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after he was second in reputation to no life he first felt his mission to be useful, man in America, or in the scientific world. left his shop for the pulpit, it is hardly Where are the names more honored than possible that, at his age and with his those of Arkwright and Fulton, whose scanty education, he could have made greatness was achieved in paths of enter- himself a burning and shining light in prise and skill, that lie open to every the church. But he did what he could, mechanic and artizan.
instead of assuming an office for which 4. Yet another class of men change he was unfit. He gathered in poor chil. their professions in the hope of increas. dren by scores from the lanes and the ing their usefulness. But usefulness has wharves of the city, taught them the eleno more connection, than respectability, ments of human learning and of religious with the place which one occupies. În knowledge, gave them good principles what are called the humblest spheres, the and habits, sought employment for them richest and most spreading harvest of duty at a suitable age, and, by pursuing this and benevolence is often reaped ; and re- course for many years, rescued hundreds sults are frequently the greater for the of children from hopeless degradation and obscurity of the agent's situation. You ruin. He, by remaining in his profescan no more suppress the outflow of a sion, has given the world a most glorious good example and a salutary influence, demonstration, that the power of eminent than you can smother fire with linen gar- usefulness is not limited to a few favored ments. The story of the Dairyman's walks in life, but that the true and loving Daughter has been translated into nine- heart can do good anywhere and everyteen different languages, and more than where. four million copies of it have been cir- The above are the principal grounds, culated, making her simple faith and piety on which men change their professions ; the means of the highest spiritual benefit and we trust that our readers are prepared to thousands of her fellow-mortals. Had to acquiesce with us in the application to that girl forsaken her father's cottage to secular pursuits of the good old rule of seek a more commanding sphere, she St. Paul, “Let every man abide in the would probably have failed to fill it, and same calling, wherein he is called.” her life would have been a blank and a Where this rule is followed, one has a waste. From the nature of its functions, steady and uniform growth in intellithe clerical profession is made to suffer gence and influence. His standpoint remost seriously from the false notions of maining the same, his mental horizon is usefulness now under discussion. Its constantly enlarging itself, and new obgreat bane in this country has been the jects readily adjust themselves to his intrusion into it of truly good men from mind by their bearings and relations to other walks of life, with hardly any qua- long familiar objects. But the horizon, lification, except sincere piety and an often changed, never expands. The inearnest desire to be useful-men of the fluence also of him, who abides in his humblest powers, the feeblest presence, first calling, gains with every year accuthe dullest speech, who yet might have mulated power, in the same circle, in the done much good in their original spheres same directions, for the same ends; of duty, by example and private influ- whereas one cannot carry with him into ence, as teachers of their own families, a new walk of life and among new peoas guardians of the moral well-being of ple, the weight of character and influence their respective neighborhoods and social which he previously possessed, but must circles. But they have been accustomed build up for himself a new character and to identify preaching and doing good, and reputation. therefore were resolved upon preaching, III. But we leave this point, to say a no matter how stupidly, ignorantly or few words in defence of our last propofoolishly. There died in Portsmouth, sition, namely, that no man should statedly England, some four or five years ago, at occupy more than one profession at a time. the age of seventy-three, John Pounds, by Nor do we care how minutely the principrofession a mender of shoes, who exer- ple of the division of labor is carried out, cised his calling for half a century or whether in the mechanical or the liberal more, in a little shop eighteen feet by six. professions. It is admitted on all hands, He was one of the greatest philanthro- that the division of labor is justified by pists of the day, and his name will go its economical results—that more and down to posterity with those of Howard better work is done in consequence of this and Oberlin. Had he, when in middle arrangement. A man loses time by changing works, nor can a person be so well enterprise still leaves those engaged in skilled in several operations as in one. the respective branches, sufficient scope One man, says Adam Smith, could hardly for the exercise of the best powers of make twenty pins a day, while ten men, mind. In the mechanical professions, engaged in as many different parts of the what a man does, either demands the work, can make forty-eight thousand in constant exercise of ingenuity or skill, or a day, which would be equivalent to else is a work of mere routine. If the forty-eight hundred for one man. But, former, there is in his very business a says SAY, “ To have never done anything direct opportunity for the practical applibut make the tenth part of a pin, is a cation of whatever mental power he may sorry account for a human being to give have; and he may also reap its outward of his existence.” We would reply, By rewards, in fame and money, as an inno means, if, while making the tenth part ventor, or discoverer of improved modes of a pin, he has lived as an intellectual, or processes. If the latter, let him only moral and accountable being ought to bring to the routine of labor a well furlive. That the minute division of labor, nished intellect; and his mind may be and the