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of Scandinavia, made his appearance in and constitution intermediate between Cashmere, about the year 1014 B. C.* Hindoo and Arab,t but Sennaar is a part “ The Cashmerians, who boast of his of ancient Ethiopia, which was inhabited descent in their kingdom, assert that he by a race akin to the Egyptian, and appeared two centuries after Chrishna, living under the same laws and instituthe Indian Apollo.” * This Chrishna is tions with that people; but we find the distinguished from Ram, or Bacchus, by name Ethiopian applied, by Homer, to a his affinity with the Preserving Deity, people of the extreme east, who are Vishna-Ram having more the attributes named by the poet in the same breath of a demi-god, or hero; both are cele. with the Éthiopians of the extreme south. brated in epic poems, and their charac- Memnon, the son of Aurora, or of the ters and exploits seem to have been East, led an army of Ethiopians to the partly founded on the tradition of Sesos- siege of Troy; which happened nearly tris' expedition; but the Hindoos have three centuries after the Indian expeno true history, and their chronicle of dition of Sesostris; a long enough Delhi kings is of no historic value, ex- period to have allowed his military cept that it gives a fair picture of the colonies to become a great nation. The spirit of their origins, and presents a fleet of this conqueror sailed about point of connection by which their insti. Arabia, and may easily have ascended tutions may be traced to those of Egypt. the Indus, though tradition says that If any one will take the pains to make a they were stopped by the shoals of the minute comparison between the religion Persian gulf; but the desert shores of of the modern Hindoos, as it is faithfully Gedrasia would be a more probable and pictured in the work of Ward, the mis. effectual hindrance, than the ordinary sionary, with the account given by difficulties of navigation. It is conjecWilkinson, in his learned work on the tured that the warlike expeditions of Customs and Manners of the Egyptians, Sesostris were intended to open the way he will probably entertain no doubts of for Egyptian commerce; which soon the identity of Indian and Egyptian hea. after, if not previous to, that monarch's thenism;ť nor of the origin of the insti- reign, reached India; and since, in that tution of caste, a form of society peculiar day, military as well as sacerdotal coloto the Hindoos and ancient Egyptians; nies were established by every trading and seeming to have arisen from the con- nation for the protection of their comquest of a feeble race by a people intel- merce, and we know that the revenue lectually and physically their superiors. of Egyptian sovereigns was drawn chiefly

The fairest conjecture adinits the pro. from the monopolies which they held, of bability of a mixture of these nations, foreign trade, the expedition of Sesostris, and the resemblance of their features, like the exploits of the Tyrian Hercules, and habit of body, might suggest it with reduces itself from a romance to the semout aid of history:

blance of reality, and wears even a “ The mountaineers of Bengal and soberer aspect than the excursions of Bahar,” says Sir William Jones, “can Alexander. hardly be distinguished from the modern The language of India bears only a Abyssinians, in some of their features; remote resemblance to the Coptic, or and the ancient Hindoos, according to Egyptian, Sanscrit being of the same Strabo, differed in nothing from the group with Persian and Greek, and the Africans but in the straightness of their language of Egypt with Arabic and Hehair.” We know that the hair of the brew; we have beside, the traditions of Egyptians was not like that of a negro; the Zendavesta, in which Indostan is but the hair of the Hindoos is very enumerated among the nations blessed straight; a difference easily anticipaed, by Ormuzd, and peopled by a race, of from the mixture of Asiatic with Egyp- which the Medes and Persians were a tian blood. The eastern Asiatics having branch. The language of conquerors, if uniformly straight hair. The natives they are few in number, must be blended of Sennaar, as is apparent from the with that of the conquered territory; shape of their skulls, had a feature excepting in words of religious signifi.

• Sir William Jones.--Asiat. Res. and Works.

The comparison is reserved for the subject of a future chapter.
Dr. Morton, in Gliddon's Lectures on Egypt.
Consult Heeren’s work on Ancient Commerce. (Translated.)


