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13. How many cords of wood in a pile 56 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 5 feet 6 inches high?

Ans. 93 cords. 14. How many cords of wood in a pile 23 feet 8 inches long, 4 feet wide, and 3 feet 9 inches high?

Ans. 2125 cords. 15. How much wood in a pile 97 feet long, 3 feet 8 inches wide, and 7 feet high?

Ans. 19 cords 3%, feet. 16. If a pile of wood be 8 feet long, 3 feet 9 inches wide, how high must it be to contain one cord ? Ans. 44 feet.

17. I have a room 12 feet long, 11 feet wide, and 74 feet high; in it are 2 doors, 6 feet 6 inches high, and 30 inches wide, and the mop-boards are 8 inches high; there are 3 windows, 3 feet 6 inches wide, and 5 feet 6 inches high; how many square yards of paper will it require to cover the walls ?

Ans. 258 square yards.

§ XXXVIII. INVOLUTION. ART. 263. INVOLUTION is the method of finding any required power of any given number or quantity.

A power is a quantity produced by multiplying any given number, called a root, a certain number of times continually by itself.

The number denoting the power is called the index or exponent of the

power, and is a small figure placed at the right of the root. Thus, the second power of 6 is written 6?; the third power of 4 is written 4, and the fourth power of f is written (3) Abt. 264. To raise a number to any required power.

3= 3, the first power of 3, is written 3 or 3. 3 X3 = 9, the second power of 3, is written 3?. 3 X3 X3 27, the third power of 3, 3X3 X3 X3 81, the fourth power of 3,


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34. 3X3X3X3 X3=243, the fifth power of 3,


QUESTIONS. - Art. 263. What is Involution? What is a power? What is the number called that denotes the power? Where is it placed ? - Art. 264. To what is the index in each power equal ?

By examining the several powers of 3 in the examples given, we see that the index of each power is equal to the number of times 3 is used as a factor in the multiplications producing the power, and that the number of times the number is multiplied into itself is one less than the power denoted by the index. Hence the

Rule. — Multiply the given number continually by itself, till the number of multiplications is one less than the index of the power to be found, and the last product will be the power required.

Note 1. - A fraction may be raised to any power by this rule, by mul tiplying its terms continually together. Thus, the second power of is ? X=45

Note 2. - A mixed number may be either reduced to an improper fraction, or the fractional part reduced to a decimal, and then raised to the required power.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE. 1. What is the 2d power of 6 ?

Ans. 36. 2. What is the 3d power of 5 ?

Ans. 125. 3. What is the 6th power of 4?

Ans. 4096. 4. What is the 4th power of 3 ?

Ans. 81. 5. What is the 3d power of ?

Ans. km 6. What is the 4th

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of 7. What is the 5th power of 3} ?

Ans. 662493. 8. What is the 3d power of .25 ?

Ans. .015625. 9. What is the 1st power of 17 ?

Ans. 17. Art. 265. To raise a number to any required power without producing all the intermediate powers.

Ex. 1. What is the 8th power of 4? Ans. 65536.

Ans. 31:


4, 16, 64; 64 $64 $*6 = 65536. We first raise 4 to the 3d power, and write the exponents denoting each power directly above it. We then add the exponent 3 to itself, and increasing the sum by the exponent 2, obtain 8, a number equal to the power required. We next multiply 64, the power belonging to the exponent 3, into itself, and this product by 16, the power belonging to the exponent 2, and obtain 65536, for the 8th power. Hence the following

Rule. Raise the given number to any convenient power, and write the exponents denoting the respective powers directly above them. Then

QUESTIONS. What is the rule for raising a number to any required power ? How may a vulgar fraction be raised to a required power? How a mixed number?'

– Art. 265. What are the numbers placed over the several powers of 4 called, and what do they denote?

add together such exponents as will make a number equal to the required power, repeating any one when it is more convenient ; and the product of the powers belonging to these exponents will be the required answer.

Note. – When a power has been found, double that power may be ob tained by multiplying it into itself.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE. 2. What is the 7th power of 5?

Ans. 78125. 3. What is the 9th power of 6 ?

Ans. 10077696. 4. What is the 12th power of 7 ? Ans. 13841287201. 5. What is the 8th power of 8 ? Ans. 16777216. 6. What is the 20th

power of 4 ?

Ans. 1099511627776. 7. What is the 30th power of 3 ?

Ans. 205891132094649. 8. What is the 50th


of 2 ?

Ans. 1125899906842624.


§ XXXIX. EVOLUTION. Art. 266. EVOLUTION is the method of finding the root of a given power or number, and is therefore the reverse of Involution.

A root of any power is a number which, being multiplied into itself a certain number of times, produces the given power. Thus, 4 is the second or square root of 16, because 4 X 4

and 3 is the third or cube root of 27, because 3 X 3 X 3 27.

