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cents a pound, with which I wish to make a mixture of 180lb., that will be worth 45 cents a pound. How much of each kind must I take?

OPERATION.

25 Then, 60: 25:: 180: 75

5

60 5: 180: 15
60: 10: 180: 30
60 20: 180: 60

Proof, 180

45

25

35

50

70

20

Sum of differences, 60

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Ans.

By the conditions of the question, the weight of the mixture is 180lb.: but by the operation we find the sum of the differences to be only 60lb., which is but of the quantity required. Therefore, if we increase 60lb. to 180, each of the differences must be increased in the same proportion, in order to make a mixture of 180lb., the quantity required. Hence the

RULE. Find the differences as before; then say, as the sum of the differences is to each of the differences separately, so is the given quantity to the required quantity of each ingredient.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

2. John Smith's "great box" will hold 100 bushels. He has wheat worth $2.50 per bushel, and rye worth $2.00 per bushel. How much chaff of no value must he mix with the wheat and rye, that if he fill the box, a bushel of the mixture may be sold at $1.80 ?

Ans. 40 bushels of wheat and rye, and 20 bushels of chaff. 3. I have two kinds of molasses, which cost me 20 and 30 cents per gallon; I wish to fill a hogshead, that will hold 80 gallons, with these two kinds. How much of each kind must be taken, that I may sell a gallon of the mixture at 25 cents per gallon and make 10 per cent. on my purchase?

Ans. 58 of 20 cents, and 21 of 30 cents.

4. A lumber merchant has several qualities of boards; and it is required to ascertain how many, at $10 and $15 per thousand feet, each, shall be sold on an order for 60 thousand feet, that the price for both qualities shall be $12 per thousand feet. Ans. 36 thousand at $10, and 24 thousand at $15.

QUESTION.Art. 308. How do you find what quantity of each ingredient must be taken when the sum and mean price are given?

§ XLII. PERMUTATION.

ART. 309. PERMUTATION is the method of finding how many different changes or arrangements may be made of any given number of things.

ART. 310. To find the number of different arrangements that can be made of any given number of things.

Ex. 1. How many different numbers may be formed from the figures of the following number, 432, making use of three figures in each number? Ans. 6.

In the 1st operation, we have made all the different arrangements that can be made of the given figures, and find the number to be 6. In

1×2×3=6.

the second operation, the same result is obtained by simply multiplying together the first three of the digits, a number equal to the number of figures to be arranged. Hence the

FIRST OPERATION.

432, 423, 342, 324, 243, 234.

SECOND OPERATION.

RULE.-Multiply all the terms of the natural series of numbers, from 1 up to the given number, continually together, and the last product will be the answer required.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

2. My family consists of nine persons, and each person has his particular seat around my table. Now, if their situations were to be changed once each day, for how many days could they be seated in a different position?

Ans. 362880 days, or 994 years 70 days.

3. On a certain shelf in my library there are 12 books. If a person should remove them without noticing their order, what would be the probability of his replacing them in the same position they were at first? Ans. 1 to 479001600.

4. How many words can be made from the letters in the word " Embargo," provided that any arrangement of them may be used, and that all the letters shall be taken each time? Ans. 5040 words.

QUESTIONS.-Art. 309. What is permutation? - Art. 310. What is the rule for finding the number of arrangements that can be made of any given number of things?

§ XLIV. MENSURATION OF SURFACES.

ART. 311. A SURFACE is a magnitude, which has length and breadth without thickness.

The surface or superficial contents of a figure, are called its

area.

ART. 312. AN ANGLE is the inclination or opening of two lines, which meet in a point.

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A right angle is an angle formed by one line falling perpendicularly on another, and it contains 90 degrees.

THE TRIANGLE.

ART. 313. A TRIANGLE is a figure having three sides and three angles. It receives the particular names of an equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle, and scalene triangle.

It is also called a right angled triangle when it has one right angle; an acute angled triangle, when it has all its angles acute; and an obtuse angled triangle, when it has one obtuse angle.

An acute angle is an angle less than a right angle, or less than 90 degrees.

The base of a triangle, or other plane figure, is the lowest side, or that which is parallel to the horizon; as, C D.

An obtuse angle is an angle greater than a right angle, or more than 90 degrees.

The altitude of a triangle is a line drawn from one of its angles perpendicular to its opposite side or base; as, A B.

An equilateral triangle is a figure which has its three sides equal.

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QUESTIONS. Art. 311. What is a surface? What are the superficial contents of a figure called? - Art. 312 What is an angle? What is a right angle? An acute angle? An obtuse angle?- Art. 313. What is a triangle? What particular names does it receive? When is it called a right angled triangle? When an acute angled triangle? When an obtuse angled triangle? What is the base of a triangle? What the altitude? What is an equilateral triangle?

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An isosceles triangle is a figure which has two of its sides equal.

A scalene triangle is a figure which has its three sides unequal.

A right angled triangle is a figure having three sides and three angles, one of which is a right angle.

ART. 314. To find the area of a triangle.

RULE I.- Multiply the base by half the altitude, and the product will be the area. Or,

RULE II. Add the three sides together, take half that sum, and from this subtract each side separately; then multiply the half of the sum and these remainders together, and the square root of this product will be the area.

1. What are the contents of a triangle, whose base is 24 feet, and whose perpendicular height is 18 feet?

Ans. 216 feet.

2. What are the contents of a triangular piece of land, whose sides are 50 rods, 60 rods, and 70 rods?

Ans. 1469.69 rods.

THE QUADRILATERAL.

ART. 315. A QUADRILATERAL is a figure having four sides, and consequently, four angles. It comprehends the rectangle, square, rhombus, rhomboid, trapezium, and trapezoid.

ART. 316. A PARALLELOGRAM is any quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel. It takes the particular names of rectangle, square, rhombus, and rhomboid.

The altitude of a parallelogram is a perpendicular line drawn between its opposite sides; as C D in the rhomboid.

QUESTIONS.-What is an isosceles triangle? A scalene triangle? A right angled triangle?-Art. 314. What is the first rule for finding the area of a triangle? What the second?-Art. 315. What is a quadrilateral? What figures does it comprehend? -Art. 316. What is a parallelogram? What particular names does it take? What is the altitude of a parallelogram?

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area.

A rectangle is a right angled parallelogram, whose opposite sides are equal.

A square is a parallelogram, having four equal sides and four right angles

A rhomboid is an oblique angled parallelogram, whose opposite sides are equal.

A rhombus is an oblique angled parallelogram, having all its sides equal.

ART. 317. To find the area of a parallelogram.

RULE.

· Multiply the base by the altitude, and the product will be the

1. What are the contents of a board 25 feet long and 3 feet wide? Ans. 75 feet. square 2. What is the difference between the contents of two floors; one is 37 feet long and 27 feet wide, and the other is 40 feet long and 20 feet wide? Ans. 199 square feet. 3. The base of a rhombus is 15 feet, and its perpendicular height is 12 feet; what are its contents ?

Ans. 180 square feet.

ART. 318. A TRAPEZOID is a quadrilateral, which has only one pair of its opposite sides parallel.

ART. 319. To find the area of a trapezoid.

RULE.-Multiply half the sum of the parallel sides by the altitude, and the product is the area.

1. What is the area of a trapezoid, the longer parallel side

QUESTIONS. What is a rectangle? A square? A rhomboid? A rhombus?-Art. 317. What is the rule for finding the area of a parallelogram? Art. 318. What is a trapezoid?-Art. 319. What is the rule for finding the area of a trapezoid?

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