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Rules of
Behavior.

APPENDIX, 13. In visiting the sick, do not presently play the physician, No. II.

if you be not knowing therein.

14. In writing, or speaking, give to every person his due title, according to his degree and the custom of the place.

15. Strive not with your superiors in argument, but always submit your judgment to others with modesty.

16. Undertake not to teach your equal in the art himself professes; it savors of arrogancy.

17. When a man does all he can, though it succeeds not well, blame not him that did it.

18. Being to advise or reprehend any one, consider whether it ought to be in public or in private, presently or at some other time, in what terms to do it; and, in reproving, show no signs of choler, but do it with sweetness and mildness.

19. Take all admonitions thankfully, in what time or place soever given ; but afterwards, not being culpable, take a time or place convenient to let him know it that gave them.

20. Mock not nor jest at any thing of importance; break no jests that are sharp-biting, and, if you deliver any thing witty and pleasant, abstain from laughing thereat yourself.

21. Wherein you reprove another, be unblamable yourself; for example is more prevalent than precepts.

22. Use no reproachful language against any one, neither curse, nor revile.

23. Be not hasty to believe flying reports to the disparagement

of any.

24. In your apparel, be modest, and endeavor to accommodate nature, rather than to procure admiration; keep to the fashion of your equals, such as are civil and orderly with respect to times and places.

25. Play not the peacock, looking everywhere about you to see if you be well decked, if your shoes fit well, if your stockings sit neatly, and clothes handsomely.

26. Associate yourself with men of good quality, if you esteem your own reputation ; for it is better to be alone, than in bad company.

27. Let your conversation be without malice or envy, for it is a sign of a tractable and commendable nature; and, in all causes of passion, admit reason to govern.

28. Be not immodest in urging your friend to discover a secret.

29. Utter not base and frivolous things amongst grave and learned men ; nor very difficult questions or subjects among the ignorant; nor things hard to be believed.

No. II.

Behavior.

30. Speak not of doleful things in time of mirth, nor at the APPENDIX, table ; speak not of melancholy things, as death and wounds, and if others mention them, change, if you can, the discourse. Tell Rules of not your dreams, but to your intimate friend.

31. Break not a jest where none takes pleasure in mirth ; laugh not aloud, nor at all without occasion. Deride no man's misfortune, though there seem to be some cause.

32. Speak not injurious words, neither in jest nor earnest ; scoff at none, although they give occasion.

33. Be not forward, but friendly and courteous ; the first to salute, hear, and answer; and be not pensive, when it is a time

to converse.

34. Detract not from others, neither be excessive in commending.

35. Go not thither, where you know not whether you shall be welcome or not. Give not advice without being asked, and, when desired, do it briefly.

36. If two contend together, take not the part of either unconstrained, and be not obstinate in your own opinion; in things indifferent, be of the major side.

37. Reprehend not the imperfections of others, for that belongs to parents, masters, and superiors.

38. Gaze not on the marks or blemishes of others, and ask not how they came. What you may speak in secret to your friend, deliver not before others.

39. Speak not in an unknown tongue in company, but in your own language, and that as those of quality do, and not as the vulgar; sublime matters treat seriously.

40. Think before you speak, pronounce not imperfectly, nor bring out your words too hastily, but orderly and distinctly.

41. When another speaks, be attentive yourself, and disturb not the audience. If any hesitate in his words, help him not, nor prompt him, without being desired ; interrupt him not, nor answer him, till his speech be ended.

42. Treat with men at fit times about business; and whisper not in the company of others.

43. Make no comparisons; and, if any of the company be commended for any brave act of virtue, commend not another for the same.

44. Be not apt to relate news, if you know not the truth thereof. In discoursing of things you have heard, name not your author always. A secret discover not.

45. Be not curious to know the affairs of others, neither approach to those that speak in private.

APPENDIX,

No. II.

Rules of
Behavior.

46. Undertake not what you cannot perform, but be careful to keep your promise.

47. When you deliver a matter, do it without passion, and with discretion, however mean the person be you do it to.

48. When your superiors talk to anybody, hearken not, neither speak, nor laugh.

49. In disputes, be not so desirous to overcome, as not to give liberty to each one to deliver his opinion ; and submit to the judg. ment of the major part, especially if they are judges of the dispute.

50. Be not tedious in discourse; make not many digressions, nor repeat often the same manner of discourse.

51. Speak not evil of the absent, for it is unjust.

52. Make no show of taking great delight in your victuals ; feed not with greediness ; cut your bread with a knife ; lean not on the table ; neither find fault with what you eat.

53. Be not angry at table, whatever happens, and, if you have reason to be so, show it not; put on a cheerful countenance, especially if there be strangers, for good humor makes one dish of meat a feast.

