earth is astronomically divided into than those parts which are nearer the sur- zones, and into climates. The torrid zone face. If, indeed, the earth consisted of is limited by the tropics, at the distance of water or ice, equally compressible with 23° 28' on each side of the eqnator, concommon water or ice, and following the taining all such places as have the sun same laws of compression with elastic sometimes vertical, or immediately over fluids, its density would be several thousand them : the frigid zones are within the polar times greater at the centre than at the sur. circles, at the same distance from the face; and even steel would be compressed poles, including all places which remain into one-fourth of its bulk, and stone into annually within the limit of light and dark. one-eighth, if it were continued to the ness, for a whole diurnal rotation of the earth’s centre; so that there can be no earth, or longer : the temperate zones, bedoubt but that the central parts of the tween these, have an uninterrupted alterearth must be much more dense than the nation of day and night, but are never subsuperficial.
jected to the sun's vertical rays. At the Whatever this difference may be, it has equator, therefore, the sun is vertical at the been demonstrated by Clairaut, that the equinoxes, his least meridian altitude is at fractions expressing the ellipticity and the the solstices, when it is 66° 32', that is, apparent diminution of gravity at the more than with us at Midsummer; and this equator, must always make together ci happens once on the north, and once on and it has been found, by the most accurate the south side of the hemisphere. Between observations on the lengths of pendulums the equator and the tropics he is vertical in different latitudes, that the force of gra twice in the year, when his declination is vity is less powerful hy tao at the equator equal to the latitude of the place, and his than at the pole, whence the ellipticity is least meridian altitudes, which are unequal found to be to of the equatorial diameter; between themselves, are at the solstices,
At the tropics, the meridian sun is vertical rope, Asia, and Africa, constitutes about a once only in the year, and at the opposite seventh of the whole surface of the earth; solstice, or the time of midwinter, his America about a sixteenth; and Australasia, meridian altitude is 43° 4', as with us in or New South Wales, about a fiftieth ; or April and the beginning of September, in hundredth parts of the whole, Europe At the polar circles the sun describes, on contains two; Asia, seven ; Africa, six ; midsummer-day, a complete circle, touch America, six ; and Australasia, two; the ing the north or south point of the horizon; remaining seventy-seven being sea; although and in midwinter he shows only half his some authors assign seventy-two parts only disc above it, for a few minutes, in the op- out of one hundred to the sea, and twentyposite point, that is, neglecting the eleva- eight to the land. tion produced by refraction, which, in these These proportions may be ascertained climates, especially, is by no means incon- with tolerable accuracy, by weighing the siderable. At either pole, the correspond- paper made for covering a globe, first ening pole of the heavens being vertical, the tire, and then cut out according to the tersun must annually describe a spiral, of minations of the different countries ; or, if which each coil is nearly horizontal, half of still greater precision were required, the the spiral being above the horizon, and half greater part of the continents might be dibelow; the coils being much more open in vided into known portions of the whole the middle than near the end.
spherical surface, and the remaining irreguThe climates, in the astronomical sense lar portions only weighed. of the word, are determined by the dura- The general inclinations and levels of the tion of the longest day in different parts of continents are discovered by the course of the earth's surface; but this division is of no their rivers. Of these the principal are, the practical utility, nor does it furnish any river of Amazons, the Senegal, the Nile, the criterion for judging of the climate in a me- river St. Lawrence, the Hoangho, the river teorological sense.
La Plata, the Jenisei, the Mississippi, the The natural division of the surface of the Volga, the Oby, the Amur, the Oronooko, globe is into sea and land ; about three- the Ganges, the Euphrates, the Danube, the fourths of the whole being occupied by Don, the Indus, the Dnieper, and the Dwiwater, although probably no where to a na; and this is said to be nearly the ordepth comparatively very considerable, at der of their magnitudes. But if we class most of a few miles on an average. The re- them according to the length of country maining fourth consists of lands, elevated through which they run, the order will, acmore or less above the level of the sea, in- cording to Major Rennel's calculation, be terspersed, in some parts, with smaller col- somewhat different; taking the length of lections of water, at various heights, and in the Thames for unity, he estimates that of a few instances, somewhat lower than the the river of Amazons, at 15); the Kian Kew, general surface of the main ocean. Thus in China, 154; the Hoango, 134; the Nile, the Caspian Sea is said to be about three 12}; the Lena, 114 ; the Amur, 11; the Oby, hundred feet lower than the ocean ; and in 101; the Jenisei, 10 ; the Ganges, its comthe interior parts of Africa there is proba- panion the Burrampooter, the river of Ava, bly a lake equally depressed.
