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esset. Quod opus quam ar | duum sit nobis nunc cum maxime, quam vis nihil ultra quam | ut publice notae sint facultates nostrae, exquiratur, 4o nimis | magno experimento cognoscimus. |

38. quod opus, that of holding a census under any circumstances.

39. nobis, * to us Romans'; though it might be supposed that practice had made it easy to us.

nunc cum maxime, at this moment (see 3. 59, 4, and note).

quam vis, etc., i.e. although the census which Claudius was then holding (cp. I I. 25, 8) was not, like the Gallic, a basis of taxation, but a mere statistical survey.

41. cognoscimus: Claudius speaks here only of himself.

B O O K XII.
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS.

A. U. C. 802, A. D. 49. C. Pompeius, Q. Veranius, coss.

Ch. 5-9. Marriage of Claudius to Agrippina, and events connected with it.

5, 6. Vitellius induces the senate to legalise the marriage. 7. Marriage and poli-

tical influence of Agrippina. 8. Suicide of Silanus, and exile of Calvina. Seneca
recalled from exile, made praetor, and instructor of young L. Domitius. 9. Octavia
betrothed to Domitius.

A. U. C. 803, A. D. 50. C. Antistius Vetus, M. Suillius Nerullinus, coss.

Ch. 25, 26. Claudius persuaded by Pallas to adopt Domitius, who becomes Nero

Caesar. Agrippina receives the title of * Augusta ' : neglected condition of

Britannicus.

Ch. 27-30. Affairs in Germany.
27, 28. The capital of the Ubii made a colony and named after Agrippina. The
Chatti, who had made predatory attacks on Upper Germany, forced to submission
by P. Pomponius. 29, 80. Vannius, formerly made king of the Suevi by Drusus,
driven out by his subjects, takes refuge in Roman territory : his nephews
Vangio and Sido divide his dominion between them.

Ch. 81—40. Affairs in Britain.
81. P. Ostorius, the new legate, checks attacks on the friendly tribes, and quells
a rebellion of the Iceni. 82. The Decangi ravaged, the Brigantes repressed; a colony founded at Camulodunum. 88. The Silures resist under Caratacus, who transfers the seat of war to the Ordovices. 84, 85. Caratacus defeated in a great battle: his wife and daughter prisoners: his brothers submit. 36, 37. Caratacus given up to the Romans by Cartimandua, queen of the Brigantes: his arrival at Rome and reception there. 38, 89. Unsuccessful subsequent warfare against the Silures : death of Ostorius. 40. A. Didius, sent as legatus, drives back the Silures: a Roman legion assists Cartimandua against her former husband Venutius, who had attacked her and renounced the Roman alliance.

A. U. C. 804, A. D. 51. Ti. Claudius Caesar Aug. Germanicus V, Ser. Cornelius Orfitus, coss. Ch. 41—43. Affairs at Rome. 41. Nero assumes the toga virilis: various honours decreed to him : contrast between his position and that of Britannicus, whose attendants are replaced by creatures of Agrippina. 42. Afranius Burrus made praefect of the praetorians through Agrippina, who also protects Vitellius from an accusation. 48. Prodigies recordcd : famine in Rome, and popular discontent shown towards Claudius. Ch. 44—51. Affairs in the East. 44. Pharasmanes, king of the Hiberi, incites his son Radamistus to plot against Mithridates king of Armenia. 45—47. War between the two kingdoms : Radamistus, aided by a Roman praefect, takes Mithridates prisoner by treachery and puts him and his sons to death. 48. Quadratus, legatus of Syria, dissuaded by his advisers from taking a vigorous course. 49. Paelignus, procurator of Cappadocia, bribed by Radamistus to support him in seizing Armenia. 50, 51. Vologcses sets up his brother Tiridates as king of Armenia, and invades the country. Radamistus at length forced to fly : his wife Zenobia saved from death and taken captive. A. U. C. 805, A. D. 52. Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, L. Salvius Otho Titianus, coss. Ch. 52. Furius Camillus Scribonianus exiled : astrologers expelled from Italy. 53. Honours decreed to Pallas. 54. His brother Felix procurator of Judaea and Samaria. 55. Rebellion of the Clitae in Cilicia put down by king Antiochus. 56, 57. Ceremony of opening the tunnel made to drain lake Fucinus: Agrippina blames Narcissus for the failure of the work.