The root takes the name of the power of which it is the root. Thus, if the number is a second power, the root is called the second or square root; if it is a third power, the root is called the third or cube root; and, if it is a fourth power, its root is called the fourth or biquadrate root.

Those roots which can be exactly found are called rational roots; those which cannot be exactly found, but approximate towards the true root, are called surd roots.

QUESTIONS. - What is the rule for involving a number without producing all the intermediate powers ? — Art. 266. What is Evolution? What is a root? From what does the root take its name? What are rational roots'? What surd roots ?

Roots are denoted by writing the character ✓ before the power, with the index of the root over it, or by a fractional index or exponent. The third or cube root of 27 is expressed thus, 327 or 27t; and the second or square root of 25 is expressed thus, „25 or 254.

Note. — The index 2 over Ņ is usually omitted, when the square root is required. Thus, N 64 denotes the square root of 64.

EXTRACTION OF THE SQUARE ROOT. Art. 267. The Square Root is the root of any second power, and is so called because the square or second power of any number represents the contents of a square surface, of which the root is the length of one side.

Art. 268. To extract the square root of any number is to find a number which, being multiplied by itself, will produce the given number.

The following numbers in the upper line represent roots, and those in the lower line their second powers or squares.

Roots, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Squares, 14

1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 It will be observed that the second power or square of each of the numbers above contains twice as many figures as the root, or twice as many wanting one. Hence,

To ascertain the number of figures in the square root of any given number, it must be divided into periods, beginning al the right, each of which, excepting the last, must always contain two figures, and the number of periods will denote the number of figures of which the root will consist.

Ex. 1. I wish to arrange 625 tiles, each of which is 1 foot square, into a square pavement; what will be the length of one of the sides?

Ans. 25 feet. It is evident, if we extract the square root 625(25, Ans.

of 625, we shall obtain one side of the pave

ment, in feet. (Art. 267.) 4

Beginning at the right hand, we divide the 45)225

number into periods, by placing a point over 225

the right hand figure of each period; and

then find the greatest square number in the QUESTIONS. — How are roots denoted ? How is the third or cube root denoted ? How the second or square root? What is said of the index 2 ?

Art. 267. What is meant by the square root, and why is it so called ? Art. 268. What is meant by extracting the square root? How many more figures in the square of any number than in the root? How do you ascertain the number of figures in the square root of any number? Why do you point off the numbers into periods of two figures each? What is found by extract. ing the square root of the number in the question ?


20 feet.

20 feet.

left hand period, 6 (hundreds) to be 4 (hundreds), and that its root is 2, which we write in the quotient. As this 2 is in the place of tens, its value is 20, and represents the side of a square, the area or superficial contents of which are 400 square feet, as seen in Fig. 1.

We now subtract 400 feet from 625 feet, Fig. 1. and have 225 feet remaining, which must 20 feet.

be added on two sides of Fig. 1, in order that it may remain a square. We therefore

double the root 2 (tens) or 20, one side of D

the square, to obtain the length of the two

sides to be enlarged, making 40 feet; and 20 20

then inquire how many times 40, as a divi

sor, is contained in the dividend 225, and find 400

it to be 5 times. This 5 we write in the

quotient or root, and also on the right of the 20 feet.

divisor, and it represents the width of the

additions to the square, as seen in Fig. 2. The width of the additions being multiplied by 40, the length of: the two additions, makes 200 square feet, the contents of the two addiFig. 2.

tions E and F, which are 100 feet for each.

The space G now remains to be filled, to 25 feet.

complete the square, each side of which is E

5 feet, or equal to the width of E and F. If, therefore, we square 5, we have the contents of the last addition, G, equal to 25 square feet. It is on account of this last addition that the last figure of the root is placed in the divisor, for we thus obtain 45

feet for the length of all the additions made, 100

which, being multiplied by the width, (5ft.,)

the last figure in the root, the product, 225 25 feet.

square feet, will be the contents of the three additions E, F and G, and equal to the feet remaining after we had found the first square. Hence we obtain 25 feet for the length of one side of the pavement, since 25 x 25 = 625, the number of tiles to be arranged, and equal to the sum of the several parts of Fig. 2; thus, 400 + 100 + 100 + 25 625. From this solution and explanation we deduce the following


5 100

5 G 5



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25 feet.



25 feet.


QUESTIONS. -- What is first done after dividing the number into periods ? What part of Fig. I does this greatest square number represent? What place does the figure of the root occupy, and what part of the figure does it represent ? Why does it have the place of tens? Why do you double the root for a divisor? What part of Fig. 2 does the divisor represent? What part does the last figure of the root represent? Why do you multiply the divisor by the last figure of the root ? What parts of the figure does the product represent? Why do you square the last figure of the root? What part of the figure does this square represent? What other way of finding the contents of the additions withcat multiplying the parts separately hy the width ?

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