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expression εισελθείν εις την βασιλείαν τών έρανών (Μatt. VΙΙ. 21. v. 20.94 xvII. 3.95 11. Ρet. Ι. 11.), δέχεσθαι την βασιλείαν σε 488, (x) ülesége ésiv or Bavidsia 58 957, (y) all which are used promiscuously by St Mark, x. 15. 14. and St. Luke, xviii. 17. 16. More frequently instead of dégardos ® (z) is substituted xhngovéusiv Friv Badineiav rõ 9€, (a) to occupy those blissful seats, (b) so that each individual may have his own share in the possession.(c) Hence the term κληρονόμοι της βασιλείας,(d) or viol sñs Badineias, (e) is applied to those, to whom the kingdom of heaven belongs, or who shall enter into the region of

(2) Mark, x. 15. Luke, xvii. 17. (y) vi. 20. Matt. v. 3. 10. xix. 14. (2) Comp. 1. Macc. 11. 51. (a) Matt. xxv. 34. 1. Cor. v1.9 s. Gal. y. 21. (6) Comp. Gen. xv. 7 s. xxvi. 4, &c. (c) Eph. v. 5. (d) Jam. 11.5.

(e) Matt. xI11. 58.


93 What follows in v. 22. 23, shews with sufficient clearness, that this passage does not refer to the kingdom of God, which is gathered together on the earth from the period of our Lord's ascension into hea

and whose privileges were eagerly desired by many during the lifetime of Jesus (note 36). But in Matt. xxi, 31, XXIII. 13, it admits of a doubt, whether a Barnasia Toù troũ is to be understood in this sense (comp. Luke, x1. 52.), or as referring to the seats of the blessed.

94 If this place be compared with v. 3-12, vi. 19 ss., it will readily be admitted, that both here, and vi. 33, Luke, x11. 31, the discourse is concerning the dwelling-place and region of the blessed. Nor is there any reasop, why a different sense should be given to the expression in the preceding verse (Matt. v. 19.): “Whoever shall wantonly, and without hesitation, violate one precept however small, and shall teach others to do the same thing, and much more, therefore, he who, like the teachers of the law and the Pharisees (v. 20.), shall neglect so many and great precepts, and shall be a leader and promoter of negligence in others (2:. 21 ss. xxn. 16 ss.), he, though highly esteemed on earth (Luke, xvi. 15), shall in the regions of the blessed be reckoned of the least account (ina21505 xantásitat) by God and his people, and be cast out from this pure abode (Luke, xw, v. 25. 27. 28.) as Beauyuce (Luke, xvi. 15, like ene21506, or čo xetes, XI. 30. at the end.).”

95 Very similar are those forms of expression, by which any one is said to be in the kingdom of heaven, r. 4. 1. Luke, xli. 28 s. Matt. viii. 11.

* 6 This answers to Luke, X1. 32. **TN ó matig vuce AOYNAI ΥΜΙΝ την βασιλείαν,

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the blessed,or or to whom indeed the right of citizenship in that most blissful (f ) country principally belonged. (g) Perhaps also Heb. xi. 28, is a passage of the same description. For as mention is made immediately before (h) of a new heaven and a new earth, it is certainly not improbable, that


(5) viii. 11.

(8) v. 12. comp. with Acts, I11. 25. Rom. ix. 4.

(h) v. 27.

97 Just as in Luke, xx. 36. oi tās dresários TUX Ortos (v. 35.) are called visi cñs drascos.

98 As í Barra da refers peculiarly to that administration of the kingdom of God, which shall take place in the region of the blessed after the resurrection of the dead (Matt. xxvi. 29. Q. viii. at the beginning.); the right of cilisenship, also, in the kingdom of heaven, thus understood, may be called (note 36 ) Barlasid,

99 Christ, who formerly, when the law was given on Mount Sinai (v. 18 ss.), shook the earth, which could equally well be declared of him, in reference to his divine nature, as that he created all things (1. 2. 10.), now, when God spoke by him, is said to have promised (XII. 26.). that he will once more shake the heaven and earth (comp. Rev. xx. 11. XXI. 1. 11. Pet. 111. 10–12.), from which it is evident (Heb. XII. 27.), that the things which are shaken (heaven and earth, Heb. xII. 26.) are removed from their place, as being made with this design, that they might await (comp. Rom. viii. 19 ss. 11. Pet. 111. 7. and mineir, Acts, XX. 5. 23.) an immovable condition (comp. the neuters, Heb. vi. 9.), i. e. that that signal change might remain, whereby the appearance of heaven and earth shall become permanent. The words to ärag, used by Christ, not only shew, that the heaven and the earth will be shaken, but also imply at the same time, that no other shaking shall follow; and that therefore, subsequently to that event, to which the display at Sinai cannot be at all compared, the state of earth and heaven will be such, that things will cease to be movable and fragile. But it is probable that the sentence quoted by the Apostle (211. 26.), is not from Haggai, but that it was uttered by Christ, wben be was discoursing perhaps at some time or other (comp. Acts, 1. 3.) concerning the kingdom of God, and was comparing this new economy with the old Mosaic dispensation (comp. John, vi. 32 ); and that it was never recorded in the gospel histories (Acts, XX 35.). For, to say nothing of the fact, that the words of Haggai are not sufliciently like these, it appears to me to be very much against the commonly received opinion, that Jesus is said to have promised nou. when God commands by him (Heb. x11. 25. comp. with x. 28 s. 1. 1 s. 11. 1--3.), zör år' ofercor (comp. John, 11. 31. 1. Cor. xv. 47.), not by Moses, Tor ini tas güs (comp. Heb. 11. 3-6), that he will once more shake not ooly the earth, as was done at the time when he éri pãe zam



