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additions and corrections. * But the marked progress which biblical criticism and exegesis had made towards the end of the last and in the beginning of the present century, was conspicuous in the manuals respectively, of Hänlein, whose work is particularly distinguished by its agreeable composition, of J. C. Chr. SCHMIDT, who abounds with clear and unbiassed views, and of J. L. Hug, who excels all his predecessors in deep and fundamental investigations. Eichhorn has also extended his inquiries to the subjects comprehended in the introduction to the New Testament, but has published no more at present than the particular introduction. The subjects, in this department, which have engaged the attention of the inquirers, as of principal importance, and have occasioned many hypotheses and learned controversies, are the following: the arrangement of the manuscripts according to recensions and classes, (GRIESBACH's system of recensions ;) – the manner of illustrating the agreement of the first three gospels ;-the chronology of Paul's epistles, and, since the publication of SCHLEIERMACHER and BRETSCHNEIDER's works on this subject, also the authenticity of the gospel of John, and of the epistles to Timothy. ||

* J. D, MICHAELIS Einleit, in die Göttlichen Schriften des Neuen Bandes, Göttingen, 1760, Vierte Ausgabe, 1788. Introduction to the New Testament by John Dav. Michaelis, translated and considerably augmented with notes, explanatory and supplemental, by HERBERT MARSH, Cambridge, 1793, 6 vol. 8vo. A German translation of these additions was published by C. Fr. C. ROSENMÜLLER, at Göttingen in 1795, 1803, 2 Bände, 4.

+ H. K. A. HÄNLEIN Handbuch der Einleitung in die Schriften des N. T. 2 te Auflage, 1802-1809, 3 Thl. 8.-J. C. Chr. Schmidt's hist. krit. Einleitung in das N. T. Giessen, 1804, 1805, 2 Theile, 8.-J. L. Hug's Einleitung in die Schriften des Neuen Testam. Tübingen, 1808, 2te Auf. 1821, 2 Bde. 8. (An English translation of this work was published by the Rev. DANIEL GUILDFORD WAIT, LL. D., London, 1827, 2 vols. 8vo. Tr.)

Einleitung ins N. T. Th. 1-3, 1804–14. Also under the title, Kritische Schriften, Th. 5-7.

(A view of the principal objections which bave been recently urged against the authenticity of St. John's gospel, and a very able defence of it, may be found in Kuinöls Prolegomena, 2, pp. 11—34, Lips. 1817, Tr.]

1 [The authenticity of the epistles to Timothy has been defended by

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With respect to the subjects under review, other nations are far behind the advances which have been made by the Germans; and Holland and England have contented themselves with acquiring some of the principal works of Michaelis and Eichhorn by means of translations. The general causes of this are to be found partly in this fact, that in those countries the Bible is not studied with so much ardour as with us; and partly also in this, that the doctrinal views of foreign divines are opposed to the results to which many of the disquisitions tend. Only the works of Lanigan, a Roman Catholic of Italy, t and Horne, 1 deserve to be mentioned. Both these writers comprehend the Old and New Testaments, and the latter the exegetical helps also, as biblical antiquities, geography, and other subjects of this kind. The author has made use also of German writers, but not since the time of Michaelis and Eichhorn.

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J. F. Beckhaus, in a work entitled: Specimen Observationum criticoexegeticorum de vocabulis erat any queros et variis dicendi formulis ia I ad Timotheum Epistolam authentiæ ejus nihil detrahentibus, Lingen, 1810, 8vo. Tr.)

(The unrestrained licentiousness of assertion, founded in many cases solely upon hypothesis, and in direct opposition to general tradition and whatever evidence is afforded by history, in which some of the late German critics have indulged, has with reason given offence to grave and sober men, both in their own country and elsewhere. Disquisi. tions of the kind referred to, do by no means tend to the results with which the German neologists have satisfied themselves. They tend to a fundamental acquaintance with Scripture, to a confirmation of its claims as the inspired Word of God, and to a sound and incontrovertible system of religious faith, founded in all its parts, not on metaphysical philosophy or traditional authority, but on the Bible, and nothing but the Bible. Tr.) + Institutiones biblicæ, T. I, Ticini, 1793, 8vo.

An Introduction to the critical study of the Holy Scriptures. London, 1816, 3 vols. Svo. (The sixth and last edition, in five vols. 8vo, London, 1828, is much enlarged and improved. Tr.]

♡ [This is a mistake, as Mr. HORNE has availed himself of some of the latest German writers, especially in his last and improved edition. The author has omitted to mention the Introduction to the Old Testament and Apocrypha, by Robert Gray, D. D. (now bishop of Bristol,) published at London, 1790, 8vo; and the Key to the New Testament, by

To complete the account of German literature in this department, it is necessary to give a place to the various periodical papers and magazines, which contain in part critical reviews of writings on these subjects, and in part discussions on particular points; as, for instance : J. D. MICHAELis exegetische und orientalische Bibliothek, 24 Bde. Göttingen, 1771 -83, 8;—the same author and Chr. Th. Tychsen's Neue exeget. und oriental. Bibliothek, 8 Bde. 1784-1789;-EichHORN's allgem. Bibliothek der biblischen Literatur, 10 Bde. Leipzig, 1787–1801 ;-the same author's Repertorium für biblische 'und morgenländische Literatur, 18 Theile, Leipzig, 1777--1786, 8;-(CORRODI's) Beiträge zum vernünftigen Denken in der Religion, 18 Hefte. Winterthur, 1781-1994, continued (by KELLER,) Heft. 19, 20, 1801—2 ;-Paulus N. Repertorium für bibl. und morgenl. Lit. 3 Theile, Jena, 1790 -1;-the same author's Memorabilien, B. 1-8, Leipzig, 1787–96 ;-Henke's Magazin für Religions - philosophie, Exegese und Kirchengeschichte, 12 Bde. (the last six also under the title: Neues Magazin, Th. 1–6;)—the same author's Museum für Religions wissenchaft in ihrem ganzen Umfange, 3 Bde. Magdeburg, 1804–9;—J. C. Car. SCHMIDT Bibliothek für Kritik und Exegese des N. T. Th. 1–3. Herborn, 1796–1802 ;-GABLER's theol. Journal, u. a. m.; -E. F. C. RosenMÜLLER und G. H. ROSENMÜLLER biblischexegetisches Repertorium, Heft 1. Leipzig, 1822;-Paulus theologisch-exegetisches Conservatorium, Heft 1, 2, Heidelberg, 1821-22.

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THOMAS PERCY, D. D., bishop of Dromore, 3rd edition, London, 1779, 12mo. These works are too well known to English readers to require any notice.—He has also passed over the works of Harwood, Pritius, and others; accounts of which may be found in Horne, ubi sup. and in Marsh's Lectures, Lect. iii. Tr.]

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Scriptures of the Old Testament.



Translated from the German,


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