consequent confinement of indi- active in digesting and arranging its acviduals to single mechanical processes, cumulated treasures, his heart may be have in the old world been connected awake, his sympathies and affections with mental and moral degradation, we warm, and the inner man may be daily adinit; but we deny that the connection renewed, and carried onward in the path is a necessary one. The degradation of of eternal progress. which we speak has resulted from the Indeed, for mental and moral growth, fact, First, that the operatives have been it is of prime importance that a man destitute of education, and, Secondly, that have a fixed cenier of thought and of they have been overworked. But edu- activity. Then, an infinite number of cate a man well at the outset, and then concentric circles of constantly growing so arrange his hours of labor, that he diameter will mark the symmetrical and shall daily have seasons of leisure for uniform progress of his intellect; and reading, study, reflection or social inter- all his past acquisitions will be included course; and he may, in a life of the within his present mental orbit. But if merest routine, still be a constantly im. he has, in three, or four, or half a dozen proving man, and may work out the different professions, as many different highest ends of his intellectual and moral centers mental action and expansion, being. The growth of a man's mind does the circles perpetually intersect each not depend on the extent of terrestrial other, and the mind is driven round in a surface, or the number of outward ob- confused and tortuous path, in perpetual jects, with which he is conversant. The ignorance of its bearings and its distances. most contracted sphere of life has enough But it is time that we bring these within it, to call forth and satisfy centu. remarks to a close. One chief object ries of mental activity. Said an eminent that we have had in view in penning naturalist, putting his hand upon the them, is to represent all labor as honoraground, “I would contentedly pass my ble,-to ennoble and dignify toil. Let life in the study of what my hand now the ban of society go forth against the covers.” The common objects, the fa- drone, whether in broadcloth or in rags. miliar scenes, the daily events of life, are But let industry, diligence, thrift, give sufficient educators of the mind which every true laborer, whether with head has once received a stimulus to self-im- or hand, an honored place as a vital, provement.
worthy, precious member of the body In the mercantile and liberal profess- politic, living in harmony with the law ions, it will be readily admitted that the of God, and in the only condition of subdivision of research, practice and spiritual well-being, dignity and progress.
COMMERCIAL INTERCOURSE WITH EASTERN ASIA.
The comparatively recent transactions vations, we may cite the following:-between Great Britain and China, and the “ The journey from New York to Canton, subsequent well-conducted and success. by way of St. Louis, the Missouri, the ful mission of Mr. Cushing, have, as Columbia and thence across the Northern based on the intrinsic importance of the Pacific, is shorter than any road the Euinterests involved, awakened unwonted ropean Powers can possibly find."* In attention to the means of intercourse he. order, however, to more clearly estimate tween the two great theatres of civilisa- the value of the data upon which must tion. In numerous public prints, disser- rest the decision of this question, we tations have appeared, discussing the have arranged the subjoined Geographirelative facilities afforded by nature along cal Notes. The positions on the sphere the different routes already in use, or that of the three principal places, were taken may be opened to accomplish an inter- from the Tables of Latitudes and Longi. course, forming now, and from the days tudes in Black’s Edinburgh Atlas. Cal. of Solomon-and no doubt ages before culated on the principles of Mercator's that merchant king sent ships to Tar- Projection, the relative positions of the shish--one of the great branches of hu- three cities yield the following courses man policy. Among many other obser- and direct distances : Washington City,
N. Lat. 38° 52', Long. W. London, 77° 08'.
N. Lat. 51° 31', Long. E. W. C., 77° 08'.
N. Lat. 23° 03', Long. E. London, 113° 20'.
Long. W. W. City, 169° 32'.
W.C. to Canton, S. 83° 36' W., 8522 Geographic, or 9830 Statute miles. Thus we see, that in regard to mere of the advantages offered to civilized relative direct distance, the United States man by the zone of North America, comCapital stands something more than one- prised between N. latitudes 30 and 50 third farther from Canton than does Lon- degrees; that is, the zone which we ocdon, but respective distances on the cupy. We desire to awaken the public sphere are only one element to be brought to the mission this nation has to fulfil, into use in deciding the question at issue. and which, though unconsciously, every Direct distance, indeed, in one essential member of our society is in reality emrespect, claims preëminence, as it cannot ployed in fulfilling-a consummation be changed by human power ; but various progressing with steady and accelerated obstacles exist, creating important devia- motion. tions in all long courses, and the removal It is only the all-seeing Eye,” says or obviating of these, is of course lett to one of the most penetrating of modern the enterprise and ingenuity of men.t writers, “who can trace the threads of
It is our endeavor, to be pursued as the intricate web of history;" and then often as opportunity shall offer, to im- adds: “ The canvas which I have sketchpress upon this community clear views ed, may discover to the view of an en
* This must be understood as to the facility of reaching South-Eastern Asia; that if we allow the whole zone that is spoken of in this article, to be peopled to the Pacific Ocean, then the practicable route from the various portions of North America to that portion of Asia will be shorter in regard to time, though not so in point of distance.
