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TITI LIVII PATAVINI
AB URBE CONDITA
LIBRI QUINQUE PRIORES.
AD FIDEM OPTIMORUM EXEMPLARIUM RECENSUIT
GULIELMUS M. GUNN,
ET NOTULIS ANGLICIS INDICEQUE INSTRUXIT.
EDITIO AUCTIOR ET EMENDATIOR.
In this second Edition the Editor has paid particular attention to the text and the punctuation. With regard to the former, he has been mainly determined in the larger portion of the first two books by the authority of the MSS. But 80 many of the received readings, adopted with the almost unanimous consent of the more celebrated Editors of Livy, differ from those of the MSS., that the notes would have been overloaded with critical remarks, if he had adhered throughout to his original design. In the remainder of the work, therefore, he has followed the readings principally of Drakenborch, noticing the passages, as they occur, in which he differs from that invaluable Editor, and he has almost uniformly, through the whole work, been guided by him in the spelling of the proper names.
As to punctuation, the Editor has endeavoured to steer a middle course between too high pointing on the one hand, and the undue fusion of clauses produced by scant pointing on the other.
The editions and annotations consulted, in addition to Drakenborch's, have been those of Sigonius, Gronovius, Crevier, Ruperti, Doering and Stroth, Bekker and Raschig, Ruddiman and Dr Hunter.
One change of great importance was introduced in the former edition, to which it is necessary again shortly to advert. The principles which affect the indirect or oblique form of narration, so admirably evolved by Dr Carson, in his masterly work on the Latin Relative, and exemplified in his edition of Tacitus, were, in that edition, for the first time, attended to on a uniform plan, and the whole has been carefully revised with the same view in this. Editors have been extremely capricious in distinguishing the facts for which Livy vouches as a historian, and the sentiments which he expresses as his own, from those which he merely indicates to be the assertions or sentiments of others, when these are not expressed as the ipsissima verba of the persons holding such sentiments, or making such assertions. They bardly ever, indeed, take any notice of the principle in imputed sentiments, although instances abound in every page, and they often neglect it even in imputed addresses. In all cases where it is evident that Livy states, in his own words, a fact vouched for, or sen timents entertained by another, in which cases the infinitive and subjunctive moods alone are used,) the words expressive of the imputed sentiments or assertions are, in this, as they were in the former edition, indicated by inverted commas. An illustration may shew the nature and object of the change. In the ninth chapter of the first book, after describing the seizure of the Sabine women, Livy narrates the indignation of the parents, incusantes violati hospitii foedus, Deumque invocantes, ' cujus ad solenne ludosque, per fas ac fidem de
cepti, venissent. The last clause evidently and graphically gives the sentiments which the Sabines themselves expressed, and is not a bistorical assertion on the part of Livy, otherwise venerant should have been used. In all other editions of Livy, however, which the Editor has seen, the clause is not distinguished in any manner from the narration.
To aid the reader in carrying on a consecutive knowledge of the chronology connected with the events, the date of each remarkable era, as generally received, during the kings, and
subsequently of each year, as arranged in the chronology of Glarean, is affixed to the margin.
An account of the Life and Writings of the Author under perasal is always a natural object of desire, and one is accordingly prefixed.
The Historical and Geographical Index, at the end of the work, has been carefully revised, many deficiencies have been supplied, and a few errors removed. Its original design was to enable the reader to trace the allusions to each person, office, or place contained in these books. This was done by a reference to the passages where each name occurs throughout this portion of history. It is, as its name imports, still brief, and is intended mainly to direct the reader to sources of information patent to himself within the volume. Advantage, however, is taken of it, and of the Notes, to introduce the learner to some notion of the speculations of modern writers on the early constitutional history of Rome. Of these the Editor has availed himself principally of Niebuhr, Arnold, Malden, Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, and Spalding's Italy.
In going over the Notes, the Editor has, guided by his additional experience, removed a few, added very many, and revised all. He owes much to former commentators; but he trusts that it will not be deemed presumptuous for him to state that the learned reader will find that tbe Notes are not entirely those of mere translation or adaptation.
W. M. G.
High SCHOOL OF EDINBURGH,
13th October 1843.