« PreviousContinue »
thers sessile, sitting on the tips of the peo other parts of Europe, however, they em. tals; follicle round. There are four species. broider very prettily, and especially in
EMBRACERY, is an attempt to corrupt France. or influence a jury, or any way incline them to There are several kinds of embroidery, be more favourable to the one side than the as, 1. Embroidery on the stamp, where the other, by money, promises, letters, threats, figures are raised and rounded, having cotor persuasions; whether the juror, on whom
ton or parchment put under them to supsuch attempt is made, give verdict or not, port them. 2. Low embroidery, where the or whether the verdict given be true or gold and silver lie low upon the sketcli, and false, which is punished by fine and impri- are stitched with silk of the same colour, sonment; and the juror taking money, per. 3. Guimped embroidery: this is performed petual infamy, imprisonment for a year, and either in gold or silver; they first make a forfeiture of tenfol the value.
sketch upon the cloth, then put on cut velEMBRASURE, in fortification, a hole liim, and afterwards sew on the gold and or aperture in a parapet, through which the silver with silk thread : in this kind of emcannon are pointed to fire into the moat or broidery they often put gold and silver field. Embrasures are generally twelve feet cord, tinsel, and spangles. 4. Embroidery distant from one another, every one of on both sides; that which appears on both them being from six to seven feet wide with- sides of the stuff. 5. Plain embroidery, out, and about three within: their beight where the figures are flat and even, without above the platform is three feet on that cords, spangles, or other ornaments. side towards the town, and a foot and a half EMBROIDERY, no foreign embroidery, on the other side towards the field; so that on gold or silver brocade, is permitted to be the muzzlé may be sunk on occasion, and imported into this kingdom on pain of being the piece brought to shoot low.
seized and burned, and a penalty of 1001. EMBROCATION, in surgery, an exter- for each piece. nal kind of remedy, which consists in an EMBRYO, in physiology, the first rudiirrigation of the part affected with some ments of an animal in the womb, before proper liquor, as oils, spirits, &c. by means the several members are distinetly formed; of a woollen or linen cloth, or a spunge, dip- after which period it is denominated afætus. ped in the same. The use of embrocation See Fetus and MIDWIFERY. is either to attenuate and dislodge some- EMBRYO, in botany. See Corculum. thing obstructed underneath the skin, to EMERALD. This mineral comes chiefly ease pains, or to irritate the part into more from Peru; some specimens have been warmth and a quicker sense of feeling. brought from Egypt. Dolomieu found it The pumping used in natural baths is pro- in the granite of Elba. Hitherto it has perly an embrocation.
been found only crystallized. The primi. EMBROIDERY,a work in gold, or silver, tive form of its crystals is a regular six-sided or silk thread, wrought by the needle upon prism; and the form of its integrant mole. cloth, stuff, or muslin, into various figures. cules is a triangular prism, whose sides are In embroidering stuffs, the work is per- squares, and bases equilateral triangles. The formed in a kind of loom, because the more most common variety of its crystals is the the piece is stretched, the easier it is regular six-sided prism, sometimes with the worked. As to muslin, they spread it npon edges of the prism, or of the bases, or the a pattern ready designed ; and sometimes, solid angles, or both wanting, and small before it is stretched upon the pattern, it faces in their place. is starched to make it more easy to handle. Crystals short; lateral planes smooth, Embroidery on the loom is less tedious than terminal planes rough; colour emerald the other, in which, while they work flow. green of all intensities; internal lustre beers, all the threads of the muslin, both tween 3 and 4; viti eous ; fracture small, lengthwise and breadthwise, must be conti- imperfect, conchoidal, with a concealed nually counted; but on the other hand, this foliated fracture, and fourfold cleavage ; last is much richer in points, and suscepti- fragments sharp-edged; transparency 4 to ble of greater variety. Cloths too much 2; causes double refraction ; scratches milled are scarce susceptible of this orna- quartz with difficulty. Specific gravity from ment, and in effect we seldom see them 2.600 to 2.7755. embroidered. The thinnest muslins are left The fossil herc described is the occidental for this purpose, and they are embroidered emerald, and appears from antique gems to to the greatest perfection in Saxony; in have beer known in the earlier ages, though
at present it comes to us only from Soath conversation, and seemingly rude, comAmerica. Vauquelin found it to contain of monly mixing oaths in his sentences, though silex 64.5, argil 16, glucine 13, oxide of without any ill intention ; he had strong chrome 3.25, lime 1.6, and water 2. The good natural mental parts, and could disoriental emerald is a green corundam, or course sensibly on any subject, but was alresplendent lustre, superior in hardness to ways positive and impatient of contradicevery stone but the diamond, and of the tion; he spent his whole life in close study, specific gravity of 4.
