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inn, come to announce that it was sun- again at its farther end, enclosing a horserise and that the carriage was ready.- shoe-shaped plain. Hannibal enticed the That was all my adventure; I am sorry Consul into the plain through the pass, to disappoint you, if you anticipated which he then guarded with his cavalry, that I was about to be robbed and mur- and thus secured the Roman army in a dered, but, like Canning's knife-grinder, complete trap. His troops were on three
sides of them, and the lake on the fourth. •Story? God bless you, I have none to tell, The Carthaginians then rushed upon the Sir.'
ensnared Romans in front, in rear, and We were soon under way, after our on flank. So desperate was the conflict stirrup cup” of “cafe nero,” and my that an earthquake shook the plain befellow passenger in the coupé, an Italian neath the armies, without their consciousfrom Foligno, began to complain of the ness, and “it rolled unheededly away." inn where we had passed the night, say. But the Romans were finally overpowering that in his room there was no comb.ed with such slaughter that a brook “ No what?" asked I, in surprise, thinkwhich then ran with blood, still retains, ing my ears must have led me astray in after two thousand years, a name comthe foreign tongue. “No comb,” repeated memorative of the day, he, passing his fingers through his hair
“Was there Made the earth wet, and turned the unwil. in expressive illustration.
* And Sanguinetto tells ye where the dead, any in your room?" he then inquired,
ling waters red.' and seemed greatly surprised on being told that I usually carried my own.
If Passignano lies in the jaws of the pass this had occurred in America to a British at the other end of the plain and on the traveler, how eagerly he would have pa- shores of the lake. We there passed the raded it as a national peculiarity. night without a visit from any of the an
At Arezzo we stopped to visit the Ca- cient Roman ghosts. If they ever rethedral, which crowns a height in the turned to these scenes, twenty centuries centre of the town. A fine level lawn have effectually laid their perturbed spirsurrounds it, and it stands on a terrace of its. The silver sheet of the lake was twenty steps. When you first enter it, bathed in the brilliant moonlight, and its the solemn darkness makes every thing calm placidity seemed to ignore any syminvisible except the richly stained win. pathy of nature with man. dows, one of which, representing the Perugia is another Etruscan city calling of Matthew, is so beautiful that crowning a hill, up which the carriage Vasari says, “ It cannot be considered needs to be drawn by oxen.
With only glass, but rather something rained down 18,000 inhabitants it bas one hundred from heaven for the consolation of man.” churches and fifty monasteries! It was
Farther on is Cortona, with its citadel the seat of the devotional school of which on the very top of a high and steep moun- Pietro Perugino was at the head, and tain, like all the old Etruscan cities, which was so perfected by his scholar which always seek a commanding, in- Raphael. Many of Perugino's works are stead of a convenient location. Its tow- here shown, all simple, graceful, and ers, churches and houses, run down the sweet, like the first manner of Raphael. slope of the hill, lifting up their jagged But the boast of the place is the “Staffa ouilines against the sky with wonderful Madonna,” still possessed by the family picturesqueness of effect.
for whom it was painted by Raphael, as We s oon reached the Papal Frontier, was the original agreement for it, until where a small fee passed our luggage lately lost. The picture has a grand saloon without trouble. Our passports were all devoted to it, though it is only twice as en régle, and our detention was therefore large as your hand. The Madonna, very brief. In full view of the station is with the child Jesus in her arms, is readLake Thrasymene, beside which the Ro- ing with meek eyes in a book on which man army was entrapped and slaughter. the child lays his finger with a grace beed by Hannibal. The road passes over yond mortal nature. The exceeding the battle ground in the very track of the heauty of the composition may seem less Roman Consul. You enter a narrow wonderful, when we remember that in Pemarshy pass with the lake on your right, rugia a painter of such a subject ought to be and a range of hills on your left. Be- especially inspired, since in its Cathedral yond this you see the hills leave the lake is shown the Madonna's wedding ring! with a broad sweep, and then return to it Foligno received us the third night
All the rooms of the inn were in connect. Nar, and imparts to that quiet current ed suites of half a dozen, and the waiter something of its ownfury. The rocky glen, could not understand why the ladies of the luxuriant foliage, and every other the party should object to pass through accessory, combine to make the cascade the gentlemen's bed-chambers to get to of Terni perfectly beautiful, but its greattheir own. “ Are you not all in compa- est enemy is the description in Childe ny?” he asked, with great wonder at such Harold, which so infinitely exaggerates absurd scruples. This knotty point being its sublimity that the predominant sensaat length arranged by separating husband tion of the visitor is that of disappointand wife, &c., we started the next morning ment. Byron's “ Roar of waters, from the at two hours before sunrise, so as to reach headlong height,” “ roars you as gently Terni in time to see the falls. As day as any sucking dove ;” his “ Fall of was breaking, we passed the “ Temple of water, rapid as the light,” is a deliberate Clitumnus,” of small and delicate pro- descent, requiring five seconds to fall five portion, but the brook at its foot looked hundred feet, while “light” in that time more like a ditch than like Childe Har- would travel just a million of miles; and old's
his “ Hell of waters !" is only a very " Mirror and bath for Beauty's youngest pretty cascade. Poets need not be so mathdaughter.”
