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twenty-seventh, against the counterscarp and two cHAi\ towers on each side the breach. Five hundred gre- ***-"; nadiers, leaping from the farthest angle of the trenches, ran toward the counterscarp, and, dislodging the enemy in the midst of a tremendous fire, pursued even to the breach, and many of them actually entered the town, while the Irish fled in confusion from the walls. But those, who had been thus too impetuously carried forward by their ardour within the city, were overwhelmed by the rallying foe, so that few could effect their retreat unwounded, while the regiments, destined to support them, had, according to orders, halted at the counterscarp. The Irish rushed with fury to the breach and elsewhere to the walls; the women mingling with the men and throwing stones at the assailants. A regiment of Brandenburghers drove the besieged from a battery, but were unfortunate in their success, for most of them were slain by an accidental explosion. After an incessant fire of great and small arms for three hours, when five hundred of William's men were killed, and above a thousand desperately wounded, he ordered a retreat. On the following day, demanding a truce for the interment of the dead, he was haughtily refused by the governor. The English were ardent for another assault; but the king, fearing farther loss and delay in an advanced season, in a country where the roads might soon be rendered impassable to artillery by rain, ordered the siege to be raised; and his troops retired slowly without molestation. Here too as at Athlone,

the

Chap- the army was attended by a mournful train of pro

VVVTIT

v^^J testants, abandoning their dwellings, destitute of shelter for themselves and ehildt<en, and exposed to the indiscriminate ravages of the soldiery, but a soldiery restrained to rules of better conduct by the presence of their king, who was severely attentive to salutary discipline. charafterof Some catholic writers, in their zeal against heresy, w.iham. kave most shamefully traduced the conduct of William, by charging him with deeds of cruelty in his retreat from Limerick, as contrary to his Well-, known character as to facts the best authenticated. While his army lay at Clonmel, he proceeded to Waterford, and embarked for England at Duncannon, leaving the command of his forces to count Solmes and Ginckle, and the care of his civil government to two lords justices, lord Sidney and Thomas Coningsby, with a blank in their commission to be filled up by a third name. Thus ended in Ireland the personal command of this great prince, the main object of whose ambition was the independence of Europe, and who, as the friend of mankind, is known by indubitable records to have been favoured privately with the alliance of even the Pope against James, whose narrowness of soul would, in the indulgence of his bigotry for Roman forms of religion, have permitted France to enslave all the neighbouring nations. The character of William, which is justly revered by the protestants of Ireland, and ought to be reverenced even by such catholics as are sensible of the value of political free

dom> dona, is thus truly given by Somerville in his Politi- Chap. cal Transactions. "In the character of William we,, turn our eyes to sterling merit, naked and unadorned; to stern integrity, incorruptible patriotism, undaunted magnanimity, unshaken fidelity; but no splendid dress or gaudy trapping to arrest the attention of the superficial observer. A deliberate effort of the understanding is necessary to perceive and estimate its deserts.."

CHAP.

CHAP. XXXIV.

Reduction of Cork and Kinsale Inj the earl of MarlboroughDeparture of the FrenchRappareesCivil regulationsBattle of the moat of Grenoge State of affairs of the IrishMilitary operations Attack of AthloneDesperate passage of the ford Flight of Saint-RuthProceedings of GinckleBattle of AghrimDeath of Saint-RuthDefeat of the IrishSiege of GalwayAffairs of the Irish Death of TyrconnelSiege of LimerickFalse report concerning LuttrelCapitulationCondition of prisonersArticles of LimerickEmigrationEnnoblement of Ginckle and Rouvigny.

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1690.

Jjefore William had relinquished his enterprise Marlb"°. against Limerick, a proposal made by John Churchil, pedftion!*" ear' of Marlborough, afterwards so renowned, under the title of duke, in the reign of queen Anne, for the reduction of Cork and Kinsale, was accepted, by which the French would be excluded from intercourse with the Irish ports in the south, and the West-Indian traffic of England rendered more secure. The earl, sailing from Portsmouth with a body of five thousand men, effe6led his landing near Cork with little opposition, on the twenty-first of September,

ber, and was soon joined by nine hundred cavalry Chap.

XXXIV.

under Sgravenmore, and afterwards by four thou- v_.y—-/ sand foot under the prince of Wirtemberg, detached to his assistance by Ginckle, on whom had devolved the chief command by the departure of count Solmes. Cork stands at the bottom of an extensive hollow, or wide valley, on the river Lee, built on a cluster of low marshy islands in the river and on the sloping banks on both sides, ten miles from the ocean, near the inner end of a gulf, in great part occupied by islands, which forms one of the finest harbours in the world. At the time of this attack the city was far less in extent than at present, surrounded by marshes and branches of the Lee. The earl had made successful approaches before the arrival of Wirtemberg, who, by insisting on the chief command in virtue'TM his title, while the earl reminded him that he was only a leader of auxiliaries, raised a dispute which threatened to defeat the enterprise, till, by the mediation of La Mellionere, a prudent French officer, the two leaders agreed to hold alternately the chief place. By the politeness of the earl, who, commanding on the first day, gave " Wirtemberg" for the word, the prince was in some degree conciliated, who in his turn gave " Marlborough."

When, on the effecting of a breach, and preparations made for an assault, the governor parleyed, the earl insisted on the surrendry of the garrison as prisoners of war, the prince on the granting of more favourable terms. The dispute continued until the marsh,

through

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