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of science, to let them mutually assist each of such, as are very little known, cannot renother, and this by means of Wooden Cuts, | der the science more easily attainable, since which are abundantly adequate to accomplish both the terms and their definitions must ueall that students can wish.
cessarily be learnt. And if words, sanctioned lo a purely descriptive science, like bo- | by general use, were applied in a new sense, tany, wbere a great nuniber of terms is indis. little or no advantage would result from it, pensably requisite, it becomes an object of for they would require explanation as much primary importance to have these well chosen, as perfectly new terms; and they would be and accurately defined. And the rapid exten liable to produce confusion, by suggesting to sion of botanical knowledge, within the last the mind their ordinary signification. On the seventy years, is perhaps not less owing to other hand, the benefit to be derived from the superior precision of the language em rendering our native botanical language a more ployed, and, in a great measure, invented by exact resemblance of the original, is obviously Linnæus, than to the excellence of his arrange very great. Not only its conciseness and prement. If the study of botany had remained cision are thereby improved; but the transconfined to such persons as were able to read lated and Latin terms, in most ivstances, will bis original writings, it would not have been mutually serve to suggest each other: wlience necessary to form a vernacular botanical lan- | those who have been accustomed to read boguage. But, since botany bas been long : tavical writings in the Latin or English lanfavourite pursuit, both in this and other na guage only, will find very little difficulty in tions, amongst persons, who bave not had the understanding the botanical terms in works, advantages of a classical education, it has written in the other language. * been found vecessary to translate the different In order to render the conception of works of Lindæus. And, that the class of each term clearer, as well as to correct any readers, just mentioned, may enjoy the full error we may have fallen into, the definitions benefit, to be derived from these translations, of the most distinguished botanists will be it is requisite that appropriate vernacular also given, as notes, in order that the views terms be employed in them, which shall equal, of the most learned botanists may be seen, or be as little inferior as possible to the ori-' and the expressions in their several works ginal ones, in precision and conciseness. understood. t. In Great Britain very considerable atten
TRUNK (Truncus.) tion bas heen paid to this point by several in
Is the body or substance of a plant. genious writers, and the result is a material
NOTES. improvement of our botanical language, iu
1. Truncus. Organum multiplicans plantam. consequence of its being made to approach
LINNÆUS. more nearly to the Latin. This reform may, at first view, render the science more forbid
2. Anciently, and in common English, trunk ding and difficult to the mere English reader.
is put for the stem, budy, stock, or bole of a The difficulty, however, will be ultimately tree, for which Linnæus uses the word caudex. found to exist in appearance rather than in
He applies truncus to the stem or main body reality. Many terms must necessarily be learnt
of vegetables in general, and explains it to be, in this department of the science of nature,
“tbat which produces the leaves and fructifiand, since we have comparatively few sterling cation," or " the organ multiplying the English words of exactly the same import as
plant.”—MARTYN. the Linnean terms, if we reject those used
3. Truncus, in general, the body, stem, or by this celebrated botanist, and such as may
stock of a tree or plant, defined by Linnæus, be formed from them by a change of termina
to be that which produces the leaves and fruction, we must either invent new words, and
* Vide Hull's Preface to his Elements of Bogive them an equivalent signification, or we
tany. must employ words not generally received ;
† Vide Martyn's Language of Botany, wliose or we must apply words, which have beeu ad
definitions of the terms, and remarks, with mitted into general use, in an entirely new
those of Linnæus, in his Philosophia Botanica, sense, or, at least, in a more precise and defi.
Berkenhout, in his Botanical Lexicon, Dr. nite signification. Now it is evident, that the introduction of new terms, or the employment | Systematical Botany, and Lamark, in his Prin
Smith, in his Introduction to Physiological and
cipes élémentaire de Botanique, and Brisseau System of Botany, bat whether this will su Mirbel, iv his Traité d'Anatomie et Physiologie persede the Sexual System of Linnæus remains Végétales, will be given by us to completely for a discerning public to determine.
satisfy the reader respecting each term.