† The rail-road proposed by Mr. Whitney, and which will be more particularly noticed in the sequel of the present article, is intended to extend from Lake Michigan westward, and pass the Rocky Mountains about latitude 42°, and thence to the Pacific Ocean by such route as may appear most suitable. Such a work, if completed, will be one of the most efficacious of all means in the removal of obstacles as to the accomplishment of the design of reaching South-Eastern Asia from the continent of North America, and also from Europe, as it is impossible to pass to China by land across Europe and Africa in as short a distance as across the American continent; and a voyage around either of the Capes is not less than 17,000 miles.
lightened observer, a perspective of a full assurance that our confidence may be more grand and glorious futurity, by en- safely placed on the results of a series of seabling him to perceive in the propagation quences flowing from a known and ample of European civilization, already gone
Therefore when we establish The beyond the seas into the most distant re- existence of a progress, and clearly ascergions, the elements of a more vast and tain the laws of its advance, we can then more powerful political system, no longer estimate, for all moral purposes or general limited to a single part of the world, but policy, with adequate exactness, what embracing the entire universe."*
will be from what has been; and, in fine, Of the modern colonies of Europe, one with a certainty only short of mathematialready stands in every element of power cal. On the second day of January, in the superior; and it is that colony, or more current year, a table of the past, and present, correctly, congeries of colonies, now a and what we may expect to be the future confederated nation, spreading over the population of the United States, to the year zone to which we have alluded, and irre- 1900, was published in the National Insistibly advancing in the development of telligencer. This table was compiled the most stupendous revolution which rigidly from the documents afforded by has ever, and durably, influenced the des- the five enumerations already made, and tiny of mankind. Under all the circum. for clearness of statement, we shall make stances which attend the progress of some reference to the table in the course individuals or nations, the present is only of the present article. Having been for the child of the past, and the youth of some years engaged in various investigafuturity. As it is with individuals, so is tions, to the end mainly of affording a it, and so must it ever be, with nations, clear view of the Anglo Saxon increase whatever may be their physical power; in number and power on the Middle Zone the character of the parent must to a great of North America, we propose in the folextent form and modify that of the pro- lowing remarks to present some of the geny: It is from the force of this eternal results at which we have arrived. To law that we must derive all sane legisla- give that view in its broadest light, howtion, and hence the absolute necessity of ever, a description of the great peculiar consulting history, or we may say, of natural features and relative extent of listening to the voice of the past. that zone must precede any detail as re
In brief, the philosophy of history is gards its inhabitants. Minute detail, alike only the spirit of past time, embodied and incompatible with the brevity of an essay, speaking truth to present generations; and and unnecessary in the present case, will on no other part of earth does this embo- therefore be supplied by general sketches diment express to the living generation, of a space destined to sustain a most inin tones so energetic, or in words so fresh fluential section of the human family. and so true, the ever enduring lessons of Before entering on the proposed survey, experience, as it now does to the increas. I may premise, that in the United States ing millions of the Anglo-Saxon race in there has been too often manifested a disNorth America. It is not to indulge position to exaggerate the magnitude and warm poetic anticipations of futurity that extent of natural objects in our territory, our pen is now employed, but, on the and especially in regard to the Mississippi contrary, to sustain inductions on what river. Natural limits of rivers speak for that future must produce by using an themselves, and neither swell nor contract element bestowed on us by past time—an to suit human fancy. The Mississippi imperishable element-experience. In has been, in innumerable instances, proour operations, of whatever nature. Time nounced the greatest river of the earth. must be consulted, and his advice obeyed, It is really true, that in some highly imor if not, he will indignantly point back portant respects, this great river basin, as to what he has enabled us to accomplish, I shall endeavor to shew in the sequel, and punish the neglect of his counsels by does really offer to civilized man advan. crushing our airy fabrics in the dust. On tages beyond what any other river basin the other side, the records of the past have of the earth can afford; but in regard to shown us, that all that is enduring stands surface drained, it is probably equalled by as demonstrative proof of the connec- that of the Plata of South America, as tion between cause and effect, and afford us each drains about 1,200,000 square miles,
• Vide Heeren, in his Preface to his Historical Manual of the States of Europe and their Colonies. VOL. I.-NO. IV.