ematically accurate, but they should at
least avoid such extravagant exaggeration Spoleto gave us an uneatable break- as makes the reality of the object which fast. Our only consolation was to admire they wish to elevate, ridiculous by comthe famous aqueduct which connects parison with their own grand description. the isolated hill on which the city stands, What more could Byron have said of with a neighboring range. It is support- Niagara ? ed by ten pointed arches, two hundred It is remarkable that two of the finest and sixty six feet high ; double the ele. cascades in Europe should be artificial ; vation of the Croton bridge of which we this one at Terni, and that at Tivoli; a feel so justly proud, though this was erect- river, in both cases, being diverted from ed twelve hundred years ago. Oxen are its course. The present one was formed, next needed for the ascent of Monte Som. to drain the plains above it, by Curius ma. The descent is equally steep but much Dentatus, B.C. 251, and Cicero conductwilder, and the ravine was once infested ed lawsuits about this very stream. Vaby banditti, who have now degenerated rious changes have been made for the into beggars. At last we reached the improvement of the channel, and it asbroad and fertile plain of Terni, and im- sumed its present place in 1785. The mediately hastened to the famous cas- most accurate measurements of the cades, about five miles distant. You ap- height of the falls give fifty feet for the proach by a road which follows a broad upper rapids ; 550 for the perpendicular valley, through which runs the water fall; and two hundred and forty feet for which has just made the headlong leap. the lowest one; making in all eight hunBefore reaching the falls, the hills ap- dred and forty feet. proach each other and form a narrow The next day, while walking in adrocky pass; beyond it they spread out vance of the carriage, I overtook a party again with a circular sweep into a huge of vine dressers, trudging along towards amphitheatre, into which, at its farther Rome, with their bundles on their backs, end, leaps the river Velino. It first rush- and their shoes in their hands, like the es in rapids through a narrow channel in Irish reapers in England. 1 entered into the rocks; then, as it approaches the conversation with them, and was agreeaverge of the precipice, it seems to hang bly surprised to find that they were from back, and to shrink from the terrible the Republic of San Marino. This miniadepth : but the waters from behind urge ture state, about four miles square, with it on, and at last it falls slowly and de- a population of 7,000, and an army of liberately in a mass of foam into which forty men, has retained its independence it had been lashed by its course, narrow while all the rest of Italy has been enat its top, but spreading oul as it descends, slaved by a succession of masters. When like the giant emerging from his casket these sturdy peasants told me their counin the Arabian tale. This leap is of five try, I exclaimed Then you are freehundred feet, and when it strikes the men !” They raised their heads with rocky bottom of the gulf, it rushes on proud complacency, and replied, “ Yes, in rapids and cascades till it reaches the yes, we are all free!” They were on their way to Rome to get work during No one who has ever seen the waves the approaching winter, when their hilly rolling in upon a sea-beach, can fail to vineyards would be covered with snow. appreciate the wonderful similarity of They expected to walk their two hundred the brow of this mountain, notwithand fifty miles in a week, and after work. standing it was never remarked before ing in Rome four months, ard earning a Childe Harold gave it such eloquent exfew dollars for their families, they would pression. return home at Easter. I introduced Civita Castellana is next seen beside a myself to them as a fellow-republican, deep ravine crossed by a fine modern and they seemed highly delighted to see bridge. Then comes Nepi, where we a stranger from the far-off America. slept for the last time before entering
Narni is a curious old town built on Rome. Beyond it the road traverses a the brow of a precipice, so as to save the barren and desolate region, strewn with expense of a wall on that side. The walls volcanic rocks, spotted with stagnant of the grey houses continue upward pools where once were craters, without a against the face of the rock, so that it is house or tree, and inhabited only by a hard to tell where one ends, and the other few herdsmen in goatskin leggins and begins. Half way down the precipice a sheepskin coats, tending the half starved hermitage has been carved out of the cattle, which pick up a scanty sustenance rock, and in it lives a monk vowed never from the brown herbage and tufts of bri. to return to the world. A narrow path, ars, which are now the only productions by which the faithful can bring him food, of the once fertile and populous Roman zig-zags down to his hole.