and writing books, from the profits of which EMERSION, in astronomy, is when any he redeemed his little patrimony from some planet that is eclipsed begins to emerge or original incumbrance; in his dress he was get out of the shadow of the eclipsing body. as singular as in every thing else; he posIt is also used when a star, before hidden by sessed commonly but one suit of cloaths at the sun as being too near him, begins to re- a time, and those very old in their appearappear or emerge ont of his rays.
he seldom used a waistcoat; and his EMERSON (William), in biography, coat he wore open before, except the lower a late eminent mathematician, was born in button; and his shirt quite the reverse of June, 1701, at Hurworth, a village about one in common use, the hind side turned three miles sonth of Darlington, on the bor- foremost, to cover his breast, and buttoned ders of the county of Durham; at least it close at the collar behind; he wore a kind is certain that be resided here from his of rusty coloured wig, without a crooked childhood. His father, Dudley Emerson, hair in it, which probably had never been tanght a school, and was tolerably profi- tortured with a comb from the time of its cient in mathematics; and, without his being made; a hat he would make to last books and instructions, perhaps his son's him the best part of a life-time, gradually genius, thongh eminently fitted for mathe. lessening the Haps, bit by bit, as it lost its matical studies, might never have been un- elasticity and hung down, till little or nofolded. Beside his father's instructions, thing but the crown remained. our author was assisted in the learned lan- He often walked up to London when he guages by a young clergyman, then curate of had any book to be published, revising Hurworth, who was boarded at his father's sheet by sheet himself: trusting no eye but house. In the early part of his life he at his own, was always a favourite maxim with tempted to teach a few scholars; but whe. him. In mechanical subjects, he always ther from his concise method, for he was tried the propositions practically, making not happy in explaining his ideas, or the all the different parts himself on a small warmth of his natural temper, he made no scale; so that his house was filled with all progress in his school ; he therefore soon kinds of mechanical instruments, together Jeft it off, and, satisfied with a moderate or disjointed. He would freqnently stand competence left him by his parents, he de- up to his middle in water while fishing, a voted himself to a studious retirement, diversion he was remarkably fond of. He which he thus closely pursued, in the same used to study incessantly for some time, place, through the course of a long life, be- and then for relaxation take a ramble to ing mostly very healthy, till towards the any pot ale-house where he could get any latter part of his days, whien be was much body to drink with, and talk to. The late afflicted with the stone. About the close Mr. Montague was very kind to Mr. Emerof the year 1781, being sensible of his son, and often visited him, being pleased approaching dissolution, he disposed of with his conversation, and used freqnently his whole mathematical library to a book to come to him in the fields where he was seller at York; and on May the 20th, working, and accompany him home, but 1782, his lingering and painful disorder put could never persuade him to get into a caran end to his life, at his native village, being riage: on these occasions he would some. nearly 81 years of age.
