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beads. 5. Capitatæ, capitate, when they wards the sides of the abdomen. 7. Regrow thicker towards the point, and ter- versæ, reversed; such as are incumbent, but minate in a knob or head. 6. Fis- inverted. 8. Deotatæ, such as have their siles, fissile, is e. cleft, when they are capi- edges notched or serrated. 9. Caudatæ, tate, and have the head or knob divided such as have processes extended from their longitudinally into three or four parts or la- extremitres like a tail. 10. Reticulatæ, minæ. 7. Perfoliatæ, perfoliated, when netted; when the vessels of the wings put the head or knob is divided borizontally. on the appearance of pet-work. 11. Pictæ, 8. Peetinatæ, pectivated, i, e, resembling a painted; such as are marked with coloured comb, when they have a longitudinal series spots, bands, streaks, lines, or dots. 12. Noof hairs projecting from them, in form of a tatæ, marked with specks. 13. Omatæ, comb. 9. Barbatæ, barbed, when they adorned with little eyes, or circular spots, have little projections or barbs placed on containing a spot of a different colour in their sides; they are either longiores, longer their centre : the central spot is termed than the body; breviores, shorter than the pupil; the exterior one is called iris ; this body; or, mediocres, of the same length may happen either in the primary or sewith the body. The mouth, in most in- condary wings, on their upper or under sur. sects, is placed in the under part of the faces: the superior wing is called primary, head; sometimes, however, it is situated in and the inferior secondary, to avoid confuthe thorax, and in a few instances is entirely sion, as they may be at times reversed. wanting ; it is furnished with palpæ, or The elytra are hard shells, occupying the feelers; rostrum, i. e. beak or snout; la- place of the upper wings. They are for bium, or lip; maxillæ, or jaws, placed the most part moveable, and are either, transversely, and moving laterally; dentes, 1. Truncata, truncated, when shorter than or teeth ; lingua, or tongue; palatum, or the abdomen, and terminated by 'a transpalate: the feelers, which are four or six verse line. 2. Spinosa, or prickly, when in number, are attached to the mouth, and - their surfaces are covered with sharp points have two, four, or three articulations : the or prickles. S. Serrata, serrated, when stemmata are three prominent shining their edges are notched. 4. Scabra, rough, points on the top of the head.

when their surface resembles a file. 5. StriII. Truncus, the trunk, to which the legs ata, striated, when marked with slender are attached, is situated between the head longitudinal furrows, 6. Porcata, ridged, and the abdomen ; it is divided into, 1. The when marked with elevated ridges. 7. Sulthorax, or chest, which is the superior part, cata, furrowed. 8. Punctata, marked with 2. Scutellum, i.e. small shield or escutcheon, dots. 9. Fastigiata, when formed like the which is the posterior part. 3. The breast roof of a house. The hemelytra, as it were and sternum, which is the inferior part. half-elytra, partaking party of the nature

III. The Abdomen, that part which con- of crustaceous shells, and membranaceous rains the stomach, intestines, and other vis- wings, being formed of an intermediate subcera, consists of several annular segments; stance. Halteres, or poisers, are small orit is perforated on the sides with spiracula, bicular bodies placed on stalks, situated unor breathing-holes; the upper part of it is der the wings of insects, of the order Diptermed tergum, or back; the inferior part tera. venter, or belly; the posterior part anus. (II.) Pedes, the legs, are divided into,

IV. Artus, the extremities, are the wings, 1. Femur, or thigh, that part which is legs, and tail.

joined to the trunk. 2. Tibia, or shank. (L.) Alæ, the wings, are two or four; they 3. Tarsus, or foot. 4. Ungues, hooks or are either, 1. Planæ, i. e. plain, such as can- nails. 5. Mavus, (chela), hands or claws, hot be folded up by the insect: or 2. Plica. simple, with a moveable thumb, as in the iles, or folding, such as can be folded up crab. The hind legs are termed, 1. Carso'y the insect at pleasure. 3. Erectæ, erect, rii, formed for running. 2. Saltatorii

