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to impose theh' opinions on other men; •while the r.Or Chap. maniats uould not -be contented unless tliey should ihaoe ^

power to contpel aM others to submit to their imposition mtpain of death; a chaise indeed too clearly proved i>y experience wherever this religion has prevailed. The brave O'Neal, who pleaded that he had take* •no part in the original conspiracy, had heen invited from abroad by his .countrymen, and had always -acxed as an honourable enemy, was yet condemned by Iceton and hi* spliant -court; but the expostular tions of some officers of a more generous spirit prevailed on the republican commander to permit a resexamination of the cause, and the sparing of •iQTNeal'sdife.

<€ralway would have surrendered on a summonss!ege of

-from Ireton, if the dsath of that general at Limerick,Galwa?

fby a pestilence which then wasted Ireland, had not

encouraged Ahe citizens to resistance. Uniting under

iPirestoiQ, Ahey summoned Clanricarde to their aid,

•who convened in this, town an assembly of nobility,

prelates, and gentry, ;to,consult on measures of de

-fonce. Ludlow, to-whomthe command of the Eng

•hsh faoops devolved, a&ed with a severity which

-affected the whole body of -the Irish with dismay,

tgaviagmo quarter to those who had joined the enemy

.since the arrival,of Cromwell, and teeating.allas foes

who withdrew not immediately, on-proclamation for

that purpose, from the quarters of the confederates.

A submission was offered in the name of the nation

by an assembly held in Leinster, and also by that of

•Gialway,.as soon as Goate approached its walls; htft

such,oilers were now too late, as no general treaty

i.. .. , would

Chap: would be admitted, and individual submigsiotis only xxvn'. ... , „ , . .

v—-y—* at discretion accepted. Yet even in this desperate

situation, the infatuated clergy and their adherents continued their seditious practices, clamoured against Clanricafde, and senselessly demanded the restoration of the original confederacy. From a scene of con-sternation, confusion, and uproar, Preston, the governor, fled by sea, leaving the citizens and garrison to their fate, who without the least regard to Clanricarde's authority, surrendered the town to the astonished republicans, who had expected a siege of tedious length. rurthCT Vainly hoping still to cause a diversion in favour

pr°i652.nss'of the royalists in Britain, when their case was desperate, Clanricarde, flying from Galway and penetrating into Ulster, where he was joined by some reinforcements, reduced the castles of Ballyshannon and Donegal. But soon obliged to abandon these posts, and pursued till his forces were dispersed, and his life in danger, he capitulated with the republicans, who granted him leave to reside some time unmolested in their quarters, and afterwards to transport himself with three thousand Irish into the service of any potentate not hostile to the English commonwealth. Fleetwood, who had become a son-in-law of Cromwell by his marriage with the widow of Iretoh, found, on his arrival, with the commission of chief commander of the forces in this kingdom, the country reduced, and the people every where submitting to the terms dictated by the victorious republicans. Murders committed in the beginning of the rebellion were avenged by death and the total confiscation cation of property. Persons who had only assisted Chap, in the war, were punished with banishment and the \~^L.J confiscation of a third part of their lands. The marquis of Ormond, lord Inchiquin, the earl of Roscommon, and Bramhal, the protestant bishop of Derry, were distinctly named, as incapable of pardo'n for life or estate.


High courts of justice were erected in the several Executions. provinces for the trial of men accused with massacres. So many of the original perpetrators of murder had, in a war of ten years, perished by the sword, famine, or pestilence, or had escaped from the kingdom, that only two hundred on the severest inquisition, were sentenced to death. In Connaught lord Mayo, in Munster colonel" William Bagnal, were condemned on evidence not sufficiently clear. Lord .. Muskerry falsely accused, was honourably acquitted, and allowed to retire to Spain. In Ulster, where the most numerous and horrid murders had been perpetrated, none remained for legal punishment but Sir Phelim O'Neal. This chieftain, so infamous for deeds of religious massacre, had, from the arrival of Owen O'Neal, sank into obscurity; but, near the conclusion of the war, had again arisen into notice by the removal of abler commanders; and given some assistance to Clanricarde. But finally defeated, and destitute by the dispersion of his followers, he concealed himself in a sequestered island, whence he was dragged by lord Caulfield, heir of that governor whom he had treacherously made a prisoner in the castle of Charlemont, and whom his barbarous' retainer's had afterwards murdered. Repeatedly


,cha,p. ,oifered Ufe^ liberty, and estate, on condition of his v—vrr-' producing .any JixytQrigl proof of .his having .received a commission from^he king jar his ipsur^ec^n, .he ,acknowledged the forgery .which I have already .relat.ed, and persevered ,to the last momentof Jpslife ,in .denying that he had,e\^,r been authorised by his Majesty. Declaring that he would not, hy..a calumny .against the ,la^e king, augmentthe-J^ad ,wh^chfalready .oppressed his.oonscience, he^diisp^ayed in his hist mn!ments,a .spirit worthy ,of a better, character.

Rebellion ha,d,np longer existence in Jreland, but its,ghastly.ejffie^ls .were too dong .yisitye. The sword, ftmuiej ^fldi^(;Q1VoroitantIpe§ti,^nee^ h,ad,reduQed -gre^t partof thesisland to a,slate of dreary solitude, ^nd scarcety a bonse had remained undemolished Forfeitures except within ,the .walls pf .towns. Forfeited lands .were assigned for the payment of adventurers and arrears of.the army;,and courts were established at .Dublin and AlhloBe.for the determining of claiois wi^hip a limbed time, under .the direction of ,EJdmofnd Ludlow, Miles Corbet, John Jones, and John leaver, .who .were united with Fleetwood in .tHe.ciyil administration, .wijh the.title of conimissi.nners ,pf s parliament. Copnaught was reserved,en^iirely-for the Jr,ish, .within which they wer,e«to be (Cqiiivpftd by the Shannon and a chain of .garrisons. ^Fhe adventurers .accepted as a full satisfaStion the ,moiety.of the forfeitedlands in nine principal counties, and ,the other was reserved fpr the soldiery, who hftd served .since the arrival of Cromwell in ..,1649. .But &r,Jh.Qse trpops, .w^ohadfought against 4ketJrishjuefore .tbat^period, though tbe^r condition


.was much more distressful, ho provision could be ^xvif' obtained, except soine lands in Wicklow and the *—yr-' adjoining counties, not sufficient to discharge a fourth of their arrears, since they were considered as infected with a mixture of royalists, and consequently not immaculately loyal to the republican cause or the purity of religion. A revenue was also ordered to be raised for disabled soldiers, and for the widows and orphans of those who had fallen in the public service. Except a part of the lands of bishops, and of deans and chapters, granted to the university of Dublin, these, with the forfeited lands in the counties of Dublin, Kildare, Carlow, and Cork, remained unappropriated, and reserved by parliament for future disposal.

In the forming of these arrangements a change took Misceiiane.

.... ous tr!«nsac

place in the administration in consequence of a revo-''ab-
lution in England, where Oliver Cromwell had for-
cibly dissolved the Long Parliament, and seized the
sovereign power under the title of lord protector. In
Ireland, where the news created pleasure in the
army, but horror in some others, a resolution wag
with difficulty procured, by a majority of one in the
council of state, for the acknowledgement of his title
by a proclamation. His second son, Henry, sent
into this country to examine into the state of affairs,
and to establish his authority, found the commission-
ers guilty of enormous frauds for their own emo-
lument, the courts of judicature shamefully misma-
naged, and the obstinate republicans unfit to be left
entrusted with places of power. According to an
instrument of government composed by the protector,
Vol. II. c which

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