times exclaim, “ Damn your whim-wham! Mr. Emerson, in his person, was rather I had rather walk.” He was a married short, but strong and well made, with an man, and his wife used to spin on an oldopen countenance and ruddy complexion, fashioned wheel, of his own making, a drawbeing of a healthy and hardy disposition; ing of which is given in his " Mechanics." he was very singular in his behaviour, Mr. Emerson, from his strong, vigorous dress, and conversation ; his manner and mind and close application, bad acquired appearance were that of a rude and rather deep knowledge of all the branches of maboorish countrynian; he was of very plain thematics and physics, upon all parts of
which he wrote good treatises, though in a cut and scallop glass, marble, and precious rough and unpolished style and manner. stones. He was not remarkable, bowever, for ge- EMETIC, a medicine which induces vonius or discoveries of his own, as his works miting. hardly shew any traces of original inven- Emetic tartar, the old name for tartrite tion. He was well skilled in the science of of antimony. music, the theory of sounds, and the various
EMOLLIENTS. See PHARMACY. scales both ancient and modern; but he EMPETRUM, in botany, heath, a genus was a very poor performer, though he could of the Dioecia Triandria class and order. make and repair some instruments, and Natural order of Epicæ, Jussieu. Essential sometimes went about the country tuning character: male, calyx three-parted; corolla harpsichords.
three-petalled; stamens long: female, calyx The following is the list of Mr. Emer- three-parted; corolla three-petalled ; styles son's works, all of them printed in 8vo., ex- nine; berry nine-seeded. There are two cepting his “ Mechanics” and his “ Incre- species ; viz. E. album, white-berried heath, ments,” in 4to., and his “ Navigation ” in and E, nigrum, black-berried heath, crow
1. The Doctrine of Fluxions. or crake berry. These are low shrubs, sel2. The Projection of the Sphere, Ortho- dom propagated in gardens, unless for vagraphic, Stereographic, and Gnomonical. riety's sake. They are natives of wild 3. The Elements of Trignometry. 4. The mountains, where the soil is heathy and full Principles of Mechanics. 5. A Treatise of of boys. Navigation on the Sea. 6. A Treatise on EMPIS, in natural history, a genus of inArithinetic. 7. A Treatise on Geometry. Sects of the order Diptera. Generic cha8. A Treatise of Algebra, in two books. racter: mouth with an inflected socker and 9. The Method of Increments. 10. Arith- proboscis; sucker with a single-valved metic of Infinities, and the Conic Sections, sheath and three bristles; feelers short, filiwith other Curve Lines. 11. Elements of form ; antennæ setaceous. These minute Optics and Perspective. 12. Astronomy. insects live likewise by sucking out the 13. Mechanics, with Centripetal and Cen- blood and juices of other animals. There trifugal Forces. 14. Mechanical Princi- are about 30 species. One of the most ples of Geography, Navigation, and Dial- common species is the E. livida, which is a ling. 15. Commentary on the Principia, brownish Ay; the wings are transparent, with with the Defence of Newton. 16. Tracts. dark veins. They are observed in fields 17. Miscellanies.
and gardens. E. borealis, is of a more slenEMERY, a stone of the ruby family, of der form than the coinmon window fly, and which three kinds are usually distinguished in of a blackish colour, with large, broad, oval commerce; the Spanish, red, and common wings, of a brown colour, and rúfous legs, emery. The first sort is found in the gold mines varied with black. of Peru, and being judged a kind of marcasite EMPLASTRUM, in p!armacy, a comof that rich metal, is prohibited to be export. position for external use, generally spread ed. The red emery is found in copper mines, upon leather, linen, or some other conveniand the little there is of it in England comes ent thing before it is applied. See Pharfrom Sweden and Denmark. The common MACY. The following is a recipe for making emery is taken out of iron mines, and al- the Ladies' Court Plaster : “ Dissolve five most the only sort used in England; it is of ounces of isinglass in a pint of water, and a brownish colour, bordering a little on red, having ready a quantity of thin black sarseexceedingly hard, and in consequence diffi- net, stretched in a proper frame, apply the cult to pulverize. The English are the only solution warm with a brush equally over the people who have the art of reducing com- surface. This is to be repeated, after it is mon emery into powder, and thus send it to dry, two or three times.” Some give it a their neighbours. Of the powder, the most coat of gum benzoin dissolved in alcohol ; subtile and impalpable is the best ; as to the but this is injurious rather than beneficial. stone, it should be chosen of a high colour, EMPLEURUM, in botany, a genus of and as free of the rock as possible.