54. Set not yourself at the upper end of the table ; but, if it be your due, or that the master of the house will have it so, contend not, lest you should trouble the company.

55. When you speak of God, or his attributes, let it be seriously in reverence. Honor and obey your natural parents, although they

be poor.

56. Let your recreations be manful, not sinful.

57. Labor to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire, called conscience.

No. III. p. 373.

GENERAL WASHINGTON'S EXPENSES WHILE ACTING AS

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE AMERICAN ARMIES.

Washing. ton's expenses during the Rev. olution.

According to his declaration when he accepted his commission, General Washington never received any pecuniary compensation for his services. He kept exact accounts of all his expenditures ; and, after the cessation of hostilities, he drew up with his own

No. 111.

ing the Rev.

hand a detailed statement of these accounts, extending to more APPENDIX,
than sixty folio pages. This statement, with the original vouchers,
was deposited in the Treasury Department, where it is still pre- Washing-
served. A fac-simile of the whole paper has been published; and penses dur-
it affords a memorable proof of the strict regard, which he paid to Olution.
the public interest in the minutest particulars. The following
abstract and remarks are taken from the original, dated July 1st,
1783, as exhibited in his own handwriting, and expressed in law-
ful money, or the old currency of Massachusetts and Virginia.
Household expenses, exclusive of the provisions had from

the commissaries and contractors, and liquors, &c. from
them and others,

£ 3387 14 4 Expended for secret intelligence,

1982 10 0 Expended in reconnoitring and travelling,

1874 88 Miscellaneous charges,

2952 10 1 One hundred and sixty thousand and seventy-four dollars,

extended in lawful money, according to the scale of
depreciation,

6114 140

.

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Expenditures of eight years

£ 16311 17 1 Mrs. Washington's travelling expenses in coming to and

returning from his winter quarters, the money to de-
fray which being taken from his private purse and
brought with her from Virginia.

1064 10 Expenditure from July įst to the time of resigning his commission,

1930 138 Total, Virginia currency,

£ 19306 11 9 Or sterling,

£ 14479 18 91 Or dollars, at 4s. 6d. sterling each, $ 64,355.30

In addition to this amount he charged to the government £ 288, lawful money, as the interest on £ 599 19 11, which was the balance due to him on the 31st of December, 1776, the amount having been supplied from his private funds for public objects during the preceding year.

On this item, and the one respecting Mrs. Washington's travelling expenses, he made the following remarks at the foot of the account.

" Although I kept memoranda of these expenditures, I did not introduce them into my public accounts as they occurred. The reason was, it appeared at first view in the commencement of them to have the complexion of a private charge. I had my doubts, therefore, of the propriety of making it. But, as the peculiar circumstances attending my command, and the embarrassed situation of our public affairs, obliged me (to the no small detriment of my

No. III.

ton's er penses during the Rey. olution,

APPENDIX, private interest) to postpone the visit I every year contemplated to

make my family between the close of one campaign and the openWashing- ing of another; and as this expense was incidental thereto, and

consequent of my self-denial, I have, as of right I think I ought, with due consideration, adjudged the charge as just with respect to the public, as it is convenient with respect to myself.

“And I make it with the less reluctance, as I find, upon the final adjustment of these accounts (which have, as will appear, been long unsettled), that I am a considerable loser; my disbursements falling a good deal short of my receipts and the money had upon hand of my own. For, besides the sum I carried with me to Cambridge in 1775, and which exceeded the aforementioned balance of £ 599 19 11, I received moneys afterwards on private account in 1777 and since, which, except small sums that I had occasion now and then to apply to private uses, were all expended in the public service; and which, through hurry, I suppose, and the perplexity of business, (for I know not how else to account for the deficiency,) I have omitted to charge, whilst every debit against me is here credited.”

No. IV. p. 413.

RELIGIOUS OPINIONS AND HABITS OF WASHINGTON.

Religious opinions and habits of Washington.

Such persons as have attentively perused Washington's writings may think any remarks on this subject superfluous. In certain quarters, nevertheless, there have been discussions tending to throw doubts over the religious belief of Washington ; whether from ignorance of his character and writings, or from causes less creditable, it is needless to inquire. A formal attempt to confute insinuations of this kind would be allowing them a weight, which they cannot claim, till supported by positive testimony, or till it is shown by at least a shadow of proof, that they have some foundation other than conjecture and inference. This has never been done, and nothing is hazarded in saying that it never will be done.

A hundred years have elapsed since the childhood of Washington; and so little is known of his early life, from written materials, that we cannot speak with confidence respecting his first religious impressions. It has always been the prevalent tradition, however,

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