Campagna. At La Storta we found From Narni the road passes up a nar- ourselves within ten miles of Rome, a row rugged valley, with wild and mag- seemingly incredible dream of delight.nificent views at every turn. As it nears It was the twenty-fifth of November, Otricoli it seems to be running out to the “Evacuation day" in the city of New end of a promontory, while far, far below, York, which was then doubtless echoing is a sea of verdure, undulating over the with the firing of cannon, the ringing of low hills, but showing bare rocks in the bells, and the other popular expressions ravines. Immediately in front is Otri- of joy. Here on the contrary the Camcoli on its rocky peak, looking itself pagna was overspread by a death-like like some more regular pavement of the silence, unbroken, except by the sound same material, and beyond rises Mount of our carriage wheels, till we were Soracte, which you at once recognize from aroused from our sympathetic lethargy Byron’s graphic picture of how its ridge by the sudden shout from the postillion • From out the plain,
of “ ROMA! ROMA !" Heaves like a long swept wave about to
break, And on the curl hangs pausing.'
MODERN CRITICISM.-GEORGE SAND.
There are few things more remarkable, dern pretensions, and seems almost inthere is none more reprehensible, in the credible in persons who make it a (just, present advanced state of a philosophical indeed, but not here a due) pride to have criticism, than a certain quaint character of rid themselves of the prejudices of the bigotry without faith, austerity without “ dark ages.” What they appear to have conscience, and science without system. done is, to renounce the extenuations,
The critic, who in his life may disre. while they retain the errors, of ignorance gard, or in his heart despise the establish- and bigotry. Freedom of Opinion and ed forms of religion and morality, will Expression, Universal Toleration, Eternal yet not scruple, in judging a writer who Truth—these noble and only saving prinspeculates freely upon either, to consti- ciples are, indeed, now-a-days more loudtute himself champion of every preju. ly and lavishly professed; and this is dice, however besotted, entertained upon something gained. But is not the reli, them by the multitude. This, to be gious or social innovator still denounced sure, is often done also with the best faith if not as formerly to physical—to what imaginable; for too often the critic is but is more cruel perhaps, a moral torture ? one of the multitude. But these, though And in this condemnation by the critic, is a mischief, do not rise to the dignity in not the principle the same as that of the evil, of the critics and cases we propose Inquisitor, with the aggravation of incon. to consider. Even where the inconse- sistency? The one admits the right, of quence noted is fairly chargeable, it, no which he punishes the exercise. The doubt, sometimes proceeds from our hu- other punished, but he fairly prohibited, man infirmity, that source of common in- all examination or contestation of the escongruity between opinion and conduct; tablished creeds and conceptions. but oftener, we fear, from motives of per- It is not contended that a certain degree sonal bias or popular captivation. In all of deference to the general opinion of these cases, however, the difference is mankind as a criterion of truth is to be merely relative to the critic, and is only refused, or is, in fact, dispensable. Such that between presumptuous ignorancé, opinion is undoubtedly evidence. But it culpable inadvertency, and seltish hypo- is only evidence; and evidence by no crisy. The critical principle proceeded means to be taken for conclusive. "It is upon being in all the same, the public farther to be allowed that, to perform any effect in all must be equally pernicious. act of judgment, there must be a principle, In subjects, indeed, which are susceptible a rule of some sort, a medium of compaof only moral evidence and certitude, and rison, admitted or established. So that if which, moreover, address themselves the critic be at all to express a judgment of largely to the imagination, these personal the book he reviews, the abuse complaindelinquencies may be accounted for, and ed of would seem to be more or less un. perhaps, charitably, extenuated. But avoidable. Is it then, in strictness, the what is to be thought of deliberately tor- province of the critic to investigate, to deturing or evading the legitimate deduc- cide ?—for into this, mainly, the question tions of science, and denouncing those seems to resolve itself. The writer for who consistently adhere to them, when his own part, from the inconvenience ever such deductions tend to cross the suggested, among others, inclines, against commonly crude or conventional limits the general usage, to believe it is not. of the popular sentiment ?