the Monoecia Tetrandria class and order. The consumption of emery is very consi. Natural order of Aggregatæ. Rutaceæ, derable among the armourers, cutlers, lock- Jussieu. Essential character: male, calye smiths, lapidaries, masons, and other me- four-cleft; corolla none: female, calyx fourchanics; some of whom use it to polish and cleft, inferior; corolla none; stigma cylinburnish iron and steel works; others, to dric, placed on the lateral toothlet of the gérm; capsule opening on the side; seed each other, and sometimes the oxides are one, arilled. There is but one species ; viz. mixed before they are added to the vitrious E. seri ulatum, Cape empleurum. This is a bases. shrub, with wand-like, , even branches; The enameller who is provided with a leaves like those of a willow, alternate, set of good colours is very far from being in subpetioled, linear-lanceolate, even above, a situation to practise the art, unless he be beneath longitudinally wrinkled; peduncles skilled in the methods of applying them, few-Powered, lateral, much shorter than the and the nature of the grounds upon which leaves; flowers small, most of them male; they are to be laid. Many of the mecapsules usually solitary, incurved, with a tals are too fusible to be enamelled, and heak of the same length.
most of them are corroded by the action of EMULSION, a milky looking fluid caus- the fused glass. For this reason none of the ed by an imperfect combination of oil with metals are used but gold, silver, and copwater by means of mucilage, gluten, &c. per. Platina has indeed been used; but All oily farinaceous seeds, as nuts, almonds, of its effects and habitudes with enamel linsecd, &c. form an emulsion by trituration very little can be said, for want of a suffiwith water : yolk of egg, which is a natural cient number of experiments, compound of oil and albumen, makes a si- The purest gold, of 24 carats, is calculated milar emulsion.
to produce the best effect with enamel. ENAMELLING. Neri on Glass, with 1. Because it entirely preserves the metallic the notes of Merret and Kunckel, afford a brilliancy, without undergoing any oxidation variety of good receipts for making enamels, in the fire. 2. Being less fusible, it will though much still remains to be done in this admit of a more refractory, and consequently art. The art is indeed retarded by the con- a harder and more beautiful enamel. It is siderable advantages the enameller derives not usual, however, to enamel on finer gold from the discovery of any colour uncom- than 22 carats; and the operation would be monly brilliant, clear, or hard. On this ac. very defective, if a coarser kind than that count the artist naturally endeavours to of 18 carats were used. For in this case keep his process a secret, as the source of more alkali must be added to the enamel to private gain. The principal ingredients of render it more fusible, and this addition enamel colours are, however, well known. would, at the same time, render it softer and
There are two kinds of enamel; the opaque less brilliant. and the transparent. Transparent enamels Rejecting all these exceptions, the followare usually rendered opaque by adding put ing description may be taken, by way of ty, or the white oxide of tin, to them. The example, of fixing a transparent blue enamel basis of all enamels is therefore a perfectly upon gold of 22 carats. transparent and fusible glass. The oxide The artist begins his operation by break. of tin renders this a beautiful white, the ing his enamel into small pieces in a steel perfection of which is greater when a small mortar, and afterwards pulverizing it in a quantity of manganese is likewise added. If mortar of agate. He is careful to add wa. the oxide of tin be not sufficient to destroy ter in this part of the process, which prethe transparency of the mixture, it pro- vents the splinters of glass from flying about. duces a semi-opaque glass, resembling the There are no means of explaining the point opal.
at which the trituration ought to be given Yellow enamel is formed by the addition up, as this can be learned only by experiof oxide of lead or antimony. Kunckel like- ence. Some enamels require to be very wise affirms that a beautiful yellow may be finely triturated; but others may be used obtained fronı silver.
in the form of a coarse powder. As soon as Red enamel is formed by the oxide of he apprehends that his enamel is sufficiently gold, and also by that of iron. The former pounded, he washes it by agitation in very is the most beautiful, and stands the fire, clear water, and pouring off the fluid as it which the latter does not.