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cance, such as names of deities; and, Hindoos suffer that regular distinction accordingly, the names of several Hindoo and gradation of deities which is characdeities may be identified with those which teristic of Egyptian theology: the Hinhad the same meanings in Italy and doo wastes his enthusiasm in ecstatic Egypt; and it is only in the caste of contemplation, and the repetition of forHindoo soldiers that a physical resem- mulas; the Egyptian exhausted his in blance can be traced to the Egyp- splendid ceremonies, processions, gifts, tians, who are pictured on the Theban the founding of prodigious tombs and tombs: these represent a race rather temples, and in every kind of supersti. agile tban stout, excellent at the bow, tious action. The Egyptians seem to and in the chariot; with persons beau- have been a more intelligent and less tifully formed, docile, complacent, and imaginative people than the Hindoos, and active, and something under the full greatly superior to them in courage and height; a description which applies character: for that panic of Alexander's equally to the soldiers of Sesostris or the army, which checked their approach to modern Rajepoots of Agimere. It would Delhi, does not prove that the Hindoos be easy, on the other hand, to show de- of ancient times were in any respect cided differences, between the modern superior to their descendants ; nor were Brahmin and his ancient counterpart in they ever a conquering nation : but the Egypt; for the Egyptian priesthood Egyptians indulged a military spirit, and never acquired that ascendency over the for many centuries, until the time of military order which the Brahmins gained Nebuchadnezzar, were the most powerful even centuries ago; nor would any pa- people of the Mediterranean : they colorallel hold between the Copts of modern nized and civilized Greece, north Africa, Egypt and the Hindoos. It is, then, parts of Asia Minor, and perhaps Italy; sufficient, if we admit a mixture only of besides that they were the inventors of Egyptian, or of Ethiopian, blood, with every civil and military art, even of the aboriginal Indian, and suppose that navigation ; unless that honor be given only the military and priestly orders, in to the Phænicians of Tyrus and Aradus. Hindostan, were established by the colo. The houses of India are built after nies of Sesostris. Allowing a still larger the ancient Egyptian fashion, and a mul. liberty of conjecture, it might be surmised, titude of superstitions are entertained that when the Egyptians (2000 B. C.) there—such as putting gold in the mouth were driven by the shepherds of Canaan, of a corpse, worshipping the water-lily, into the narrow region of Ethiopia, where offering monthly gifts to the manes of they were received and entertained by ancestors, which can have come only their allies, the Ethiopians, and remained from the Egyptians: add to this the with them for more than two centuries, sacredness of rivers in India, originating while the shepherd kings ruled over the in the sense of their fertilizing influence, artisans and laborers of Egypt, a portion which is a superstition purely Egyptian, of this overflow, pent in Sennaar, and for the Ganges overflows, only, but does the narrow vales of Abyssinia, would not fertilize like the Nile. naturally seek liberty in emigration ; a Religion, in India, inclines also to the common event in those ages, when whole worship of human gods and heroes; but nations were removed from their ancient the earlier Egyptians excluded hero wor. seats, either by the will of conquerors, ship, and denied that any of their gods for the sake of populating new regions had ever worn a human shape. The or cities, or, upon the pressure of other Hindoo heaven is the court of a soveraces, forcing them to give room. It reign king, and the orders of their gods may be, that, at this time, India received are like the orders of their priests, asher first colony from Ethiopia.

cending by ranks from menials to sages but there is internal evidence, that the and Sanyassis; and they assume even, religion of India took only its form, from an uninterrupted succession of ranks, that of the Egyptians, but differed in its from the meanest slave to the Brahmin, original spirit: for the superstition of the sage, hero, demi-god, ærial spirit, deity, Nile degenerated into animal worship, Brahma himself; and the Zendavesta of that of India into a worship of idols, of Zeratusht, in the same spirit, pictures a the elements, and of the heavenly bodies; heaven the exact counterpart of the Pernor did the less scientific mind of the sian court. But the Egyptian theogony

• Heeren's Persia. Trans.