, formach as have their superior surfaces broughted for leaping. 3. Natatorii, formed for Ato contact, and stand upright when the swimming. bisect is at rest. 4. Patentes, spreading; (III.) Cauda, the tail, which terminates Sch as are extended horizontally. 3. In- the abdomen, is 1. Solitaria, i. e. single. Omben’es, incun:bent; such as rest on the 2. Bicornis, i, e two-horned, or double. mper part of the abdomen. 6. Deflesæ, 3. Simplex, simple, i. e unarmed. 4. Arbent dovn; such as are partly incombent, mata, i. e. furnished; 1. with forceps or bit have their exterior edge inclined to pincers ; 2. with furca, a fork : 3. with one or more setz, or bristles: 4. with an acu- out of possession of lands; when the party leus, or sting, either smooth or barbed. A must make a formal but peaceable entry, sting is a weapon frequently hollow, with declares that he takes possession; or may which some insects are furnished, and enter upon any part in the same county in through which they discharge a poison the name of the whole ; and if he cannot into the wound they inflict.

go upon the land for bodily fear, he may The sexes of insects are commonly two, make a claim as near the estate as he can, male and female. Neuters are to be met

which must be repeated once within every with among those insects which live in year and day, and is called continual claim. swarms, such as ants, bees, &c.

This remedy is admitted only where the nd. The majority of insects are observed to verse possession originally commenced by be annual, finishing the whole term of their wrong, as in the instances technically calllives in the space of a year or less, and ed abatement, intrusion, or disseisin. On many do not live half that time; nay, there a discontinuance or deforcement the party are some which do not survive many hours; is put to his action. Even in the former but this latter period is to be understood cases, when the original wrongful possessor only of the animals when in their complete dies, and the land comes to his beir, the or ultimate form, for the larvæ of such as right of entry is toled, i. t. taken away by are of this short duration bave in reality the descent. If the claimant was under lived a very long time under water, of disability, from age, coverture, &r. the enwhich they are natives; and it is observed, try is not tolled by descent; nor in case of that water insects, in general, are of longer an actual disseisin, unless the disseisor was duration than land insects. Some few in- in peaceable possession for five years. Stat. sects, however, in their complete state, are

32 Henry VIII. c. 33. Entry must be supposed to live a considerable time, as made within 20 years after the claimant's bees for instance; and it is well known right sliali accrue, 21 Jac. I. c. 16; and by that some of the butterfly tribe, though the 4 and 5 Anne c. 16, no entry shall avail to major part perish before winter, will yet save this statute, unless an action is comsurvive that season in a state of torpidity, menced and prosecuted with effect upon it and again appear and fly abroad in the suc

within one year after; and, finally, by stat. ceeding spring; spiders are also thought to

5 Ric. II. st. 1. c. 8, entry must be pursned live a considerable time, and some species in a peaceable manner; for it one turns or of the genus cancer are said to live several keeps another out of possession forcibly, it years, especially the common lobster, &c.:

is not only the subject of a civil remedy, it should be observed, bowever, that these

but of a fine and punishment for a misde. animals, in the opinion of some modern ua. turalists, constitute a different tribe of be. ENTRY, the writ of, is a possessory reings from insects properly so called. Lin- medy which disproves the title of the te. næus has divided insects into seven or- nant or possessor, by shewing the unlawful ders, I. COLEOPTERA; II. HEMIPTERA; means by which he entered or continues in III. LEPIDOPTERA; IV. NeUROPTERA; possession. It was formerly an usual mode V. HYMEROPTERA ;

VI. DIPTERA; of recovering lands, but is now disused for VII. APTERA, which see: and from the more convenient action of ejectment, these the several genera are referred to. and is never brought when that remedy can

ENTRY, in law, is the taking possession be used. There is much nice technical of lands or tenements where the party has learning concerning it, which it would be a title of entry, or an immediate right to vain to attempt to abridge in a popular possess them. This may be in person or work. It derives different denominations by attorney, or is an entry in law, which is from the different cases to which the wri: merely the making continual claim, by law is applied, and those are generally derived considered equivalent to entry. A right of from the terms in which it states the wrongentry is when a party may have liis remedy ful entry to have been made, or sets out the either by entering into the lands, or by ac. different degrees of descent through which tion to recover it. A title of entry is the lands have passed in the possession of where one has a lawful entry in the land the wrongtul tenants. After a certain de which another has, but has no action to re- gree of descents these are no longer noticed cover it till he has entered.

in the writ. The writ against the imme. Entry is a summary remedy against cer- (liate wrong doer is called a writ of entry tain species of injury by ouster, or putting in nature of assize ; that opon one descent, VOL. III.

