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and the remainder at 25 dollars per ton. Did I gain or lose, and how much?

Ans. 3 dollars, loss. 38. John Smith bought 28 yards of broadcloth at 5 dollars per yard; and having lost 10 yards, he sold the remainder at 9 dollars per yard. Did he gain or lose, and how much?

Ans. 22 dollars, gain. 39. Which is of the greater value, 386 acres of land at 76 dollars per acre, or 968 hogsheads of molasses at 25 dollars per hogshead?

Ans. The land, by 5136 dollars. 40. Bought of J. Low 37 tons of hay at 18 dollars per ton. I paid him 75 dollars, and 12 yards of broadcloth at 4 dollars per yard. How much remains due to Low?

Ans. 543 dollars. 41. A purchased of B 40 cords of wood at 5 dollars per cord, 9 tons of hay at 17 dollars per ton, 19 grindstones at 2 dollars apiece, 37 yards of broadcloth at 4 dollars per yard, and 16 barrels of flour at 6 dollars per barrel ; what is the amount of A's bill?

Ans. 635 dollars. 42. John Smith, Jr., bought of R. S. Davis 18 dozen of National Arithmetics at 6 dollars per dozen, 23 dozen of Mental Arithmetics at 1 dollar per dozen, 17 dozen Family Bibles at 3 dollars per copy; what is the amount of the bill?

Ans. 743 dollars. 43. R. Hasseltine sold to John James 169 tons of timber at 7 dollars per ton, 116 cords of oak wood at 6 dollars per cord, and 37 cords of maple wood at 5 dollars per cord ; James has paid Hasseltine 144 dollars in cash, and 23 yards of cloth at 4 dollars per yard; what remains due to Hasseltine?

Ans. 1828 dollars. 44. J. Frost owes me on account 375 dollars, and he has paid me 6 cords of wood at 5 dollars per cord, 15 tons of hay at 12 dollars per ton, and 32 bushels of rye at 1 dollar per bushel. How much remains due to me? Ans. 133 dollars.

45. Gave 169 dollars for a chaise, 87 dollars for a harness, and 176 dollars for a horse. I sold the chaise for 187 dollars, the harness for 107 dollars, and the horse for 165 dollars. What sum have I gained ?

Ans. 27 dollars. 46. Bought a farm of J. C. Bradbury for 1728 dollars, for which I paid him 75 barrels of flour at 6 dollars per barrel, 9 cords of wood at 5 dollars a cord, 17 tons of hay at 25 dollars a ton, 40 bushels of wheat at 2 dollars a bushel, and 65 bushels of beans at 3 dollars a bushel; how many dollars remain due to Bradbury?

Ans. 533 dollars.

§ VIII. UNITED STATES MONEY.* Art. 66. UNITED STATES Money is the legal currency of the United States.

10 Millst make 1 Cent, marked c.
10 Cents
1 Dime,

10 Dimes

1 Dollar,
10 Dollars
1 Eagle,


Mills. Dimes.


10 1 10

100 Eazle. 1 10 100

1000 1 10






The denominations of United States money increase from right to left, and decrease from left to right, in the same ratio as simple numbers. They may therefore be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided according to the same rules.

In this work dollars are separated from cents by a period or dot, and cents from mills by a comma; thus, $16.25,3 is read, sixteen dollars, twenty-five cents, three mills.

Since cents occupy two places, the place of dimes and of cents, when the number of cents is less than 10, a cipher must be written before them in the place of dimes; thus .03, .07, &c.

* This was formerly, and is now frequently, called Federal Money, because, on the adoption of the Federal Constitution, it was made the currency of the Federal Union.

+ The word Mill is from the Latin word mille (one thousand); the word Cent from the Latin centum (one hundred); the word Dime from a French word signifying a tithe or tenth ; and the reason of these names, as applied to our coins, is found in the proportion which they respectively bear to the dollar.

The term Dollar is said to be derived from the Danish word Daler, and this from Dale, the name of a town where it was first coined.

No coin of the denomination of Mills has ever been struck at the mint; while, in addition to the pieces named in the foregoing table, half-dimes, the quarter and half dollars, and the quarter and half eagles, are in com

mon use.

QUESTIONS. — Art. 66. What is United States money? What is it frequently called ? Repeat the Table of United States Money. What are the denominations of United States money? How do they increase from right to left? How are they added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided ?

How are dollars, cents, and mills separated ? Why must a cipher be placed before cents, when the number is less than 10 ? Why are two places allowed for cents, while only one is allowed for mills ?

REDUCTION OF UNITED STATES MONEY. Art. 67. REDUCTION of United States Money is changing the units of one of its denominations to the units of another, either of a higher or lower denomination, without altering their value.

Art. 68. To reduce dollars to cents and mills.
Ex. 1. Reduce 25 dollars to cents and mills.

Ans. 2500 cents, 25000 mills.
25 dollars.