tification. Former botanists applied the word , cipally suggested by the difference of size and Truncus, to trees only. - BERKEN HOUT. duration of the plants in question. Be that
4. Le trone, ou le tige (truncus, caulis) est as it may, the division was esteemed so natucette partie de la plaute qui tend toujours á hral and spoutaneous, that, from the time of monter verticalement, qui s'élève da collet de Aristotle and Theophrasius to the present la racine, et qui porte les feuilles lorsque la age, it has obtained a principal place in almost plante en a.-LAMARK.
every system, those of Rivinus and Linnæus There are several kinds of trunks, viz.
excepted, which mix herbs and trees promisI. A TREE (Arbor.) A vegetable or
cuously together. plant rising with one uniform permanent which have retained the ancient distinction,
Among the celebrated names in botany, ligneous body, called the trunk (truncus), are numbered Casalpinus, the father of sysdividing above into branches, having tematic botany; Morison, Hermanuus, Chrisbuds.
topher Knaut, Boerhaave, Ray, Pontedera, and Tournefort. The latter, rather than omit a division, through custom become necessary, chose to hurt the elegance and uniformity of his plan; and, in fact, spun out into twentytwo classes, what, without such a division, might have been easily comprised in seventeen.
On the opposite side are ranged, besides Rivinus and Linueus, already mentioned, Christian Knaut, Ludwig, and other names of less note.
The distinction into trees and shrubs, though of equal antiquity, is neither so obvious, nor are its limits so accurately ascertained. In fact, of the numerous characteristic differences which have been suggested by botanical wri. ters, not one is perfectly satisfactory. To declare, with Tournefort, that trees are universally taller than shrubs, is, in effect, saying
nothing, unless a certain fixed, immutable
standard were previously established. BeNotes.
sides, every thing respecting dimension is so 1. Arbor, a tree.—Not in Linnæus, but variable in its nature, and depends so much Truncus arboreus, which is thus defined, peren- upon difference of climate, soil and managevis caudice simplici.--LINNÆUS.
ment, tbat were a standard of this kind at. Arbor est planta, quæ truncum simplicem tempted to be established, the greatest con. et lignosum habet.--Ludwig.
fusion would ensue; and the same plant in 2. Not in Martyn, but truncus arboreus, an different conntries, and even in opposite soils arboreous trunk, single, woody, permanent, in the same country, would receive different as the bole of a tree opposed to shrubby, under appellations, according as it exceeded, or came shrubby, and herbaceous - Martyn.
short of the given standard. 3. Trees are hy Linnæus classed iu the se Thus the ricinus, or palma-christi; the venth family of the vegetable kingdom, and dwarf rosebay, rhododendron ; the strawberryare distinguished from shrubs in that their tree, arbutus ; and several others, which grow stems come up with buds on them; but this to the size of very large trees in warm cli. distinction bolds not universally, there being mates, are, in this country, equalled and even rarely any buds on the large trees in India. exceeded in height by many of our smallest BERKEN HOUT.
surubs. 4. Not in SMITH.
The difference of soil and culture in the 5. Arbre, quand la tige est simple et nue same climate, produces a like diversity in didans la base, et se divise en branches vers le mension. Thus to take an example from herhaut. LAMARK.
baceous vegetables, the marigold, which, in a OBSERVATIONS.-Upon these obvious and fat and moist earth rises two feet high, scarce striking differences was founded the very auci- exceeds the same number of inches in a dry ent division of vegetables into herbs and trees; and gravelly soil. though, perhaps, tbat distinction was prin Nature, says Linnæus, has put no limits
between trees and shrubs. Where then are 2. In its general acceptation, it is a vegewe to search for the foundation of this distinc table with several permanent woody stems, tion. Not in the difference of size and height, dividing from the bottom, more slender and of for nothing can be more fallible. Either, he lower growth than in trees. Linnæus makes continues, there are no limits at all, or they the distinction of a shrub from a tree to conare to be found in the buds; and the plants sist in its having no buds, but trees bave na are styled trees, when their stems come up | buds in hot climates. He acknowledges at the with buds; shrubs when they arise without same time, that nature has placed no exact buds; but this distinction is sufficiently con- Tianits between them.-MARTYN. futed by its author, who immediately'subjoins, 3. Shruls, according to Linnæus, make a that there are seldom any buds upon the very branch of the seventh family in the vegetable Jarge trees in India; which must, therefore, kingdom, and are distinguished from trees in notwithstanding their great height, according that they come up without buds; but this to this definition, be reckoned shrubs.