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an entry sur disseisin in the per, and upon EPACRIS, in botany, a genus of the an entry where the first disseisor has en. Pentandria Monogynia class and order, feoffed another, and he a third, it is an en- Calyx five-parted; corolla funnel-form, viltry sur disseisin in le per et eni. An entry lous; nectariferous scales growing to the in le post states only that the tenant hath germ; capsule five-celled, five-valved; the not entry but after (post) the disseisin of partitions from the middle of the valves ; A. B. which is allowed in cases beyond the seeds minute and numerous. There are foregoing degrees. There are other writs four species, natives of New Zealand. adapted to particular cases, which we shall EPACT, a number arising from the exonly mention by name, and refer to the cess of the common solar year above the larger dictionaries of the law for their pre- lunar, whereby the age of the moon may be cise meaning: such are

found out every year. See CHRONOLOGY. ENTRY ad communem legem, for the re. The excess of the solar year above the lunar versioner of tenants in dower by courtesy is 11 days; or the epact of any year expresfor life, &c.

ses the number of days from the last new Entry ud terminum qui præteriit, a writ moon of the old year, which was the beginfor the reversioner after the end of a term ning of the present lunar year to the first of or estate for life, against a stranger in pos- January. The first year of the cycle of the session.

moon, the epact is o, because the lunar ENTRY in casu corsimili.

year begins with the solar. On the second, ENTRY in casu proriso.

the lunar year has begun 11 days before the ENTRY causa matrimonii prelocuti. solar year, therefore the epact is 11. On

Several points of law occur, as to the ef- the third, it has begun twice 11 before the fect of an entry in the case of joint tenancy solar year, therefore the epact is 22. On and coparcenary; of entry by the heir ; of the fourth, it begins three times 11 days entry to divest an estate ; to take advan- sooner than the solar year, the epact wonid tage of a condition which cannot be investi. therefore be 33; but 30 days being a synogated here; but in general it may be ob- dical month, must that year be intercalated; served, that a bare entry, without expul- or that year must be reckoned to consist of sion, makes only a seisin; so that the law thirteen synodical months, and there rethereupon adjudges him in possession who mains three, which is the true epact of the has the right.

year; and so on to the end of the cycle, ENVELOPE, in fortification, a work of adding 11 to the epact of the last year, and earth, sometimes in form of a simple para- always rejecting 30, gives the epact of the pet, and at others, like a small rampart present year. Thus to adjust the lunar with a parapet: it is raised sometimes on year to the solar through the whole of 19 the ditch, and sometimes beyond it. years, 12 of them must consist of 12 syno

ENVOY, a person deputed to negotiate dical months each, and 7 of 13, by adding a some affair with any foreign prince or state. month of 30 days to every year when the Those sent from the courts of France, Bri- pact would exceed So, and a month of 29 tain, Spain, &c. to any petty prince or days to the last year of the cycle, which state, such as the princes of Germany, the makes in all 209 days, i. e. 19 X 11; 80 republies of Venice, Genoa, &c. go in qua- that the intercalary or embolimæan years lity of envoys, not embassadors; and such in this cycle are 4, 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 19. a character only do those persons bear, If the new moons returned exactly at the wlio go from any of the principal courts of same time after the expiration of nineteen Europe to another, when the affair they go years, as the council of Nice supposed they upon is not very solemn or important. would do (when they fixed the rule for the There are envoys ordinary and extraordi- observation of Easter, and marked the new nary, as well as embassadors; they are moons in the calendar for each year of the equally the same under the protection of lapar cycle) then the golden number multithe law of nations, and enjoy all the privi- plied by 11, would always give the epact. leges of embassadors, only differing from But in a Julian century, the new moons anthem in this, that the same ceremonies are ticipate, or happen earlier than that council not performed to them.

imagined they wonld by of a day. In ENURE, in law, to take place or effect, a Gregorian common century, which is one or be available, as a release made to a te- day shorter than a Julian century, they nant for a term of life, shall enure to him in happen is of a day later, (1 day – 1=1). the reversion.