The effectual exclusion of an abuse that Thus, in this “enlightened age” of ours, renders criticism a nuisance would seem (as our predecessors too have, immemo- to confine the latter to the task of analysis rially, been wont to distinguish theirs,) do and exposition. Or if the critic may prewe still find every new, or as the invidious tend to decide, under any circumstances, term is “ bold” thought, upon certain it should be simply by reference to the subjects, condemned with a peremptori- most approved opinions on the particular ness, perhaps pardonable in the earnest, subject--recognizing them as opinions, uninformed illiberality of the past, but not dogmatically erecting these, any more which is utterly incompatible with mo. than his own, into peremptory princidern principles, and above all, with mo- ples. The proper functions of the reviewer, then, seem to be expository, not judi- Rhadamanthus, refuses the culprit a hearcial. He reports, but does not (that is, ing even after he is punished. should not) decree. He should confine But mark its bearing-much the more hímself to the book, especially, not con- important consideration-on the interests, cerning himself about the author; he on the advancement of general knowledge. should declare his opinions upon any new This system would, of course, arrest views it may present (if he declare them all progress for the future. By the same at all) not only with the reference just reason it would have prevented all the imalluded to, to existing evidence, but also provement of the past. It would preclude with a reservation for future : as the law- from us, at this moment, much that the "igyers express it, he should keep within norant” fanaticism of the “ dark ages" in the record, and only pronounce de bene this matter, however, more discriminating esse. For this view and this practice, ac- and liberal than the “ philosophic” criticordingly, there are illustriousauthorities. cism of the present) has left, has preservWe will mention only Cicero, among the ed to us, though not unmutilated." Under ancients, in the Tusculan Questions, and its sweeping proscription, most of the preBayle, among the moderns, in several ar- cious remnants of ancient literature should ticles of his incomparable Dictionary. have perished with the strains of AlcThe critic should, in his chair, be an ac- maon, Sappho, Mymnermus and others, cademic or a sceptic.
by the sacrilegious hand of some self-conBut erroneous as the prevailing system stituted protector of the public morals and of criticism appears to be in principle, the religion. And in our own day, the volupractical abuse of it transcends all pro- minous treasures of Gibhon must have portion with the theoretical error. Let been sacrificed to their companionship us briefly consider the case and some of with the fifteenth and sixteenth chapters. its consequences, in the twofold aspect of Again, suppose a book of the sort in injustice to the author and detriment to question-a book, we mean, of conscienthe public.
tious and ratiocinative inquiry-could, A book, be it ever so unexceptionable, in the present day especially, prove really so excellent in all the rest, is yet held to dangerous,” (a proposition we engage be contaminated by a few pages or a few to disprove, to demonstration) should its passages which chance to be obnoxious truths also-and if it have none it is in. —not so often to some received axiom of nocuous without a censor-should its general truth and morality-as to the par- truths be proscribed with the errors, the ticular or peculiar “principles” (as he offences ? No, certainly. Such a princalls them) of the critic and his coterie or ciple must be unsound, for it involves the communion. The whole is denounced absurdity of proscribing every thing in without discrimination and without re- nature. What is there, we repeat it, in serve. Strange reasoning! As if good, nature physical or moral, that, practically, any more than gold, were to be found in in the concrete, is entirely unmixed with the productions of man or even of nature, evil? The evil we indeed affect to sepaunmixed with the dross of evil! As if it rate by giving it the denomination of were not the constant task and the meri- abuse. But though the name be changed torious trial assigned for man upon earth, the thing remains, we presume, no less to accomplish, or at least to endeavor, the same. What we choose to term the this separation! The proceeding in itself “abuse” is as necessary an effect, prois sufficiently unfair and unjust to the ceeds from as natural a property, of the author. But it seems to us no small ag- thing as does the use. The notion that gravation of the injury it inflicts to find there are things which are absolutely and oneself judged, in the abstract subjects of intrinsically good, and evil only by acciReligion, Morals or Politics, by the ne- dent or perversion, belongs to a supersticessarily crude notions of the multitude, tious faith or a shallow philosophy. It or by the more contemptible cant and is sometimes no more than a mere verbal common.place of its interested, or echoing illusion, proceeding upon a distinction oracles. The law is bad. But the tribu- always more or less arbitrary and, ofter nal is worse—which, like most tribunals, perhaps unreal. Metaphysically consiis cruel in proportion as its rules are frivo- dered, Good and Evil, Virtue and Vice, lousand its authority doubtful, and which, are not natural entities, are not specific less equitable than some misinterpreters attributes; they have no individual exisof Virgil would make the infernal one of .ence save in the terms of language, or in