more refined, personifies the faculties their sacred writings, describe the actions of Reason, Understanding, Memory, of kings and heroes, who ruled over InAffection, the Passions and the Ideas dia before the era of Yoodhisthiru; but of the Universe, Ether, the Spaces, the these were the fabulous children of the Spheres, Earth, Life; enfolding a very sun and moon, and their history is acperfect psychology, and the purest sci- counted false by the Hindoos themselves. ence of their day, in a system which Passing over the events of these mythical began with the identity of God with his ages—such as the achievements of Ram, work, and ended in personifying every who, with an army of apes led on by a least species of existence. It is ex- prince of the winds, conquered all Hintremely remarkable, that there is no clear dostan, and threw a bridge of rocks over instance of the worship of a human being the sea to connect Ceylon with the conby any whole people of the Shemetic tinent; or the amorous adventures of race; but, on the contrary, India, Persia, Crishna, whose loves and atrocities are Thibet, Greece, Rome, and most of the related in the Bhagavat, the story book Japetian, or Indo-Teutonic family have of devout Hindoos—the authentic chromade prayers and sacrifices, to saints and nicle of India begins with the name of heroes a material part of their religion, Yoodhisthiru, who probably ascended and, in heathen ages, have exalted hu- the throne about 1500 B. Ć. and may man beings to the office of protecting have been one of the generals of Sesosdeities, and have ascribed human vices tris. Thirty-one kings of his race sucto the divine Idea. The Persians, even, ceeded each other on the throne of Delhi, though they entertained the purest form and their joint reigns cannot have much of heathenism, and abhorred the worship exceeded 700 years. The monarchs of of idols, seem to have venerated their this dynasty ruled over a part only of king as the visible symbol of Ormuzd; northern Hindostan. and Ormuzd himself is no more, in the The whole sacred region named Me. Zendavesta, than the human principle of diami, or the Midst of the World, which goodness, opposed in eternal war to the included all that part of Asia which lies power of evil. The Hindoos, as in their south of the Himmaleh, is said to hare language, so in their religion, may cer- been the portion of Bharat, one of the tainly be taken for the type and extreme nine brothers who originally divided the representatives of this tendency; for with world among themselves: nine being them a whole class (the Brahminical) is esteemed the most sacred of numbers, sacred and an object of worship; and their may signify, in this connection, the numimagination subdues and swallows up ber of the dominant or royal virtues. their character; a defect the extreme op- Mediami, named by the Greeks India, posite to that of the Hebrews, whose ev- and by the Persians Sindoostan, the terery word has a purely moral significance; ritory beyond Sind or the Indus, is diand their fancy is made utterly subser- vided by the Chronicler into nine regions, vient to the diviner emotions.

one for each cardinal point, four for the In the total absence of historical testi. intermediate parts, and one for the center; mony, these evidences have been collectbut this division includes Chin India, and ed, with a view to some reasonable a part beyond the mountains. In the conjecture concerning the origin of the middle province, he places Benares the Hindoos; and they seem enough not only most sacred of cities, time out of mind to separate them, as a nation, from the the seat of Sanscrit learning, and equal family of Shem, but to make them the in celebrity to On, or Heliopolis, of type of that of Japhet; admitting, how- whose college Moses is said to have ever, the mixture of Ethiopian blood, been a priest. Ceylon, the ancient Lanwith that of a nation descended from the ka, called by the Greeks Silan or Taproancestors of the Persians and Bactrians, bane, is counted among the provinces and the adoption by the mixed race of a . of the south. Kalinga in Golconda, theology and superstition, Egyptian in is a province of an intermediate region ; its form, but Indian in its spirit; begun Mahratta, Nipal, and even China, are in the worship of elements, and ending named as portions severally of intermein the adoration of living persons.

diate and northern divisions; as though THE HINDOO CHRONICLE.