whilst the Amazon, not including the in that latitude, is equal to 2,542 statute Tocantinas, drains full 2,600,000 square miles. The mid-distance of this curve miles, and thus contains in its basin alone, is very near its place of crossing Cana. an area exceeding those of the two former dian River, and upwards of 400 miles united. But to assume our survey, we westward of the River Mississippi, and proceed by lines of latitude.
nearly 200 miles westward of the western Advancing from South to North, we border of the State of Arkansas. set ou on the curve of 30° N. This
N. lat. 40° over North America, is latitude intersects the North American there, as it is in all its circle round the Atlantic coast, a short distance to the earth, the most important of all lat. north of the city of St. Augustine, crosses
It enters on the Continent of Florida to the Apalachicola Bay, and North America a little distance norththence, skirting the northern coast of the wards of Tom's River, Monmouth coun. Gulf of Mexico 360 miles, passes over ty, New Jersey, crosses that State and the city of New Orleans, and thence, over Delaware River, almost touching the city Louisiana and Texas, 600 miles, to the of Philadelphia; thence over PennsylvaRio Grande, leaving Houston in the latter nia, passing near the towns of Lancaster, country a little to the southward. This York, Bedford, Union and Washington, curve traverses the Rio Grande at its
in that State: Wheeling, in Virginia, great bend, and thence, over the imper- Zanesville, Columbus and Troy in Ohio; fectly known Chihuahua and Sonora, to crosses Wabash River, in Indiana, a short the Gulf of California, which it reaches a distance above Westport, as it does the little to the north of the Island of Tibu
Mississippi a little above Quincy, in Ilie ron—then passes that inland sea, and nois, and thence over the northern part northern part of the peninsula of the of the State of Missouri, reaches the same name, to the Pacific Ocean, at, or Missouri River near the mouth of the near Cape Gonzalo, having an entire Great Namehaw River; having thus far range over the Continent of 35 degrees of over the already organized States of the longitude, which, in that latitude, very United States, à traverse of 1100 statute nearly equals 2100 statute miles, of which miles. Leaving the Mississippi River, the mid-distance is about the western N. lat. 40°, ranges westward up the difborder of Texas, and about two-thirds ferent branches of Kansas and Platte west of Sabine River.
rivers 600 miles, to the 30th degree of N. lat. 35° intersects the Continent long. W. of W. C., amongst the chains very near Ocracock Inlet, and a few of the Rocky Mountains, and to that miles southward of Cape Hatteras, and truly remarkable region, which gives passing over the southern side of North their most remote fountains to the rivers Carolina and the northern of South Caro- of Platte, Arkansas, Rio Grande, and lina, thence leaving Tennessee to the Colorado of the Gulf of California, and northward, constitutes the northern Columbia or Oregon; thence, over about boundaries of Georgia, Alabama, and 1000 miles of a country but litile known, Mississippi, to the Mississippi River, in reaches the Pacific Ocean, at, or very an entire distance from the Atlantic near Cape Mendocino. Thus we find Ocean of 750 statute miles. Thence tra- that N. lat. 40° has a range over Nonh versing the State of Arkansas, nearly America from long. 3° E. to 48 W. W c. centrically, and leaving that State, up the or through 51° of long., and within a valley of Arkansas River, by the minor small fraction of 2700 statute miles. The valley of the Canadian River to its sources: middle point very near where it crosses thence over the narrow valley of the Rio the Republican branch of Kansas River, Grande, crossing that stream about 100 or nearly 200 miles westward of the miles below and southwardly of Santa Fé State of Missouri. of New Mexico, and 850 miles from the North latitude 45°, advancing westMississippi, or 1600 from the Atlantic ward, leaves the Atlantic Ocean at long. Ocean. Thence, from Rio Grande over 15 E. W.C. near the mouth of the smail the spine of the Rocky Mountains, and river St. Mary's, Nova Scotia, traverses entering on regions very imperfectly that peninsula obliquely, crosses the Bay known, this line crosses the Colorado of of Fundy, and leaving it by the minor the Gulf of California, and reaches the Bay of Passamaquoddy, enters and divides Pacific Ocean near Cape Gaudaloupe, the state of Maine nearly centrically, having an entire range of lat. over the passes over the extreme northern point continent of 46 degrees of long. : which, of New Hampshire, and thence to the