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FOREIGN MISCELLANY.

πολλών δ' ανθρώπων δεν άστία, και νόον έγιω “ He beheld the cities of many nations, and became acquainted with the opinions of

men."--ODYSSEY.

There is nothing in which the contrast between our age and the remotest times is more apparent, than in the manner and the means of conveying from country to country a knowledge of the thoughts and customs, the character and the deeds, of distant and various nations. To the most enlightened communities of antiquity, individual travel. lers were the only communicators of foreign tidings. People were forced to be content, when some chance wanderer could recount his wonderful adventures, and impart a little knowledge of other lands and strange races of men. Now, in simple fact, “ the ends of the earth are brought together,” and the garrulous knowledge of Herodotus, delighting Olympic crowds with Eastern marvels, and the wisdom of Ulysses, gathered by long wandering acquaintance with“ many cities, and the minds of many men,” is brought every day to our doors, and may be perused in solitary chambers. But the amount of intelligence now crowded upon us is exceedingly miscellaneous. Selection is necessary, or a multitude of items destroy distinct impressions. We should not attempt such a task, however, were there not several distinct fields, of which a most important onethe movements of the world in literature and art—is greatly neglected by the daily press. To this, then, after some hesitation, we have concluded to bestow careful attention. Whatever of political or social matters may be of peculiar interest, or furnish ground for remark, will also be added. Little of value can be given at present, as our arrangements will not be completed for some months.

The packets of the last month have Even in Germany, the land of deepest abbrought little of stirring interest, either to solutism, news of the result of the election, the scholar or to the politician. We may gave rise to much comment. The treaty of gather, however, one gratifying fact to us the Zollverein, to which the commercial as a people—that we are rapidly growing to classes had looked with much anxiety, the a wide importance in the eyes of Europe, deep interest in all that relates to our antinot only for commerce and unwearied en- quarian remains, the history of the present terprise, but for statesmanship, command Indian race and the traditions of the people ing political eminence, and an enviable who have preceded them, and the almost stand for art and knowledge among enlight. idolatry of our political institutions by ened nations. The Parisian press com- young Germany, made this election one of mented at large upon the result of the last great interest even there. But the press election, and were hailing it with regret or of Germany is, in all that relates to politics, joy, as they chanced to espouse the princi- gagged, and dares to say less than the peoples of free trade or a restricted commerce ple feel. From Italy and Spain, no voice with us. Doctrinaire Legitimiste, Raili- has been heard. The one cowering beneath cus, and the partisans of La Jeune France, the burden foreign usurpation, the other each had something to say of America and torn to the centre by domestic convul. the Americans, and attempted to philoso- sions—they also have thoughts and wishes phize upon, what seem to Europeans, the which they dare not speak. They can afincomprehensible motives of our nation. ford to look at little beyond their individual The result of their comments has been, safety. ... The Diplomatic Policy of the that those interested in sustaining the pe- United States has excited much comment culiar doctrines of the administration of and approval in Europe, especially our skill Mr Van Buren consider their cause as at commercial arrangements. The Presiwon, while the other party build their dent's Message, however, has been unsparhopes of the continuation of the Tariff, ingly criticised; and Mr. Calhoun's desupon the majority of Whig Senators, with patches to Mr. King, weak, foolish, and an equal certainty. The Journals of London uncalled for, as regards their chief points, were very diffuse upon this subject, and have been severely and justly condemned. exhibited inuch chagrin at the defeat of The English papers give us but little liteMr. Clay. Looking upon his election as rary intelligence.

Nothing appears to certain, they had esteemed the Tyler and occupy the public mind so fully as the PuTexas war-cry as the merest sound. They seyite controversy and the strange state of now look around with as much dismay as affairs it has created in many diosceses. as the magician of old may be supposed to What will come of this condition of things it have done at the devil raised by his disciple is difficult to say. Though undermining the who had opened a necromancer's scroll and very foundation of the English church, we read, by hazard, a spell for Dagon.

see no remedy for it. The leaders of this

schism, have appealed to the popular opin- vantages—having no academy, as the Eng: ion for support, and the cause must be de- lish and French have. Greenough is still cided before that court of high judicature. at Rome. But Genoa seems to be now the If the views of the Oxford divines be im- great point of re-union of American artists peached, their answer is an appeal to the in Europe. Huntingdon, of this city, is rubric, the constitutions of the church. there with his family, and Morse and Che

