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These examples may very well suffice, to excite to the study of the Biblical Interpretation of this Father. But I wish we had several other interpreters, whom Asseman mentions, and who might in part be of more importance than thc ascetic Ephrem.

Mosheim, in his Institutiones Historiae Ecclesiasticae, p. 208,* writes of THEODORE of MOPSUESTIA, (who is mentioned in this Chrestomathy, p. 4. 1): “ Theodori Mopsuesteni opera, quamvis post obitum maximorum errorum accusatus sit, aut prorsus periisse, aut inter Nestorianos hodie tantum Syriace legi, dolebunt cuncti, qui vel ea considerarunt, quae Photius ex illis retulit.” [ Although Theodore of Mopsuestia, after his death, was accused of very great errors, the loss of his works, or their existence at present among the Nestorians in Syriac only, is lamented by all, who have paid attention merely to what Photius has cited out of them. ] And he writes, at p. 211:1—“Nemo longius in reprehendendis Origenis sectatoribus progressus est, quam Theodorus Mopsuestenus, qui . . . . etiam in commentariis suis ad veteris Testamenti vates, ex antiquiori historia oracula eorum pleraque declarare, ausus est," [No one went further, in censuring the followers of Origen, than Theodore of Mopsuestia, who .... in his Commentaries on the prophets of the Old Testament, did not hesitate to explain most of their predictions by ancient history. ] It may well be the case, that THEODORE goes too far, by not interpreting of Christ certain passages which actually relate to him, so that he may be regarded as a Judaizing interpreter. But a Christian expositor, who in a certain degree thinks with Grotius and LE CLERC, and is of so remote a period, may teach us much that is unknown ; and he is better than a JEROME. Perhaps he has not gone too far, but

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* [ The passage is to be found in Mosheim's Eccl. Hist. Cent. v. P. u. Ch. 11. §. x. ; in the Helmstadt edition (A. D. 1764), at p. 186.

+ [ This inention of THEODORE occurs in the “ Epistle of Simeon, Bishop of Betharsama, concerning the Nestorians," found in Asseman's Oriental Library, T. 1. p. 346 ff.

# [ See Mosheim's Eccl. Hist., Cent. v. P. 11. Ch. 111, $. V.; in the Helmst. edition (A. D. 1764), at p. 189 Tr.)

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while innocent is accused by those who are uninformed, as Mosheim seems to think. *

* [The character of THEODORE OF MOPSUEstia, as a Commentator on the Scriptures, is given by Dr. J.G. ROSENMÜLLER in his Historia Interpretationis Librorum Sacrorum, Vol. 111. pp. 250—265. of the edit. Leipzig, 1807. On the subject of the Literature of Syria in general, HOFFMANN wrote an Essay (which appeared in Byrtholdt's Theological Journal, T. xiv. pp. 225—291.) entitled: Kurlze Geschichte der Syrischen Lilleratur, Brief History of Syriac Literature. On the History of the Syriac Language also, he treats at large, in the valuable Prolegomena which accompany his Grammar.

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The best elementary works, for the study of the

Syriac Language.

UNTIL the commencement of the sixteenth century, the Syriac Language had been little studied in Europe; but since that period, it has engaged the attention, and been illustrated by the publications of very numerous and able writers.

Among the elementary books, which have appeared, the following may be regarded as particularly valuable to the Syriac student.


1. Henry Opitz's SYRIASMUS, Leipzig and Frankfort, 1678, 4to.

It is highly commended by HOFFMANN, ( Gram. Syr. Prolegg. 9.5. 2.)

as excelling all that preceded it. 2. John David MICHAELIS' GRAMMATICA SYRIACA, Halae, 1784.

This is little more than a revised edition of the Syriasmus of CHRISTiAN BENEDICT MICHAELIS, the author's father. The work is not a mere compilation, as most publications of the kind, but is original, and the result of indefatigable labour. Its copious Paradigms of verbs and

nouns are very useful. The volume is a small quarto, pp. 299. 3. ANDREW THEOPHILUS HOFFMANN'S GRAMMATICAE SYRIACAE LIBRI II. Halae, 1827.