and the Volga, each 91; the Euphrates, We cannot observe any general symme. 8f; the Mississippi, 8; the Danube, 7; the try in this distribution of the earth's surface; Indus, 51; and the Rhine, 54. excepting that the two large Continents of We may form a tolerable accurate idea of Africa and South America, have some slight the levels of the ancient continent, by resemblance in their forms, and that each tracing a line across it in such a direction of them is terminated to the eastward by a as to pass no river, which will obviously incollection of numerous islands. The large dicate a tract of country higher than most capes projecting to the southward have of the neighbouring parts. Beginning at also a similarity with respect to their form, Cape Finisterre, we soon arrive at the Pyand the islands near them; to the west the renees, keeping to the south of the Garcontinents are excavated into large bays, ronne, and the Loire. and the islands are to the east : thus Cape After taking a long turn northwards, to Horn has the Falkland Islands; the Cape of avoid the Rhine, we come to Swisserland, Good Hope, Madagascar ; and Cape Como- and we may approach very near to the Me. rin, Ceylon to the east.
diterranean in the state of Genoa, taking The great continent, composed of Eu• care not to cross the branches of the Po. We
make a circuit in Swisserland, and pass perhaps Descabesado in Chili, Mont Blanc, between the sources of the Danube, and of and the Peak of Teneriffe. Chimboraçao is the branches of the Rhine, in Swabia. abont seven thousand yards, or nearly four Crossing Franconia, we leave Bohemia to miles, above the level of the sea ; Mont the north, in order to avoid the Elbe ; and Blanc, five thousand, or nearly three miles ; coming near to the borders of Austria, fol- the Peak of Teneriffe about four thousand, low those of Hungary to the south of the or two miles and a quarter ; Ophir, in SuVistula. , The Dnieper then obliges us to go matra, is said to be five or six hundred feet northwards through Lithuania, leaving the higher. It has, however, been asserted, Don wholly to the right ; and the Volga, that some of the snowy mountains to the to pass still farther north, between Peters. north of Bengal, are higher than any of burg and Moscow, a little above Bjelosero. those of South America. The plains of We may then go eastwards to the boundary Quito, in Peru, are so much elevated, that of Asia, and thence northwards to Nova the barometer stands at the height of fifteen Zembla. Hence we descend to the west of inches only, and the air is reduced to half its the Oby, and then to the east of the usual density. But none of these heights is branches of the Volga, and the other inland equal to a thousandth part of the earth's rivers flowing into the lake Aral and the semi-diameter, and the greatest of them Caspian Sea. Here we are situated on the might be represented on a six inch globe by widely extended elevation of India, in the a single additional thickness of the paper neighbourhood of the sources of the Indus ; with which it is covered. Mount Sinai, in and, lastly, in our way from hence towards Japan, Mount Caucasus, Etna, the Southern Kamschatka, we leave the Jenisei and Lena Pyrenees, St. George among the Azores, on the left, and the Ganges, the Kiang Mount Adam, in Ceylon, Atlas, Olympus, Kew, the Hoanghio, and the Amur to the and Taurns, are also high mountains ; and right.
there are some very considerable elevations The direction of the most conspicuous in the island of Owyhee. Ben Nevis, in mountains is, however, a little different Scotland, is the loftiest of the Britisha hills, from this; the principal chain first consti- but its height is considerably less than tutes the Pyrenees, and divides Spain from mile. France, then passes through Vivarais and The most elevated mountains, excepting Auvergne, to join the Alps, and throngh the the summit of volcanos, consist of rocks, south of Germany to Dalmatia, Albania, more or less mixed, without regular order, and Macedonia ; it is found again beyond and commonly of granite or porphyry. the Euxine, under the names of Taurus These are called primary mountains; they Caucasus, and Imaus, and goes on to Tar- run generally from east to west in the old tary and to Kamschatka. The peninsula world, and from north to south in the new; of India is divided from north to south by and many of them are observed to be of the mountains of Gate, extending from the easier ascent on the east than the west side. extremity of Caucasus to Cape Comorin. The secondary mountains accompany them In Africa, Mount Atias stretches from Fez in the same direction; they consist of strata, to Egypt, and the mountains of the Moon mostly calcarious and argillaceous, that is, run nearly in the same direction : there is of the nature of lime-stone and clay, with a also a considerable elevation between the few animal and vegetable remains, in an Nile and the Red Sea. In the new world, obscure form, together with salt, coals, the neighbourhood of the western coast is and salphur. The tertiary mountains are in general the most elevated; in North still smaller; and in these, animal and America the Blue Mountains, or Stony vegetable remains are very abundant; Moutains, are the most considerable ; and they consist chiefly of lime-stone, marble, the mountains of Mexico join the Andes or alabaster, building.stone, mill-stone, and Cordeliers, which are continued along the chalk, with beds of Aint. Where the sewhole of the west coast of South America. condary and tertiary mountains are inter
There are several points in both hemis. sected by vallies, the opposite strata oftea pheres, from which we may observe rivers correspond at equal heights, as if the valseparating to run to different seas; such are lies had been cut or washed from between Swisserland, Bjelosero, Tartary, Little them; but sometimes the mountains lave Tibet, Nigritia or Guinea, and Quito. The their strata disposed as if they had been highest mountains, are Chimboraçao, and elevated by an internal force, and their some others of the Cordeliers in Peru, or summits bad afterwards crumbled away, VOL. III.