China were originally civilized from Hin

dostan--a probable inference when it is The Puranas, or books of Mythical known that civilization began in the history, reckoned by the Hindoos among western provinces of the Chinese empire,


and that the ancient religion of the Chi- fifteen kings, were of the sect of Buddha, nese resembles, in many particulars, that and the fourth dynasty, which included of the Hindoos, and that even Buddhism, ten kings, was terminated by an usurper; the great heresy of India, prevails very to whom succeeded Vicramaditya, about commonly among the Chinese.

the year 56, B. C. His descendants ruled The dynasty of Yoodhisthiru were all in Delhi until the beginning of the Chastrias, or Ketris, of the pure blood; twelfth century, when the Hindoo kingbeing of the military caste, undebased dom of Delhi, harassed and diminished by mixture with the inferior orders; in by a series of Moslem invasions, ceased other words, the conquering people whom finally to exist; but in other parts of we have supposed to be Ethiopians, or India, other dynasties of the ancient race Egyptian nobles left in India by Sesos. remained undisturbed in their possestris, maintained the purity of their blood sions; some, even to this day, though for thirty-one generations. The dynasty their power has become merely nominal. which succeeded were of a less noble Yoodhisthiru is fabled to have reigned extraction, being the race of Nanda, who 112 years in all, his reign being divided sprang from the marriage of a shodra, or by an usurpation into two periods of 76 servile woman, with a noble of the pure and 36, with an interval of thirteen blood. From the fourteen kings of this years. dynasty, the Rajepoots are descended. The Chronicle relates that Pareekshita, These are warlike tribes inhabiting the who succeeded Yoodhisthiru in the first mountainous and desert parts of central dynasty (1375 B. C.), was killed under Hindostan. The Rajepoots and Rohillas, the curse of Brahma, by a serpent. His throughout all India, though degenerate, successor, Janama Jaya, attempted to remain to this day superior in stature perform a grand sacrifice of serpents, to and beauty of person to Hindoos of a avenge the death of his father; but the meaner caste; Rayas (the native kings king of the serpents fled to Indra, (the and magistrates) are always of the Chas- Jove, or Diespiter of Indian Mythology) tria blood, but all functions that require and the sacrifice was impeded by the intelligence, rather than strength or cour- prayers of a Brahmin, nephew to the age, are assumed by the members of the king of the serpents. Whereupon, Japriestly or sacred caste; as was the usage nama Saya performed the Aswamada, or in Egypt in the time of the Pharaohs, grand sacrifice of the horse, by which and even before the institution of mon- monarchs obtain the hope of universal archy in that nation. Occupations being empire ; (for, according to the Vedas, esteemed less liberal, as they require a every sacrifice has a particular and prolaborious use of the limbs without exer- per value attached to it, and within its cise of the intellect or genius, those are proper limits is infallible.) While the regarded as the noblest which task only king was engaged in this ceremony, and the qualities of mind and character, and had already severed the head of the vicfor that reason the function of authority tim from its body, Indra, the god of which is to enforce obedience by the Ether, passed into the head, and caused mere majesty of character, is felt to be it to perform ludicrous movements; a the noblest of all; but next in order to young Brahmin, observing that the head the ruler caine, anciently, the counsellor leaped about, laughed irreverently : and the judge, to whom, also, character and the king, greatly enraged, slew him gave their worth, but in a manner mixed upon the spot. and overcharged with the feelings and This fable seems not devoid of meansentiments of humanity; since the coun- ing; for the snakes may signify a sect of sellor represented only the desire and native priests; and the Hindoo Shastras, aspiration of the race, their honor and or sacred books, class the snakes in the dishonor, hope and fear, hate and affec- order of Brahmins. The king, exercising tion ; while in the judge, as at our day, severity against them, because of his faall men looked for a spirit of universal ther's death, is prevented by Indra, the humanity, tempered by veneration for god of storms, in whose territory (the the law and custom of his nation; but mountains), the king had taken refuge; the Ruler, whether chosen by a popular and to this day the flanks of the Himmavote, or exercising power by hereditary laya are the refuge of warlike tribes who right, stood for the visible authority and acknowledge no subjection to the rajas power of his people.

of the Ganges. The third dynasty, which included The king, it is related, in expiation for