distinction is not universal, though it be geThe learned Dr. Alston, in his Tyrociniam nerally just with regard to those of Europe. Bolenicam, seems to consider the distinction Nature hath made no absolute distinction bejuto trees and shrohs às a true natural distinc-tween shrubs and trees. Fruter, in its genetion, and endeavours to trace its foundation ral acceptation, is a plant, whose trunk is in the internal structure of the plants them- perennial, gemmiparous, woody, dividing and selves. All trees, says he, whether they bear subdividing into a great number of branches. buds or not, are covered with the two basks, In short, it is the epitome of a tree. BERthe outer and inner, called by botanists, cortex KEN HOUT. and liber. Shrubs differ from herbaceous ve 4. Not in SMITH. getables in the duration of their stems; from 5. Arbustes (frutices), lorsqu'elle jettent des trees in the nature of their covering, which is branches dès leur base, et me portent poins not a bark, but a cuticle, or simple skiu. des boutons. LAMARK.
This thought is ingenious; but the fact on But BRISSEAU-MIRBEL defines caulis fruwhich it depends is not sufficiently ascertained. ticosus, frutescente, cette tige appartient aux
II. A SHRUB (fruter), resembles a tiges de la trosiéme espèce (arboreus) elle est tree, by having a permanent ligneous body, toujours ligneuse ; elle est moins épause que la but dividing below, near the earth, into precedente, et jette des branches à sa partisie twigs or branches, without buds.
inférieure; elle porte si des boutons; les arbresseaux.
III. A FALSE SHRUB, or Undershrub (suflruter), having a ligneous and sbrub-like body, but the stem and branches die yearly, without buds, as the rubus ida 18, raspberry.
Notes. 1. Frutex, a shrub.Caulis adscendens supra terram absque genunis, sed intra fruti. cem et arborem, nullos limites posuit natura, sed opiuio vulgi -LINN.EUS.
4. Not in Smith. SUFFRUTEX, from sub, under; and FRU 5. Les plants dunt la tige est herbacée sont Tex, a shrub.
nommée des herbes. Tige herbacée, lorsqu'elle 1. Truncus suffructicosus, basi permanens, est tendre, qu'elle a peu de consistance, et samis quotannis marcescens.—LINNEUS.
qu'elle perit avant de doucir. 2. Sub, in composition, is used frequently Brisseau-Mirbel says, herbacée, tige qui a la by Linnæus for almost, nearly, approaching consistance molle et foible de l'herbe : elle to, thereabouts, somewhat, and here means ve produit point de bois, et ne vit ordinairement alınost a shrub, or as we say an undershrub; qu'une année. which is thus defined :-permanent or woody at the base, but the yearly branches decaying;
V. A STEM (caulis), supports both usually of a lower growth than the frutex, or leaves and fructification. Vide last Fig. shrub.-MARTYN. 3. An Undershrub. According to Tournefort,
VI. SCAPE (scapus), is a stem rising a plant which is perennial, ligneous, not gem- out of the root, supporting only the flowers miparous, and in stature less than a frutex. but not the leaves. Almost a shrub, the root permanent but branches generally perishing. Sub, before, and usculus, after a word, usurp the place of fere, almostBERKEN HOUT.
4. Arbrisseaux (arbuscula) quand elle jettent des branches des leur base, et portent des bou tons.-LAMARK. But Brisseau-Mirbel defines caulis suffruticosus, su ffrutescente, elle appartient à la trosieme espèce de tiges (arboseus) elle est ligneuse, mais grèle, foible, et ne pas de boutons; les arbustes, vu sou-arbrisseaux.