In France but little seems stirring in ney of Boston. Crawford, it seems, is acLiterary circles. Sue throws off weekly an knowledged to be the best worker in Basso instalment of the Wandering Jew, which Relievo in Italy, and Cole is said to paint is bought up, but does not, happily, excite landscape without a superior. Cheney's the anxiety elicited by the publication of heads, in Crayon, attract everywhere in the “ Mysteries.” Some persons venture to that country the closest attention. The say that it is stupid, but in whispered tones, great number of Americans studying there. for he now is recognized as the novelist of and the frequent arrivals of our men-ofFrance, leaving d'Arlincourt, and all the war, serve to attract an unusual attention

Romanticists, George Sand and De Balzac to our country. • far behind him in the public estimation. At a recent session of the states of Den

The Constitutionel says, that it has made mark, it was proposed to abolish slavery in arrangements with him for the publication the Danish colonies. It was decided to of a new Romance, whose title is to be the send out a commission, to make inquirics “ Seven Mortal Sins," in addition to relative to the doing away with this instituthe completion of the “Wandering Jew.” tion. The New Work will be completed during On the 11th of November, a commemo. the year 1845. La Democratic Pacifique ration of Shiller took place at the Hotel de openly claims the Novelist as a partisan of la Pologne of Leipsic, which was honored Fourier. In the publications of this cha. by the presence of the most distinguished racter, and the shorter historiettes with men of Germany. Speeches and toasts which the Parisian Journals are filled, is to were made and drunk as with us, and the be found the true reflection of the present greatest enthusiasm prevailed. The literary character of the French people. chief point, however, of literary interest to The first talent of the land occupies itself us, is the announcement that the great in throwing off these stories, whose subject publishing houses of Germany are about to is various as the character of the nation establish a depot in Philadelphia, for the now drawn from the old romantic periods of increased circulation of their literaturehistory-now the age of Louis XIV, and the as there are great numbers of German citirevolution, or the pretty conte de societe. zens in this country, and the study of the Dumas, De Balzac, Marie Acord, George language is rapidly increasing among us. Sand, and hosts of others, contribute to this The chief point of interest for Europe is miniature literature, not the refuse of their the announcement in the continental papers portfolios, but the products of the best en- that the King of Prussia has forwarded to ergies of their minds. Poetry we rarely the different governments of Europe an hear of. De La Martine is become a poli- expression of his intention to give a constitician, and writes nothing, or if he does, it tution to his country. The bases are is not published, and the Schools of Eclecti- already determined upon. cism, where Cousin uttered his eloquent In Spain, the two parties are amusing lectures to such large audiences, are now themselves with shooting their prisoners. silent. The bellicose disposition of the The race, both in Europe and America, French people, thoroughly excited by the appears to have an unconquerable liking recent escapade at Morocco, seems to have for military executions, bull-fights, and absorbed, entirely, the attention of the such like divertisements.

Lizt, public. Thiers, however, still pursues his the pianist, has been at Madrid, and series of great historical works, elaborating been received with the greatest distincthe united wisdom of the scholar and the tion by the Queen mother. He has been statesman. ... In the last number of the presented with the cross of Carlos III. Revue de Paris it is stated that the Prison Why a musician should receive an order discipline introduced by De Tocqueville of merit, is readily conceived; but to make from our own country, and in France called one a knight of an ancient chivalric order, The Humanity System,” has been found pertakes of the awkward innovations that not to work well. The Review says that are stealing in upon all the feudal insti. thanks are due to the present minister for tutions of Europe. Some years since, not having extended it farther.

there was a brief gleam of a literary Rome is, as usual, filled with painters and revival in Spain, but it has been overcast sculptors from every country in Christen- entirely. In a large file of Spanish papers, dom. Crowds of our own countrymen are we have been able to find not one item of said to be there, crowning native genius literary intelligence. with acquired laurels. As yet, however, Portuguese literature may be algebraiAmerican students labor under great disad- cally expressed, =- .

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The last sands of the present Congress cophantic, and to throw their votes and run low, and soon amid the deafening their influence into whichever political huzzas of the exulting, scheming, strug. scale the nod of the great dispenser of gling thousands who have assembled in patronage should dictate. Behind them Washington to dignify and grace by ranged a still larger class who were realtheir presence the Inauguration of the ly perplexed by the strange and sudden new President, it will noiselessly dis- transformation which had been wrought solve into its original nothingness. Un- since the death of Gen. Harrison-who deserving as it may be of a mausoleum, still hoped against hope that the acting or even a monument, it may not so clear- President might yet be reconciled to the ly be denied an epitaph. Public justice party which had deserved so much at demands that its history should be writ- his hands; or who, but meagerly acten-to that history these pages may quainted with the course of public afserve as a prelude and a contribution. fairs, imagined that he could not wantonly

