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and so forth,) ånd dogmatic, (that is, biblical doctrine and morals.)

It is impossible in an introduction to treat these subjects "fully; nothing more can be given than a general idea of them. In this arrangement, however, doubts may arise with respect to the ancient versions, since they must be introduced as subsidiary to criticism as well as to hermeneutics. Hence it is probably the most advisable course, to give the general information respecting them in the critical part, and their character, as far as regards interpretation, in that which is appropriated to hermeneutics. Moreover, it must be remarked, that the very last consideration is the identical point which is much neglected in recent works of this kind ; and this is the more to be regretted, as the hermeneutical value of the versions is on the whole much greater than the critical, since their greater or less variations from the text do but very rarely indeed contain improvements of it, but on the contrary are for the most part founded on errors in the translations. In the particular introduction to the individual books, only this difference is to be observed in the plan, that some writers in this department, as Jahn, give an explanatory view of the contents of the books, which is omitted by most of the others. But, at least in academical lectures, and especially on the Old Testament, they are most undoubtedly necessary.

Besides introductions of a historical and critical character, and which are properly speaking literary, the idea of a practical introduction has been suggested and carried into effect ; that is to say, an introduction, which, setting aside discussions of a critical kind, or taking for granted the results of them, confines its attention to the books of Scripture in a practical point of view, and gives directions for the use of them in reference to the religious instruction of youth, and of people in general.* Such works are useful, when the authors, resting on the firm basis of solid learning, make the religious and moral force in

* See Berger's prakt. Einleitung in das A. T., vom 3 Theile as fortgesetzt von Augusti, 4 Theile, Leipzig, 1799–1804.

the particular books, sections, and characters of the Bible stand out prominent ;* they will then often agree in contents with the view of religion and morals given in the Bible, and only vary from it in the free arrangement in which it is presented.

The kind of learning which I have been describing is, as has been remarked, the growth of the last century, and is indebted principally for its origin to the discussions of German Protestants on the various subjects connected with the Bible ; and the name, as now usually applied, was first employed by J. G. CARPZOV. A work in some respects similar to an introduction to the Bible was first given to the world by Augustin in his Doctrina Christiana, t which, however, is rather hermeneutical advice in reading the Scriptures. This was followed in the sixth century by. a production of CassioDORUS, # who begins his directions for the study of theological literature with an account of the books of Scripture and their interpreters. In modern times Sixtus Sinensis first collected together the materials belonging to this subject in his Bibliotheca Sancta, ß which remained an universally esteem. ed manual, until it was supplanted, at least among Protestants, by Walther's Officina Biblica, a pretty meagre production. Yet even this work found its imitators and plagiarists, and with justice, on account of his dogmatical manner in disputing, and the unwarranted severity of his strictures on the works of Protestants.

* See NIEMEYER's Characteristik der Bibel, 5 Theile, Halle, 17751782.

+ AUGUsTinus de Doctrina Christiana, libri iv, ed. J. G. CHR. TEL. GUIS, Lipz, 1769, 8vo.

Marci AURELI CASSIODORI, Senatoris, de institutione divinarum scripturarum liber, ed. DAMELIUS, Antwerp, 1566, and in CASSIQDORI Opp. ed. Garet. 1679, 2 vol. fol.

O Bibliotheca Sancta a F. (fratre) Sixto SENENSI et præcipuis catholicæ ecclesiæ auctoribus collecta et in octo libros digesta, Venetiis, 1566, fol. The best edition is that of John Hay, 1591, 410.

|| D. MICHAELIS WALTERI Officina Biblica, noviter adaperta, in qua perspicue videre licet, quæ scitu cognituque maxime sunt necessaria de S. Scriptura in genere et in specie, de libris ejus canonicis, apocryphis, deperditis et spuriis, cet. Lips. 1630, 4to. 2nd ed. after the author's death, 1668, last 1703, fol., but full of errors.

After these predecessors, J. G. Carpzov prepared in Germany his work on the Old Testament, an introduction in the present sense of the word, and gave to what may be considered as the outward part of this kind of literature, both its formi, and also the name which it has since retained. Still, however, the author limited its application to the particular introduction,* and treated of the general in a separate work. f He is, moreover, heartily opposed to the free views of Simon, and to the yet bolder hints which, in the meantime, SPINOZA had thrown out, I considers it as his duty to reject and oppose them, and fetters himself entirely by the doctrines of the Lutheran church.

The first writer who trod again in the footsteps of R. Simon was J. S. SEMLER ; § and, (to speak of the Old Testament first,) after, in our own time, by the efforts of J. D. MICHAELIS, a learned manner of treating the Old Testament began to prevail in Germany, and, by means of the works of Lowth and Herder, || these subjects were handled with more taste, Eichhorn composed his introduction to the Old Testament, which is for the time so free and elegant, and which

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dem Franz. (by Corrodi.) The place is not designated, but it was printed at Zurich, 1779.

* Introductio ad libros canonicos V. T. Lipsiæ, 1721, 4to. 3 edit.
1741, 4to.
+ Critica Sacra V. T. Lips. 1728, 410.

In his Tractatus theologico-politicus, Hamburgi, 1672.
§ Apparatus ad liberalem Vet. Test, interpretationem, Halæ, 1773,
Svo. Apparatus ad liberalem Nov. Test. interpretationem, Ibid, 1767,
Svo.