No other Grammar of the language will compare with this. HoffMANN occupies, in Syriac, the place assigned to De Sacy in Arabic, and to Gesenius in Hebrew Literature. To the Syriac student, no other elementary work can be as valuable. It is a quarto volume, pp. 418.



It originally appeared, as part of the Heptaglot Lexicon, which generally accompanies the London Polyglot, and was published at London, 1669. Dr. Castell was aided in the execution of it by Bishop Be

VERİDGE. 2. John David Michaelis' edition of this work.

It was published in a separate form, at Göttingen, 1788, and is entitled: Edmundi Castelli Lexicon Syriacum, ex ejus Lexico Heptaglot!o scorsim typis describi curavit atque sua adnotata adjecit JOANNES DAVID

Michaelis. It consists of two volumes 4to., pp. 978. 3. CHARLES SCHAAF'S LEXICON SYRIACUN CONCORDANTIALE, Lugd. Bat., 1708.

This admirable work contains all the words of the New Testament, and at the same time numerous other words and phrases, belonging to the Syriac and its kindred languages. It has also very useful indexes, in Syriac and Latin. HOFFMANN ( in his Gramm. Syr. Prolegg. g. 5. 3.) says of this Lexicon: It can scarcely ever fail the siudent of the Now

Testament. 4. Etienne QUATREMÈRE's Syriac Lexicon.

This indefatigable student has for some time contemplated a Lexi. con. He has examined, with this view, all Syriac works now in print, and some MSS. also ; he has visited the rich treasures in the Oxford Jibrary and the Vatican: and the result of his labours will, no doubt, be a far more complete Syriac Lexicon than any extant.



It was the original design of the autbor, to issue this work in parts. The first Part, however, is all that appeared. It is a small octavo volume; and comprises a Treatise (in German) on the Syriac Language and its use (pp. 124.small8vo.), and a Syriac Chrestomathy (pp. 118.). The first edition of the work appeared at Göttingen, in 1768; and the second edition, containing some additional notes to the Trealise, was published at the same place, in 1786,

EICHHORN (in his Allgemeine Bibliothek der bibl. Litt. B. 1. SS. 144 --148.) gives a brief notice of the seco d edition of the Treatise ; and a critical examination of certain passages in the Chrestomathy was published by J. F. Gaab, in Paulus' Neues Repertorium für biblische und morgenländische Litteratur, Th. III. Abh. xi. SS. 366

378. 2. GEORGE William Kirsch's Syriac CHRESTOMATHY, Hofae, 1789.

This is an octavo volume, including a Chrestomathy, and a Lexicon. The Chrestomathy, highly commended by Hoffmann, is derived chiefly from h+ CHRONICLE or BARH. BRAEOS. It has other extracts also from this author's writings, and from those of EPHREM Syrus. The Lexicon is very useful.

A brief notice of the work is given by Eichhorn, in his Allgemeine

Bibliothek der bibl. Liti. B. 11. SS. 548–550. 3. GUSTAVUS Knoes' SYRIAC CHRESTOMATHY, Göttingen, 1807.

On this valuable work, derived chiefly from MSS., see above, p.

520. 1. 0. G. Tychsen's ELEMENTALE SYRIACUM, Rostoch, 1793,

Beside a Chrestomathy (pp. 112. small octavo), and a Glossary (pp. 113— 169 ), this work contains a comprehensive Grammar, of which EICHHORN (in his Allgemeine Bibliothek der bibl. Litt. B. vin. S. 699.) says : “ To this Grammar, which consists of only 31 pages, we may with strict propriety apply the adage Short and Good.

The work is accompanied with nine well-executed plates, containing various specimens of Syriac MSS., transcribed at Rome by ADLER. It comprises 28 specimens (pp. 32—82) of pointed Syriac, and a number of Extracts ( pp. 82—112 ) not pointed. The volume contains 169 pages, and is perhaps to be preferred to any other manual of the language.

Many new works, relating to the Oriental Languages in general, and to the Syriac in particular, have recently appeared. The importance of these languages seems to be more and more discovered ; and the sentiments of PROFESSOR LEE of Cambridge in the Preface to his admirable Hebrew Grammar, pp. XVII-XIX.), it is hoped, will soon become the prevailing sentiments of those who profess to be expounders of the Sacred Volume. "To expect fully to make out an Oriental

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