the unchangeable kingdom which believers shall obtain, consists in those happy seats in which the faithful shall dwell, (i) after they have been restored to life. (j)

§. IX.


Although, therefore, a great number of passages refers to that future and most conspicuous appearance of the kingdom of heaven ; (k) yet it cannot be denied that there are also not a few, which, if we ought to choose the most obvious interpretation, lead us to a much broader signification of the cxpression. (1) And that same idea of the kingdom of heaven, which includes the whole government of Christ from his ascension into heaven, seems to have been in the mind of the apostles in those places also, which,--because (m) that empire is now established, whose extent and dignity will bring to pass, in its own time, all that remains to be done, and could perform it forthwith, did not the long-suffering (n) of the judge prevent it,--shew that an end is at hand (Heb. ix. 26.102

(k) $. VIII.

ri) 11. Pet. ii. 13. (j) Rev. xx. 12. xxi. 1.
(1) §. III. VII.

(m) Comp. note 30.
(n) 11. Pet. 11. 9. 15. Heb. X. 13.

xgmularios, or divinely instructed (Acts, X. 22.) the people, but also the beaven.

100 Negarapbavu also in Jer. XLIX. 1. 2. means the same as xangorégur ; but the present participle has the sense of the fulure (comp. Acts, xv. 27.), as, in Heb. xii. 27, te raatrópou signifies things that are to be shaken, movable. Comp. Obss. gramm. p. 134 s.

101 Comp. DOEDERLEIN, Instit. Theol. Christ. p. 748 s. [p. 291. Vol. 11. Ed. Junge. Nor. et Alt. 1797.-Tr. ] 102 At the end of the world (comp. also Heb. 1. 2.

1. Pet. 1. 20.) it was that Jesus was born, because, at bis birth, the commencement was at hand of a kingdom (8. iv.), which shall make all things new (Rev. III. 5.), and which would immediately have proceeded to make heaven and earth new and permanent (Heb. Xul. 26 s.), and to display its glorious (s. 28. 5. vi..) and grand appearance, but for that divine goodness which desires first to make men new creatures (1. Cor. v. 17.), and that completely, too, that they may be able to rejoice in this wonderful change of things (n. Pet, m. 9-15.).

1. Cor. x. 11. 1. Pet. iv. 7. i. John, 11. 18.103 ); and exhort to metávoia and the cultivation of holiness (o) with this motive, that that diving now reigns, by whom God will judge men, (p) and is ready and prepared to make the exhibition of his majesty (9) whenever it pleases him.104

(0) Acts, xvII. 31. 1. Pet, iv. 7. Jam. v. 8 s. Heb. x. 25. 35-37. comp.

Luke, XXI. 34 ss. (p) Acts, xvi. 31.

(9) Jam. v. 9.8. 1. Pet, iv. 5.

103 From the time that the king, descended from the family of David (Ps. 11. 6.), reigns, that last time is present (comp. note 30. 102.) to which the ancient prophets looked. In it, also, are contained artiXgloto (comp. Ps. 11. 2.), who, before the kingdom of Christ, had no existence. Comp. 11. Tim. 11. 1. 11. Pet. 111. 3. Jud. v. 18.

104 Although the coming of the Judge did not overtake the first readers of the N. T. wbile they were yet alive, yet of the whole number (Mark, xli. 37. Luke, w. 41. comp. with 45.) of those to whom the instructions of Christ and the apostles are directed (comp. Diss. de sensu historico, note 18, 183,), there will be certainly not a few, whom that decisive period of the kingdom of heaven, though it be long delay. ed (v 45. Matt. xxiv. 48. xxv. 5. 19.), shall at length come upon unawares, wbile they are alive. But as this time was to be unknown (Luke, an. 39 s. 46. Mark, x111. 35. Matt. xxiv. 36.—xxv. 13. 1. Thess. V. 2 ss.); teachers merely human could not exhort to watchfulness those during whose life-time the destined period for retribution will be just at hand, unless they gave this advice to men of all periods of the world. But further: men of former ages, who were negligent of this precept, oortuinly will be taken unprepared by that signal period of retribution; since by the advantage of death they neither become more prepared, nor do they escape out of the power of the judge, so that he cannot subsequently appoint a day for them (11. Cor, v. 10.).








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