We first multiply the 25 dollars by 100

100 to reduce them to cents, because

100 cents make 1 dollar; and then 2 5 0 0 cents.

multiply the cents by 10 to reduce 10

them to mills, because 10 mills make

1 cent. 2 5 0 0 0 mills. Or thus, 2 5000 mills.

RULE. To reduce dollars to cents, annex two ciphers; and to reduce dollars to mills, annex THREE ciphers.

Art. 69. To reduce dollars and cents to cents, or dollars, cents, and mills to mills.

RULE. Remove the separating point, or points, between the dollars, cents, and mills, and give the name of the lowest denomination to the whole sum.

Art. 70. To reduce mills to cents, cents to dollars, and mills to dollars. Ex. 1. Reduce 25000 mills to cents and dollars.

Ans. 2500 cents, $ 25.


10) 25 000 mills. 100) 2500 cents.

25 dollars. Or thus, 2 510 00 mills.

We first divide the mills by 10 to reduce them to cents, because 10 mills make 1 cent; and then the cents by 100, to reduce them to dollars, because 100 cents make 1 dollar.

QUESTIONS. Art. 67. What is reduction of United States money? Art. 68. What is the rule for reducing dollars to cents and mills ? Give the reason for the rule. - Art. 69. How do you reduce dollars and cents to cents, or dollars, cents, and mills to mills ? What is the reason for this rule ?

RULE I. - To reduce mills to cents, point off ONE figure on the right; the figures on the left of the point will be cents, the figure on the right mills.

RULE II. To reduce cents to dollars, point off two figures on the right; the figures on the left of the point will be dollars, those on the right cents.

RULE III. To reduce mills to dollars, point off three figures on the right; the figures on the left of the point will be dollars; the first two on the right cents, and the third mills.


1. Reduce $ 125 to cents.
2. Reduce $ 345 to mills.
3. Reduce 297 mills to cents.
4. Reduce 2682 mills to dollars.
5. Reduce 4123 cents to dollars.
6. Reduce $ 156.29 to cents.
7. Reduce $ 16.42,8 to mills.
8. Reduce $9.87 to mills.

Ans. 12500 cents. Ans. 345000 mills. Ans. 29,7 cents.

Ans. $ 2.68,2.

Ans. $ 41.23. Ans. 15629 cents. Ans. 16428 mills. Ans. 9870 mills.


RULE. Write dollars under dollars, cents under cents, and mills under mills, and then proceed as in simple addition. The result will be the sum, in the lowest denomination added, which must be pointed off as in reduction of United States money. (Art. 70.)

Proof. — The proof is the same as in simple addition.



cts. m.

8. cts. m.
4 5.2 4,3
1 3.8 9,6
9 3.5 1,6

52.3 4,3 Ans. 20 4.9 9,8

75.6 4,3
1 6.89,7
43.8 1,6

58.3 1,3
19 4.6 6,9

$. cts. m.
1 6.7 0,5
14.0 0,3
18.7 1,9
14 6.4 3,6

8. cts.
14 7.86
78 9.58
49 6.37

2 3 4 5.1 5

QUESTIONS. — Art. 70. What is the rule for reducing mills to cents ? For reducing cents to dollars ? For reducing mills to dollars ? Give the reason for each of these rules. — Art. 71. How must the numbers be written down in addition of United States money? How added? Of what denomination is the sum ? How pointed off ? Repeat the rule.

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9. Bought a coat for $ 17.81, a vest for $ 3.75, a pair of pantaloons for $2.87, and a pair of boots for $7.18; what was the amount?

Ans. $ 31.61.. 10. Sold a load of wood for seven dollars six cents, five bushels of corn for four dollars seventy-five cents, and seven bushels of potatoes for two dollars six cents; what was received for the whole ?

Ans. $ 13.87. 11. Bought a barrel of four for $ 6.50, a box of sugar for $9.87, a ton of coal for $ 12.77, and a box of raisins for $ 2.50; what was paid for the various articles?

Ans. $ 31.64. 12. Paid $ 4.62 for a hat, $ 9.75 for a coat, $5.75 for a pair of boots, and $ 1.50 for an umbrella ; what was paid for the whole ?

Ans. $ 21.62. 13. A grocer sold a pound of tea for $0.62,5; 4 pounds of butter for $ 0.75; 4 dozen of lemons for $ 0.87,5 ; 9 pounds of sugar for $ 0.80; and 3 pounds of dates for $ 0.37,5. What was the amount of the bill ?

Ans. $ 3.42,5. 14. A student purchased a Latin grammar for $0.75, a Virgil for $ 3.75, a Greek lexicon for $ 4.75, a Homer for $ 1.25, an English dictionary for $3.75, and a Greek Testament for $0.75; what was the amount of the bill?

Ans. $ 15.00. 15. Bought of J. H. Carleton a China tea-set for ten dollars eighty-two cents, a dining set for nine dollars sixty-two cents five mills, a solar lamp for ten dollars fifty cents, a pair of vases for four dollars sixty-two cents five mills, and a set of silver spoons for twelve dollars seventy-five cents; what did the whole cost ?

Ans. $ 48.32.

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