Il Ros., Lowte, de sacra poësi Hebræorum prælectiones, ed. MiCHAELIS, Gottingæ, 1758. [An English translation of this work, with “the principal notes of Michaelis, and notes by the translator and others," by G. GREGORY, F. A.S., was published in England, and republished in Boston, 1815, Tr.) Herper's Briefe, das Studium der Theologie betreffend, 1780. Also bis Geist der Hebr. Poesie, 1782, 2 Theile,

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avails itself with so much ability of the works which had preceded it, (of Walton and Carpzov's Critica Sacra in the general divisons of the subject,) that with him a new epoch in this department of literature was introduced. * A similar work t begun by J. D. MICHAELIS did not advance beyond the first volume, and some small compends by Gute and BABOR are mere extracts of Eichhorn; but soon other men of investigating minds made their appearance, as NACHTIGALL (Ottmar,) Hasse, E. F. C. ROSENMULLER, BERTHOLDT, VATER, DE WETTE, and others, through whose investigations of particular subjects, the views presented by Eichhorn were, in many points, partly advanced and partly corrected and done away. $ The questions of higher criticism here brought to the test of language were as follows:-whether the Pentateuch is of Mosaic origin or subsequent to the time of Moses ; whether the book of Job were written before the age of Moses or later;-on the authority of the books of Chronicles and their connexion with the books of Samuel and Kings ;the later composition of the book of Daniel; and others of this kind. But a learned Roman Catholic, and for many members of his own church, much too free in his inquiries, $ appeared in the person of John Jann, who opposed the

* J. G. EICHHORN's Einleit. in das A. T. 3 Theile, Leipzig, 1780 1783. (Also, considerably enlarged, in 5 volumes, at Göttingen, 1823, 1824.)

+ Einleitung in di Göttlichen Schriften des A. B. 1 Thl. Hamburg, 1787, 4.

See Hasse Aussichten zu kunstigen Aufklärungen über das A. T. Jena, 1785. ROSENMULLER Scholia V. T., and the introductions therein contained to the particular books, for example, to the book of Job, and to the Pentateuch, in the 3rd edition, VATER's Comment, über den Pentateuch, Part. Theil. 3, 1805. BERTHOLDT's Daniel, 1806-1808. De Wette's Beiträge zur Einleit. in das A. T. 2 Bändchen, 1806, 1807. [Compare also the author's Geschichte der Hebräischen Sprache und Schrift. Leipz. 1815, Comment, de Pent. Sam., Halae, 1815, and Comment. über den lesaia. Leipz. 1820, Tr.]

Q. See De necessitate incautos præveniendi adversus artes nonnullo professorum Hermeneutices cet. Romæ, 1818. On the other side, Vindi. ciæ Johan Jahn, Lipsiæ, 1822.

# Einleitung in die Göttlichen Bücher des Alten Bundes. Wien. 1793,

bold views of these Protestant writers, or, at most, only imparted them where they did not come into collision with those of his church :* whereupon BERTHOLDT, in his work which comprehends both the Old and New Testaments, has attempted principally to collect the various views and to effect an accommodation between the ancient and modern. Abridgments, to be used at lectures, adopting the improvements which have been made since Eichhorn wrote, were published by Bauer I and Augusti ; ß but by far the richest and most original by De Wette. ||

The plan of many of these last writers embraces also the Apocryphal books of the Old Testament, to the higher criticism of which the road had been opened by EICHHORN. T

After the very learned preparatory works of Richard Simon, the first who published an introduction to the New Testament was J. D. Michaelis. His work was a very imperfect manual, which in later editions was greatly improved and enlarged, and by HERBERT Marsh was enriched with learned

8, 2 Ausg. 1802–3, in 3 Bänden. The same author's Introductio in libros Sacros Vet. Fæderis in compendium redacta. Viennæ, 1805, 8vo,

(Although it must be allowed that Dr. Jabn does in some degree permit himself to be fettered by the principles of his own communion, yet no one who has read his introductions can have failed to observe, that he frequently endeavours to explain those principles in accommodation with the spirit of free Protestantism. Indeed, in some cases, he has ex. ceeded the bounds of sober criticism. That the remark of Gesenius requires to be greatly qualified is evident from the fact, that some of Jahn's works were prohibited by a decree of Pope Pius VII. See Horne's Introduction, vol. ii. Part ii. Appendix, p. 134, 6th edition, 1828, Tr.]

+ D. L. BERTHOLDT historisch-kritische Einleitung in sämtliche kanonische und apokryphische Schriften des Alten und Neuen Testaments, 6 Theile, Erlangen, 1812--19. The aprocryphal books of the N. T. are not included.

| Entwurf einer hist. krit. Einleit. in die Schriften des A. T. 1794, Dritte Aufl. 1806.

Ø CAR. W. AUGusti Grundriss einer bist. krit. Einleit. in das A. T. Leipzig, 1806, 8.

|| Lehrbuch der hist. krit. Einleit. in das A. T. Berlin, 1817, 2. Aufl. 1823.

! Einleit. in die Apokryphischen Bücher des A. T. Leipzig. 1795. 8.

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