The Twenty-Eighth Congress was and wickedly have courted all the obelected and constituted under auspices the loquy which his eccentric course had most unfavorable to an expression there. excited, and that some other cause than by of the calm judgment of the American his faithless and preposterous ambition people on their public concerns. The must lie at the bottom of the rupture recent defection of John Tyler had dealt which had occurred. A still more nu. incalculable injury to the Whig cause- merous body had been utterly soured injury which years were required to re- and disgusted by the sudden reverses pair. While the great mass of the more and sore disappointments of the eventful intelligent and patriotic citizens regarded year, 1841, and were indisposed to any his treachery with a profound abhorrence farther political action whatever. and detestation, there was a class, small Such were the aspects presented at but not insignificant in the balanced scale the opening of the elections at which of political ascendency, who, amid the Members of the House were to be chosen wreck and ruin of their party's and their for the Twenty-Eighth Congress. The country's hopes, could coldly calculate great mass of the Whigs, probably fivethe chances of personal advantage, and sixths of the whole number who shared indulge dreams of ambition and emolu. in the struggle of 1840, were as devoted ment based on the betrayal of their com- to their principles and as firm in their patriots and the overthrow of those support as in that memorable contest; principles which they had professed to but of the residue the great majority cherish as essential to the Nation's well- were confused, sullen, indifferent, or being. These early prepared to assume hopeless, and so inert; while an active the part of the King's friends,' played and scheming minority, unembarrassed in a not dissimilar crisis of English bis- by principles or scruples of any kind, tory by a faction equally sordid and sy- were marshaling their thin but agile

ranks in preparation to follow the ex- conservative and dignified body did not ecutive standard—the device, an office- assume to measure strength with its seeker couchant with arm extended and more numerous and popular coördinate porridge-dish right side up, held expect- branch, contenting itself with arresting ingly, beseechingly in the oily fingers)- the destructive measures originated in into the most exposed interspaces of the that assemblage. The Breakwater of adversary's line, and thence charge with the Constitution, it was no part of the desperate venom on the weakened de- Senate's duty to dash out upon the broad fences of their late brethren in arms. On ocean in search of mountain waves 10 the other side was ranged the ever active breast and shatter ; its high purpose was and formidable party which rallies under answered when it calmly rolled back the the profaned name of Democracy, having breakers which were hurled upon it in retained the exasperation and recovered reckless but impotent fury. How this from the depression of the rout of 1840, duty has been persormed ihe sequel will under the stimulus of the novel and san- indicate and history shall proudly record. guine hopes which recent events had in- Meantime, be it noted that in speaking spired and justified-its ready instinct generally of the Twenty-Eighth Congress sharpened by the prospect of a restora- we intend to refer to its numerical mation of the comfortable offices it had so jority--to its impelling not its resisting lately forfeited, and the gratifying prestige force to that which began and ended of ascendency which, after long posses- with its appointed two years. sion, it had so lately yielded. This party was now far stronger than if it had not The Session was opened with the been defeated in 1840 ; the Whigs pro- choice, as Speaker of the House, of a portionally weaker. Even victory af- Member* who had been returned by 33 forded little sunshine to the latter; for if majority, and whose seat was then conthey carried the next Congress, to what tested by his opponentt--a most excep. end was it carried ? Its measures were tionable proceeding, though in this insure to be met and crushed by the inex- stance its practical mischiefs were preorable Veto. In any event, the substan- cluded by a unanimous agreement, on tial power as well as the patronage of due investigation, that Mr. Jones was the government was sure to be against entitled to the seat. But this the House them; a barren prospect of responsibili. did not, could not foreknow, and there ties incurred without hope of correspond. was a fair presumption against it, from ing opportunities, and expectations ex- the closeness of the popular vote on a cited without a chance of satisfying heavy poll, and the fact that there are them, was all that victory held out to always many illegal votes taken in an the Whigs. Two-thirds of the States exciting contest under the suffrage-rehad been previously, or were simultane. stricting Constitution of Virginia. Supously, districted by their opponents so as pose the right had been with Mr. Boits, to secure to themselves an advantage or had been extremely doubtful, would equal at least to the twenty-three odd a Committee appointed by Mr. Jones, Members—in other words, on an equal composed in major part of his co-partidivision of the aggregate popular vote, sans and supporters, be expected to the Democrats' would carry at least weigh the evidence and apply the law one hundred and twenty-three Members with perfect impartiality- to sist the im. of the House to not more than one hund. mense mass of testimony presented, with red Whigs. Of course, there could be at a patient resolution to render equal and no time a rational doubt of the result; exact justice? At the very best, the and the election of a House wherein the decision of a Committee so constituted Whigs had, at its organization, less than could not be expected to carry with it seventy members to one hundred and forty the moral weight of a clearly impartial opponents, was very nearly what any judgment. This was admitted by Mr. safe calculator would have anticipated. Jones in his subsequent deference of the

