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the royal army retired. In the same night, the Chat. twentieth of June, the insurgents abandoned the post, s*rv,-w and under Garret Byrne, of Ballymanus, a catholic gentleman of the county of Wicklow, retreated to Vinegar-hill, which was Income the prime station of the rebel force.

To surround this post on all sides at once was the proceedings plan of Lake, the chief commander, and several° earmy' armies moved from different quarters for this purpose. Dundas, Duft'e, and Loftus from the vicinity of Kilcavan, followed the march of Garret Byrne: Eustace and Johnson advanced from Ross; and Needham from Arttow and Gorey. After its victorious defence of Arklow, the royal army there had continued some time closely in its quarters, sending patroles with great caution on the road toward Gorey. The country about the latter was in a few days evacuated by the rebels, to the no small joy of many loyalist families, who, by the sudden and un^ expected defeat of Walpole, had been prevented from escaping, and on whom the enemy had been Jiving at free quarter. Needhara's forces marched from Arklow on the nineteenth of June, and from Gorey on the twentieth toward Vinegar-hill. The movement of the army from Ross was a kind of 3urprize 'to the bands of Philip Roche on Lacken> who fled in the utmost confusion, leaving their tents behind with great quantities of plunder. They might have been pursued with slaughter, if Roche had not practised stratagems. He distributed a number of horsemen with banners displayed, as it

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Chap, were in defiance, which gave the appearance of a ^,-r-,'.'for<-.e prepared for battle, and intimidated the royal troops from sudden onset, while his infantry were retreating at full speed. Himself was the hindmost in flight from the hill. He overtook his infantry, and marched to the post of Three-rocks, without loss of a man. Massacres at Vinegar-hill, the great objecT, of attack, had, with feiiT.egar" the town of Enniscorthy at its foot, and the country far around, been now above three weeks in possession of the rebels since the twenty-eighth of May. During all that time the face of affairs had been hideous beyond description. From the first moment of disturbance, the common people on both sides, in this country, had rendered the commotion a religious quarrel. But at Enniscorthy, where men of rancorous bigotry and murderous dispositions had gained influence, or acted unrestrained, the spirit of intolerance was chiefly manifested, and was felt on all sides through a space of several miles. Horrors and incessant apprehensions of death attended the hapless protestants, who had not escaped from the devoted ground. They were every where seized. A few were assassinated on the spot where they were caught, but most of them dragged to Vinegar-hill, where, after a sham trial, often without any form of trial, they were shot, or transfixed with pikes; many lashed, or otherwise barbarously treated, before the final execution. To state with indubitable accuracy the number butchered in this fatal spot, I cannot pretend. It is believed Heved on good grounds to have fallen little, if at c" ^pall, short of four hundred. Much greater still would Wy^»/ it have been, if individual humanity or friendship had not, in many instances, interposed to arrest the hand of murder. Philip Roche saved the lives of many. Even in his distant post at Lacken he rescued some, by sending for them under pretence of accusation and trial, and then dismissing them with protections. ,

The exception of the protestants of Killegny, *„*2[£? parish five miles to the south-west of Enniscorthy,11?of which I am at present the incumbent, is considerably remarkable. Here not a protestant was killed, nor a house burned. Surrounded on all sides before they heard of danger, the protestants of this parish had found escape impossible. They were admitted as converts to the Roman catholic worship by the rev. Thomas Rogers, the parish priest, a man of comparatively superior education, who gave them privately to understand, that he expected no more than an apparent conformity to please the multitude, and seems to have exerted his influence for their protection, Philip Roche interposed in their favour whenever opportunity occurred. Much may be attributable also to the respect of the lower catholics for Mr. Fitzhenry, a gentleman of their own religion, resident among them, whose disapprobation they might not, even in such lawless times, entirely contemn. Nor ought I to omit that the peasantry here had not been previously irritated by floggings or other violences: nor that Robert Shap


Chap, land Carew, esquire, their landlord, had immediv__>ately before the insurrection, made an impressive speech to the assembled people, describing the evil consequences which rebellion and a6ts of atrocity ■would draw upon themselves. The reverend Samuel Francis, my predecessor, was, with his family, once forced to attend service in the catholic chapel, and remained afterwards unmolested; but would have been in danger of starving, if he had not been supplied with provisions by the priest and Mr. Fitzhenry. To the forbearance of the catholics in this, was contrasted their behaviour in the bordering parishes, above all in Killan, where a spirit more atrocious was displayed than even at Enniscorthy. Here a ruthless mob was employed in collecting the protestants of both sexes with intention to burn them alive in the parish church, or, in their own phrase, to make an orange pye of them, when their design was prevented by a body of brave yeomen from, JKilcdmond in the county of Carlow. Attack of On the twenty-first of June, atseven in the morning.

Vinegar- , °

hui, June a royal force of at least thirteen thousand effective

21 1798

men, with a formidable train of artillery, was to com-mence an attack, from all quarters at once, on the great station of Vinegar-hill, where probably were posted twenty thousand of the rebels; but these were almost destitute of ammunition. An onset with pikes, in the night, on one of the surrounding armies, bad been strenuously, but in vain, advised by some chiefs in this multitude, who chose rather to await without a plan the fortune of the

day. day. The town of Enniscorthy was attacked, at the Chap. stated time, by the army from Ross, -while showers v_J of bullets and shells were poured against the hill from the artillery. After the expenditure of their scanty ammunition, in a contest of an hour and a half, the insurgents fled toward Wexford, through the space which had been ^destined for the station ©f Needham's army. This general, from causes not satisfactorily explained, arrived not at his post till above two hours after the appointed time, when the routed bands had effected their escape. The commonly entertained opinion is, that the chief commander had designedly so managed as to leave this gap for the enemy's retreat. The full execution of the original or ostensible plan might have urged their despair to a dangerous effort. They might have forced their way on some side with slaughter, or sustained a tremendous havoc in the attempt. To oblige the whole multitude to surrender, and thus put an end to the rebellion, was supposed to have been Lake's design; and this would have been certainly far the wisest measure, if it had been practicable: but the general might have been with reason apprehensive, that his disorderly troops could not be restrained from the massacre of the unfortunate people, when they should once have thrown down their arms. Except in Johnson's army, in which by the attack of Enniscorthy, the number of killed, wounded, and missing, amounted to ninetythree, the loss of the royal forces was quite inconsiderable; nox was that of the rebels much greater;


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