Now #X3=t for the three common renturies, but being subtracted, on ac- according to the rank of the wearer; and count of the Gregorian bissextile century, for the same reason they are made either of there will remain 1. Therefore in four worsted, or of silver or gold lace. In France Gregorian centuries the new moons will all degrees of rank in the army may be inhappen later by 4 of a day, and the epacts stantly known from the epaulette; but this must be decreased accordingly.

is not the case here. Lately epaulettes have At present the Gregorian epact is 11 days been introduced into the vavy, and in that short of the Julian epact; but the quotient service the following are the gradations of of the number of the centuries divided by rank as distinguished by them. Masters 4, which at this time is 4, multiplied by it,

and commanders have one epaulette on the with the addition of the remainder 1 multi- left shoulder: post captains under three plied by y, makes in all but us, or 7 days years, one epaulette on the right shoulder, +14; therefore 9, i. e. 3 days +4 must be afterwards two epaulettes : rear admirals added to complete the 11 days. Whence have one star on the strap of the epaulette, we have the following

vice-admirals two stars, and admirals three General rule for finding the Gregorian stars. Epact for ever. Divide the centuries of any

EPHA, or EphaH, in Jewish antiquity, year of the Christian æra by 4, (rejecting a measure for things dry, containing 1.0961

of a bushel. See MEASURE. the subsequent numbers ;) multiply the remainder by 17, and to this product add the

EPHEDRA, in botany, a genus of the quotient multiplied by 43; divide the pro

Dioecia Monodelphia class and order.

Natural order of Coniferæ. Essential chaduct + 86 by 25; multiply the golden pumber by 11, from which subtract the last

racter: male, calyx of the ameut two-cleft; quotient; and rejecting the thirties, the re- corolla none; stamens seven; anthers four mainder will be the epact.

inferior, three superior: female, calyx two.

parted, five-fold; corolla none ; pistils two; Example for 1808.

seeds covered with a berried calyx. There

are two species; riz. E. distachya, great 18 ==2

shrubby horse-tail, or sea-grape, and E. mo2 X 17 = 34

nostachya, small shrubby horse tail. These 43 X 4+34= 206

plants vary extremely. Some in the south 206 +86 = 25=11

of Europe are only a hand in height, whilst 11 X 4 (Gold. No.) = 44

others are three feet: they are found in =1—3=Epact.

most of the southern parts of the Russian

dominions, from the Volga 1o the Lena, and A shorter rule for finding the epact until southwards to Persia and India. The berthe year 1900. Subtract 1 from the golden heat in the throat: they are eaten by the

ries are sweetish, mucose, and leave a little number, and multiplying the remainder by Russian peasants, and the wandering hordes 11, reject the thirties, and you have the

of all Great Tartary. epact.

EPHEMERA, day.fly, in natural history, Example for the year 1808.

a genus of insects of the order Neuroptera. Golden Number 4.

Mouth without mandibles; feelers four, 4-1 X 11 – 30 = 3= Epact.

very short, filiform; antennæ short, filiform ;

above the eyes are two or three large stema EPAULE, in fortification, denotes the mata; wings erect, the lower ones much shoulder ot'a bastion, or the place where its shorter; tail terminating in long bristles or face and flank ineet, and form the angle hairs. These short-lived animals, of which called the angle of the shoulder. See Bas- there are about twenty species, in two diTION. .

visions, according as they have two or three EPAULEMENT, in fortification, a work hairs in the tail, are found every where raised to cover sideways, is either of earth, about waters in the summer, and in their gabions, or fascines, loaded with earth. The perfect state seldom live more than a day, epaulements of the places of arms for the some of them not an hour, during which cavalry, at the entrance of the trenches, time they perform all the functions of life, are generally of fascines mixed with earth. and answer all the ends of nature. The

EPAULETTES, in military dress, are a larva lives under water, and is eagerly sort of shoulder-knot. They are badges of sought after by trout and other fish: it is distinction worn on one or both shoulders, six-footed, active, and furnished with a tail