The Senate, though weakened by the choice of the Committee on Elections to results of the popular elections of 1841-2, the House-a course imperatively dicwas still obedient to the more powerful tated by propriety, but which itself sugimpulse of 1840, and exhibited a moderate gests the awkwardness of the Speaker's but decided Whig majority. But this position. No man can properly be the

• Hon. John Winston Jones, of Chesterfield, Virginia.

| Hon. John M. Botts.

chosen presiding officer of a legislative and glaring instance of partisan abuse body at the same time that his right to of the license before accorded to the sev. sit in that body is seriously contested, eral States of choosing by general ticket, and he liable, at any day, to be declared by single districts, or by such a patchno member and his seat the rightful work blending of the two as had preproperty of another.

vailed in this State and in Pennsylvania.

The State of Alabama had chosen her The next important step taken by the Members of Congress by single districts, House was one of far greater moment- prior to the Presidential Election of of vital and enduring significance. It 1840. In that election Mr. Van Buren was a clear, naked, undeniable Nullifica- carried the State on the aggregate vote, tion of a law of the land by a simple but a majority for Gen. Harrison was resolution of one branch of the Federal given in three of the five Congressional Legislature. In earlier instances of Nul- districts. The Legislature met soon aflification it was deemed requisite that ter; the Members of the Twenty-Seventh the invalidity of a subsisting enactment Congress were to be chosen the followshould be determined and pronounced ing August. To deprive the Whigs of by a body at least equal in authority the local advantage which had fortuit(though not of commensurate jurisdic- ously accrued to them, (just such as their tion) with that to which it owed its opponents are now enjoying in the case existence. But here the House alone of Tennessee,) the Legislature repealed nullified a provision of law which had the Districting Act and directed that the been enacted by the Senate and House, five Members of Congress should be signed by the President, and duly in. chosen by a general ticket. They were scribed on the statute-book of the Union, chosen accordingly-all of the dominant to be heeded and obeyed by every loyal party-though such was the dissatisfaccitizen. For this disorganizing act, not tion of the people at this bare-faced pareven the poor excuse of a party necessity tisan juggle, that a decided popular macould be given. It was a simple de. jority at the same time directed a restorathronement of Law, to exalt a perverse tion of the district system. But the end and disloyal Will-a prostration of eter- of the manæuvre bad been gained; an nal Right at the footstool of temporary example had been set of changing the Power. Let the facts be duly set forth. mode of election from time to time in

On the twenty-seventh Congress de- accordance with the exigencies of the volved the duty of determining, under party having control of the Legislature, the census of 1840, the ratio of popula- and it was morally certain to be followed tion upon which Members of the five and retaliated, until each State should succeeding Congresses should be chosen, come in time to be newly districted, or and thereupon apportioning to each State have its district system changed to a its due number of Representatives. This general ticket, or vice versa, at every was done; and, by a second section of fluctuation in its politics. the Act of Apportionment, it was plainly But not alone to ward off occasional directed that each State should be divided or apprehended evils was the uniform into as many Congressional Districts, district system demanded. It was reeach of contiguous territoiy, as it was quired to obviate and correct existing and authorized to choose Members to the flagrant inequalities in the relative power House, each District being entitled and of the several States in the House. Let restricted to one Member. This provi- a single instance be considered : Version, which had been originally reported mont and New Hampshire, two States of by the Committee entrusted with the equal extent, population and representaframing of the Apportionment bill, had tive capacity, have for years stood been fully debated in each House, and opposed in politics by very decided duly passed by each. Its policy was majorities. Vermont is a Whig, State, based not only on the general and obvi. warmly attached to the Protective Policy; ous propriety of replacing incongruity New Hampshire is Loco-Foco, and ostenby congruity, multiformity by uniformity, sibly for Free Trade. Vermont, since and thus securing to the American peo- 1820, has chosen her members by single ple that equality of representation de. Districts ; New Hampshire hers by Gen. manded alike by the genius of our gov- eral Ticket

. Vermont, with five Repreernment and the obvious requirements sentatives under the census of 1830, had of our Constitution, but on an immediate sometimes two of the party decidedly a

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