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an order from any other court contrary to their determination, he should be deemed a betrayer of her Majesty's prerogative, of the privileges of their house, and of the rights of the subjects of Ireland. The commons were also solicitous to maintain their privileges. A money bill, transmitted to England in 1709, and returned to them with alterations, was rejected in its present form by a large majority. But the privileges of both houses were indefensibly violated by an act of the English parliament, in 1714, to prevent the growth of schism, an a6l levelled by the queen's ministry against the presbyterians, as whigs, both in England and Ireland. This law was made to include Ireland as fully as any part of England, as the ministry knew that a bill to this purpose could not pass in the Irish house of commons, where the whigs had a small majority.
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English affairs— Union of England and Scotland-
Chap. William the third, vested by parliament with
Prance, whose plans he repressed of inordinate am- Chap.
bition, he at length concluded a general peace with \_.jj that power in 1697. Delicate in fram« by nature, and vexatiously agitated by the factious proceedings of the English parliament, particularly in the resumption of the Irish forfeitures, he gradually declined in constitution, till his death was hastened by a fall from his horse. As Mary, his queen, the eldest daughter of James the second, had died before him, the crown, by an act of parliament made in 1689, devolved to Anne, the sister of Mary, in 1701.
This princess fulfilled the foreign engagements of her predecessor, in entering into a confederacy with the German emperor and the Dutch commonwealth for a war against France, to prevent the establishment of a grandson of the French monarch on the throne of Spain. She accomplished in 1706 a union of England and Scotland into one kingdom, styled, cognominally with the island of which they are parts, the kingdom of Great-Britain; a union plainly necessary for the independence of both in the growing magnitude of continental powers, yet not obtained without labour, largesses, and finesse. The war was prosecuted with a success quite glorious on the side of the Netherlands, where the famous John Churchill, duke of Marlborough, at the head of a confederate army, seemed to threaten the French monarchy with the lowest degradation. But the queen, whose councils at first were directed by whigs, was in the four last years of her reign guided by a tory ministry,
Chap, who concluded in 1712 a peace with the French v-P^,Jrking, on terms vastly less disadvantageous to him than those which he had before vainly solicited. On the decease of Anne, in 1714, without offspring, the crown devolved, by an a6l of parliament passed in 1700, on George, eleelor of Hanover, who was, by his mother Sophia, grandson of Elizabeth, the only daughter of king James the first, and wife of Frederic elector Palatine. This important event, accomplished by the vigilance and activity of the whigs, was very mortifying to the Jacobites, who had fondly hoped the restoration of the Stuart line. James had died in France in the year 1700, but his pretensions to the British crown were inherited by his son, thence denominated the pretender, styled also the Chevalier de Saint-George, Encouraged by a general disaffection of the tories, which was fomented by severities of the new government, seemingly pushed beyond the bounds of necessity and sound policy, the partizans of this prince raised a rebellion in North-Britain and the north-western counties of England, in the latter part of the year 1715. 'But, deprived of assistance from France by the death of his friend, Louis the fourteenth, at the critical juncture, and dreaded by all protestants of reflexion on account of his bigotry to the religion of his father, the chevalier, though he landed in Scotland to inspirit his adherents, was quite unsuccessful. The rebellion was suppressed; many of its leaders executed; and the new line of monarchs firmly, seated on the British throne. ••"' . .- .- '••-'» . ... Although
Although the last ministry of Anne had seemingly c H A P. taken measures to leave Ireland open to the attempts v.^lJ of the Chevalier de Saint-George, since the parlia-p.,"^^ ment of this kingdom had been prevented by a pro- I6' rogation from-the passing of a bill of attainder against that personage, and great part of the army on the Irish establishment had been disbanded, while partizans of the chevalier were openly recruiting in this country for his service. Yet to the accession of her successor, George the first, not the smatlest shew of opposition was made among the Irish. A parliament, convened in the November of 1715, by the lords justices, the duke of Grafton and the earl of Galway, manifested a zealous loyalty. Beside the recognition of his Majesty's title, and other acts of the same import, a bill of attainder was passed against the chevalier, including a reward of fifty thousand pounds for the seizure of his person. An ac"l of attainder, with conGscation of his estates, and a reward of ten thousand pounds for his caption, was also decreed against James Butler, duke of Ormond, who had already, with too great rigour, been attainted by the British parliament, for his co-operation with the tory ministers of the late queen. The commons granted supplies without hesitation; they obliged those gentlemen to beg pardon on their knees, who had addressed the late sovereign in favour of Sir Constantine Phipps; they entered into an association against the pretender and his adherents; and, in an address to the king, they requested the removal of Arthur, earl of Anglesey, from his .... •- councils.