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od six lateral fins or gills ; the pupa re- or system of philosophy maintained by Episembles the larva, except in having rudi- curus and his followers. ments of future wings. The larva is alto- Epicurus, the Athenian, one of the greatgether aquatic, the complete insect aerial. est philosophers of his age, was obliged to In the former state it lives two or three Democritus for almost his whole system, years; but as a perfect animal it survives notwithstanding he piqued himself upon debut a very few hours, perishing in the course riving every thing from his own fund. He of the same evening that gives it birth. The wrote a great number of books, which are most common species is the E. vulgata, or made to amount to above 300. Though common May.fly, so plentiful in the early none of them are come down to ns, no an. part of summer about the brinks of rivulets cient philosopher's system is better known and stagnant waters. It is of a greenish than his, for which we are mostly indebted colour, with transparent wings, elegantly to the poet Lucretius, Diogenes Laertius, mottled with brown, and is furnished with and Tully. His philosophy consisted of three very long black bristles. It flutters three parts, canonical, physical, and ethein the evening about the surface of the real. The first was about the canons, or water; but during the day is generally seen rules of judging. The censure which Tully in a quiescent posture, with the wings clos. passes upon him for his despising logic, ed, and applied to each other in an upright will hold true only with regard to the logic position.

of the Stoics, which he could not approve of, EPHEMERIDES, in literary history, an. it being too full of nicety and quirk. Epi- , appellation given to those books or journals, curus was not acquainted with the analytiwhich shew the motions and places of the cal method of division and argumentation, planets for every day in the year. It is nor was he so curious in modes and forma from the tables contained in these epheme- tion as the Stoics. Soundness and simplirides, that eclipses, and all the variety of city of sense, assisted with some natural aspects of the planets, are found.

reflections, was all his art. His search after EPHIELIS, in botany, a genus of the truth proceeded only by the senses, to the Octandria Monogynia class and order. Es evidence of which he gave so great a cersential character: calyx five-parted; petals tainty, that he considered them as an infalfive, with claws ; nectary ten scales, two lible rule of truth, and termed them the to each petal; capsule oblong, one-celled, first natural light of mankind. two-valved, two-seeded. There is but one In the second part of his philosophy he species; riz. E. guianensis: this is a lofty laid down atoms, space, and gravity as the tree, growing in the forests of Guiana, where first principles of all things. He did not it flowers in the month of October.

deny the existence of a God, but thought EPIBATERIUM, in botany, a genus of it beneath his majesty to concern himself the Monbecia Hexandria class and order with human affairs. He held him a blessed, Essential character: calyx double; outer immortal being, having no affairs of his six-leaved, small; inner three-leaved, large; own to take care of, and above meddling petals six, three outer, between the caly with those of others. See Atomic Phi. cine leaflets; three inner; drupes three, LOSOPHY. subglobular, mucronate, with the three per- As to his ethics, he made the supreme manent styles; inclosing a kidney-form nut. good of man to consist in pleasure, and, There is only one species; viz. E. pendulum. consequently, supreme evil in pain. Na

EPIC, or heroic poem, a poem expressed ture itself, says he, teaches us this truth, in narration, formed upon a story partly and prompts us from our birth to procure real and partly feigned; representing, in a whatever gives us pleasure, and avoid what sublime stile, some signal and fortunate ac- gives us pain. To this end he proposes a retion, distinguished by a variety of great medy against the sharpness of pain: this events, to form the morals, and affect the was to divert the mind from it, by turning mind with the love of heroic virtue.

our whole attention upon the pleasures we EPICHRYSUM, in botany, a genus of have formerly enjoyed. He held that the the Cryptogamia Fungi class and order. Fun- wise man must be happy, as long as he is gas rounded, concave; seeds globular; tail. wise ; that pain, not depriving him of his wisless, attached to a branched thread creeping dom, cannot deprive him of his happiness. within. There is but one species ; riz. E. EPICYCLE, in the ancient astronomy, argenteum.

a little circle whose centre is in the circumEPICUREAN philosophy, the doctrine férence of a greater circle ; or it is a small

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