A. U. C. 806, A. D. 53. D. Iunius Silanus, Q. Haterius Antoninus, coss.

Ch. 58. Marriage of Nero to Octavia : his speeches for Ilium and Bononia : freedom given back to Rhodes. 59. Suicide of Statilius Taurus under a false charge got up by Agrippina. 60. Judicial authority of procurators established: contrast with previous enactments. 61. Immunity given to the people of Cos. 62, 63. Remission oftribute granted to the Byzantines.

A. U. C. 807, A. D. 54. M. Asinius Marcellus, M'Acilius Aviola, coss. Ch. 64-69. Agrippina resolves to kill Claudius.

64. Prodigies announced : Agrippina, conscious of her danger, causes the death of Domitia Lepida. 65. Narcissus boldly takes up the cause of Britannicus. 66, 67. He is obliged by illness to leave Rome : Agrippina profits by his absence to poison Claudius by the help of Locusta and Xenophon. 68, 69. Oct. 18. The death of Claudius kept secret till all arrangements were made: Nero saluted as imperator by the soldiers and confirmed by the senate: funeral and deification of Claudius,

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CORNELII TACITI

ANNALIUM AB EXCESSU DIVI AUGUSTI

LIBER XII.

1. CAEDE Messalinae convulsa principis domus, orto apud libertos certamine, quis deligeret uxorem Claudio, caelibis vitae

2 intoleranti et coniugum imperiis obnoxio.

nec minore ambitu

feminae exarserant: suam quaeque nobilitatem formam opes

3 contendere ac digna tanto matrimonio ostentare.

sed maxime 5

ambigebatur inter Lolliam Paulinam M. Lollii consularis et Iuliam Agrippinam Germanico genitam : huic Pallas, illi Callistus

1. convulsa, ' was upset': cp. c. 65, 3 ; 4. 4o, 4, and note. Here it is explained by the division among the freedmen, who had hitherto held together. apud. Nipp. notes the use of this prep. here with the force of * inter,' and compares H. 5. 5, 2 (' apud ipsos fides obstinata'). So we have * dissensio,' * seditio apud aliquos ' (3. 39, 2 ; H. 2. 68, 1). 3. intoleranti. This correction of the Med. * intonanti ' is due to Muret. and Pichena. The word is used with genit. in 1. 31, 4; etc. ; also in Liv. 9. 18, 1 ; Io. 28, 4. Suet. states (Cl. 26) that Claudius, on the death of Messalina, solemnly announced that he would never marry again, but immediately began to seek another wife. He had contracted three marriages, besides two betrothals in early life : see Suet. l. l., Introd. i. ix. pp. 141, 149. obnoxio : cp. 1 1. 36, 1, and note. 5. contendere, * brings into comparison ' (with those of others). This sense is found in 4. 32, 1 ; 13. 3, 3; also in Cic., etc. The Med. text * contenderet . . . ostentaret ' might be retained with

the insertion of * cum ' (as by Weissenborn) or * quin ' (as by Ritter). 6. Lolliam Paulinam. Pliny, who describes as an eye-witness (N. H. 9. 35, 58, 1 16) the extraordinary magnificence of her jewels, states that she was granddaughter of the well-known M. Lollius (on whom see 3. 48, 3, and note): Suet. states that she had married C. Memmius, a consular in command of a* military province, whose name is generally taken to be an error for that of P. Memmius Regulus (on whom see 5. 1 1, I, and note), and that she had been taken from him by Gaius, who soon dismissed her (Suet. Cal. 25; Dio, 59. 12, 1). On her subsequent history see c. 22. M. Lollii consularis, sc. * filiam.' Tacitus, who elsewhere uses analogous ellipses (see Introd. i. v. § 8o), appears here alone to use this particular one ; of which, however, there are several instances in other authors (see Nipp. here) and in inscriptions. The younger Lollius, who may be the person addressed in Hor. Ep. 1. 2 and 18, or his brother (see Ep. I. 18, 63), is not known to have ever been consul ; for which reason, added to that of