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the murder of the young Brahmin, caused originating in a disease, or defect of the the interminable epic called Mahabarata, intellect, which causes it to fail in discoto be read aloud to him, and having vering the harmony and oneness of all heard it patiently, died soon after: an things and all events. The origin of instance among the few others in history, this sect is related in the following myth. of the death ensuing upon the endurance Indra, the king of Ether (Contempla

a great deal of bad verse. The Ma- tion), went in company with Virochana, habarata relates the adventures and mira. a royal demigod, to the presence of cles of heroes and incarnate deities, and Brahma, (the Supreme Reason), f and inis a mixed mass of mysticism, mythology quired of him concerning the nature of and romance, but must have been com. mind and body. Brahma, absorbed in posed long after the time of Jamana Jaya, meditation, with closed eyes, returned for it contains his history. Epic narra- no answer, but laid his hand upon his tives were written in the Egyptian lan- breast. A basin of water stood before guage, and were probably the germ from him. The king and Indra at that mowhich Indian epic poetry was afterward ment saw his image in the water, and developed ; nor is it unlikely that at this were satisfied with the omen, but conperiod the letters and numbers invented ceived different ideas from it. Indra, in Egypt, were imparted to the native that Brahma signified by his shadow, the priests of India by their Egyptian conquer- instability, and unreality, of the visible ors:* but a people who have no true world ; that the world and the body are history, and seem willing to confound all but a shadow, but the soul a true esevents in mystery and fable, would easily sence, and that this is Brahma. But neglect the traditions of the origin of Virochana thought that Brahma intitheir institutions, substituting (as all mated the unreality of the spirit—that other nations have done except the He- the self conscious soul, rather, is but brews) a fabulous derivation from the a shadow, and this world the only true gods, or from the earth.

being. Thus it happened that ViroThe last king of this dynasty was slain chana adopted the Buddhist atheism, by his nobles, and was succeeded by Vish- which denies the spirit, and identifies arada, the thirty-second in order from God with matter : but Indra, the Brahmi. Yood histhiru. This king was of the im- nical faith, which resolves all things pure race of Nanda, a celebrated warrior into God. who ruled in Magada, in east Hindostan. The last king of this family, was mur. The last monarch of the house of Nanda dered by his minister, who usurped gave himself up to the influence of intoxi- the throne, and began a new dynasty. cating drugs, and fell by the hands of bis His name was Mayoora. Nine kings of minister, Veeravahoo, who was a Budd- the race of the usurper reigned in Delhi. hist. Under this king and his successors, The Brahmins recovered their importance for fifteen generations, the sect of Buddha upon the accession of Mayoora, and became powerful in Hindostan, to that their Buddhist antagonists were perdegree that the ancient religion fell into secuted and driven out of Hindostan. neglect and disrepute. “The Buddhists The last king of this dynasty was deny the truth of every thing invisible,” succeeded by Shakaditya, a chief from (being what are now named Materialists,) the mountains of Kemaon, who slew and affirm that no evidence can be trusted the reigning monarch and usurped his except that of the external senses. “They throne. Shakaditya reigned in Delhi deny the existence of a Creator, declaring fourteen years. Vicramaditya was now that all things arose by chance, and king in Malwa; and hearing of the cruel. cease by chance; that there is no future ties of the usurper, came upon Delhi state, either of reward or punishment; with an army, and slaying Shakaditya, that as the trees in an inaccessible forest possessed the kingdom. grow without a planter, and die without Vicramaditya reigned eighty years in a destroyer, so the world springs up and Delhi, if the chronicle speaks truth, and dies, as a matter of course;" a doctrine excelled all his predecessors in power,

* Consult Gliddon's Lectures on Egypt, pp. 29, 30, 31, et seq. Also Wilkinson on the Poetry of the Egyptians.

† Brahma seems to be the Supreme Reason, and Originator, corresponding with the Egyptian Phtha ; but Vishnu corresponds both with Amun, the Divine Form or Idea, and in others with Osiris, the Divine Goodness

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