becomes turbid. This process, which is Oxide of copper affords a green, manga- made for carrying off dust and every other nese a violet, cobalt a blue, and iron a very impurity from the enamel, is continued unfine black. A mixture of these enamels til the water comes off as clear as it was produces a great variety of intermediate poured on. colours, according to their nature and pro- The workman puts his enamel thus preportion. In this branch of the art the co- pared into a white earthen or china saucer, loured enamels are sometimes mixed with with water poured on it to the depth of about one-tenth of an inch. He afterwards As soon as the fire is lighted, and the takes up the enamel with an iron spatula as muffle has acqnired the requisite degree of equally as possible. As the enamel here ignition, the charcoal is disposed towards spoken off is transparent, it is usual to orna- the lower part of the muffle in such a man. ment the gold with rose work, or other ner as that it shall not fall upon the work, kinds of work, calculated to produce a which is then conveyed into the muffie good effect through the enamel.
with the greatest care upon the plate of The thickness of this first layer depends iron or earthern-ware, which is taken out by entirely upon its colour : delicate colours in long spring pincers. The work is placed as general require that it should have no great near as possible at the farther extremity of thickness.
the muffe ; and as soon as the artist perThe moist enamel being thus placed, is ceives a commencement of fusion, he turns dried by applying a very clean half-worn it round with great delicacy, in order that linen cloth to it, which must be very care- the fusion may be very uniform. And as fully done to avoid removing the enamel by soon as he perceives that the fusion has enthe action of wiping.
tirely taken place, he instantly removes it In this state the piece is ready for the out of the furnace : for the fusion of gold fire. If it be enamelled on both sides, it is happens so very vear to that of the enamel, placed upon a tile, or iron plate, hollowed that the neglect of a few seconds might be out in such a manner that the uncovered attended with considerable loss. edges of the piece alone are in contact When the work is cooled, a second coat with the support. But if it be enamelled of enamel is applied in the same manner as on one side only, it is simply laid upon the the first, it necessary. This and the same plate, or upon a tile. Two things, however, cautious management of the fire are to be require to be attended to. 1. If the work repeated for every additional coat of enabe very small, or not capable of being ena- mel the nature of the work may demand. melled on the opposite side, the iron plate As soon as the number of coatings are must be perfectly flat, in order that the work sufficient, it becomes necessary to give an may not bend when softened by heat. 2. If even surface to the enamel, which though the work be of considerable size, it is al- polished by the fire, is nevertheless irreguways counter-enamelled, if possible; that is lar. This is done with a fine grained Lanto say, an enamel is applied on the back cashire file, and water. As the file wears surface, in order to counteract the effect smooth, sand is used. Much precaution which the other coating of glass might pro- and address are required in this part of the duce on the soft metal when it came to con- work, not only because it is easy to make tract by cooling.
the enamel separate in splinters from the The enameller's furnace is square, and metal, but likewise because the colour built of bricks bedded in an earth proper for would not be uniform if it were to be the purpose. It may be considered as con- ground thinner at one part than at another, sisting of two parts, the lower part which The deep scratches of the file are in the receives a muffle resting on the floor of the next place taken cut by rubbing the surfurnace, and open on both sides.
face with a piece of deal wood and fine The upper part of the furnace consists of sand and water. A polish is then given a fire place, rather larger and longer than by a second ignition. This polish, however, the dimensions of the muffle. The fire is frequently insufficient, and not as perplace contains the muffle, and must sur- fectly uniform as the delicacy of the work round it on all sides, except at the bottom, may require. The charcoal is put in at a door above the The substance used by the enamellers as muffle, which is closed as soon as the fire is a polishing material is known by the name lighted. A chimney proceeds from the of rotten-stone, which is prepared by summit of the furnace with a moderate pounding, washing, decanting off the turbid aperture, which may be closed at the water, suffering the fine suspended partipleasure of the artist, by applying a cast iron cles to subside from this water, and lastly plate to it. This furnace differs from that levigating it upon a glass plate. of the assayer, in the circumstance that it is The work is then cemented to a square supplied with air through the muffle itself: piece of wood, with a mixture of resin and for if the draught were beneath the mufle, brickdust, and by this means fixed in a the heat would be too strong, and could not vice. be stopped when requisite.
The first operation of polishing is made