IV. An HERB (herba), a substance not woody but tender, and usually dying down every year. Vide last Figa
Notes. 1. HERBA. Truncus herbaceas etianinum annuus non lignosus-LINNÆUS. Vegetabilis pars, orta a radice, terminata fructificatione, comprehenditque truncum, folia, fulcra, hy. bernaculum-Bot. Phil. Herba arcendens, aeria spirans moveus.—REGN. VEG. 2. By Linnæus the herb is put for that of a
NOTES. vegetable, which arises from the roots, is ter. SCAPUS, from the Greek skepto, to lean minated by the fructification, and compre upon; hence the word skEPTRON, a sceptre, hends the stem, leaves, fulcres, and hybernacle. ' and scipio, a walking stick, and scapus, the shaft Herbaceous stems perish annaally, are soft, not of a column, which this is supposed to resemble. woody. Herbaceous plants are such as perish The flower-stalk, under other circumstances, is annually down to the rools. In common lan- called penduncle (pedunculus). guage an herb is used in opposition to a tree. 1. Truncus elevans fructificationem, nèc foMARTYN.
lia.-LINNÆUS. 3. An herb, according to Linnæus, is that
2. A stem bearing the fructification, without part of the vegetable which arises from the leaves. Some have translated this flower-stalk, root, is terminated by the fructification, and whicla is more proper for the word pedunculus. comprehends the truncus, folia fulcra, et hy | MARTYN. bernaculum. An herbaceous stem indicates the 3. That species of trunk called a stalk, which time of duration of the stem, dying annually, elevates the fractification and not the leaves. not woody, opposed to fruticosus et suffruticosus. Mr. Curtis bas translated scapus, flower-stalk, Herbaceous plants are those plants which an- and caulis, simply stem.--BERKEN HOUT. nually perish down to the root, for in the 4. A stalk springs from the root, and bears perennial kinds, the gemme are produced on the flowers and fruit but not the leaves. Linthe root. Herbs, properly speaking, says Toor- næus has observed (MSS. Phil. Bot. 40.) that nefort, are those plants whose stems perish a scapus is only a species of pedunculus. The annually.-BERKEN VOLT.
term might therefore be spared, were it not
found very commodious in constructing neat 5. La chaume, tige grèle, creuse ou remplic specific definitions of plants ; if abolished, pe
de moelle, ayant de distance en distance des danculus radicalis, radical Aower-stalk, should beuds solides et portant des feuilles engainbe substituted in its room.-SMITH.
antes, ---BRISSE AU-MIRBEL. 5. La hampe, c'est a la fois une tige et un VIII. STIPE (stipes), is a species of stem pedoncule, elle part de la racine et porte les running into the leaves, and forming a deurs à son sommet; elle est dépourvue de part of them, as in ferns, used also for the feuilles dans sa longeur. BrissEAU-MIRBEL pedestal of the fungus tube.
VII. CULM (culmus), is the stalk, or stem, of corn, grasses, and rushes, usually jointed and hollow, supporting both leaves and fructification.
Notes. Stipes, from the Greek stuPog, a stump, or stoke; may it vot be from stipo, to bind, things
being packed up and bound with the feru-leaf Notes.
which is called a frons. Culmus, from the Greek KALAMOS, a reed, 1. Basis frondis, proprius palmis, ilicibus, or strax.
fungis. Truncus iu foliis, transiens, et a foliis 1. Truncus graminibus proprius, elevat fo non distinctus.---LINNEUS. lia, fructificationemque, plerumque genicu 2. The base of a frond; or a species of stem latus, articulis inanibus.-LINNÆUS.
passing into leaves, or not distinct from the 2. The stalk or stem of corn and grasses, leaf. The stem of a fungus is likewise called usually jointed and hollow, supporting both stipes, which Dr. Withering translates pillar. the leaves and the fructification. The word | MARTYN. straw being commonly appropriated to the dry 3. That species of truncus, which is the stalk of cern, I prefer using the Latin term basis of a frons, and is peculiar to paline, culin -MARTYN.
filices, and fungi-BERKEN HOUT. 3. That species of truncus proper to grasses; 4. The stype is the stem of a frond, which in it elevates the leaves and the fructification.-feros is commonly scaly. The term is likewise BERKEN HOUT.
applied to the stalk of a fungus.-SMITH. 4. A straw, or culin, is the peculiar stem of 5. Le stipe, ou colonne. Ce’st une tige cyliuthe grasses and rushes, and plants nearly allied | drique, non divisée, couronnée de feuilles á sve to them; it bears both leaves and fowers, and sommet, et formée par la base des pétioles, its nature is more easily understood than de rapprochée eu un seul fa isseau.-BRISSEAUfined; many botanists have thought this | MIRBEL. term superfluous.-SMITH.
[To be continued.]