fautores aderant; at Aelia Paetina e familia Tuberonum Narcisso fovebatur. ipse huc modo, modo illuc, ut quemque suadentium 4 audierat, promptus, discordantes in consilium vocat ac promere sententiam et adicere rationes iubet. § 2. Narcissus vetus matrimonium, filiam communem (nam 1 Antonia ex Paetina erat), nihil in penatibus eius novum disserebat, si sueta coniunx rediret, haudquaquam novercalibus odiis visura Britannicum, Octaviam, proxima suis pignora. Callistus inpro- 2 batam longo discidio, ac si rursum adsumeretur, eo ipso superbam ; 1o longeque rectius Lolliam induci, quando nullos liberos genuisset, vacuam aemulatione et privignis parentis loco futuram. at Pallas 8 id maxime in Agrippina laudare, quod Germanici nepotem secum traheret, dignum prorsus imperatoria fortuna : stirpem nobilem

the harshness of the ellipse, Ritt. inserts * neptem' after * consularis,' and Madvig (Adv. iii. 23o) thinks that * genitam ' should govern both clauses and that * M. Lollio, filio ' had dropped out before * M. Lollii.'

1. Aelia Paetina, whom he had already married (Suet. Cl. 26), and divorced after the birth of Antonia (c. 2, 1). Her father was a consular (Suet. 1. 1.), perhaps a son of the jurist Q. Aelius Tubero.

Narcisso. On this dative see Introd. i. v. § 18.

2. modo, modo, repeated in similar position in Sall. Jug. 45, 2. This arrangement of antithetical words (Chiasmus) is noted as not common in Tacitus: cp. * hostibus terror, fiducia militi' (1. 63, 4); * socors domi, bellis infaustus' (c. 1o, 2), and other instances in Dräger, Synt. und Stil, § 235.

3. promptus, * inclined': cp. 4. 6o, 5, and note. 5. filiam communem : * com

munes liberi' (1 1. 34, 4). Halm follows
Muret. in thus correcting the Med. * fami-
liam,' and notes the apparent similar
error in 16. 26, 4. Most others retain
the Med. text, which might be defended
by supposing that * familiam ' is used
rhetorically of a single child, or that
Antonia may herself have had children.
On her marriages and subsequent history
see Introd. i. ix. p. I5o.
6. nihil... novum. It seems best to
take this, with Nipp., not as an ellipse of
* esse ' or * fore,' but as a simple accus.
after * disserebat,' answering to * vetus
matrimonium,' etc. The construction

would be like that of * nihil occultum ' in
3. 9, 3 (where see note).
7. visura, * likely to look upon ' : cp.
* quid ut noverca me intueris' (Hor. Epod.
5, 9). M. Seneca (who appears to be the
rst to use the adjective) has * novercalibus
oculis aliquem intueri' (Contr. 4. 6).
8. pignora. The use of this word
specially of children or relatives, as
pledges of love (cp. 15. 57, 3; 16. 26, 4;
G. 7, 4; Agr. 38, 1), appears to be
adopted from Livy (2. 1, 5) and Augustan
poets (e. g. Prop. 4 (5), 1 I, 72 ; Ov. Met.
I 1, 543). - - -
inprobatam, * was disqualified.' The
word is not found elsewhere in Taci-
tus, unless it be inserted (with Andresen)
in Dial. 14, 4.
9. discidio: cp. 1 1. 3o, 5, etc.
1o. quando, etc., giving the reason for
the following words (* vacuam,' etc.): for
the use of * privignis' see note on 1 1.
38, 3.
12. Germanici nepotem, young L.
Domitius (Nero): cp. 1 1. 1 1, 5
13. dignum, etc., “ fully worthy of im-
perial position ' (cp. 1 1. 13, 5). As it
would hardly be politic to speak of him
as a possible successor, we must suppose
it to be meant that he was worthy to be
introduced, by his mother's marriage, into
the emperor's house. For a different
punctuation and interpretation of the
clause see next note.
stirpem nobilem, etc., * let him unite
to himself a noble race, the posterity
of the Iulii and the Claudii.' * Et . . .
posteros' may be taken as explanatory of
* stirpem nobilem,' and can be satisfactorily

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