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Chap, plished. Conformably to such a design, when an UyO order was issued in the name of the governor of Publin, that not more than five protestants should meet together, under pain of death, even in church, affairs were so arranged, that a person of this persuasion could not get a bit of bread, and hardly a drop of drink, in all this capital; for at the door . of every bake-house was placed a party of soldiers, who suffered none of this description to approach. "Such representations,2' says the impartial Lei and, *' are sometimes derided as the fictions of an enflamed party : but, however improbable these instances of senseless tyranny may appear, they are confirmed by undoubted traditions, received from the sufferers, and transmitted with every circumstance of credibility." Of the truth of this I have had complete conviction from genuine traditions and original writings of persons who sustained hunger during two or three days together. Delay of An uninterrupted perseverance in the execution

succour. . . . . . . . ,

1689. of this plan must have soon accomplished its object in places under the power of the catholics, but, beside their want of success against the men of Derry and Enniskillen, they were alarmed by the news of an invasion from England. This invasion had been long delayed, as William, surrounded by a multitude of embarrassments, occasioned by faction, trea, chery, domestic insurrection, and war with France, had been unable to take vigorous measures for the service of Ireland. A strong squadron from France under Chateau Renault, convoying transports with


arms, ammunition, and money to James, had arrived Chap. in the bay of Bantry, and obtained the advantage in ^^^J a battle, in the beginning of May, over an inferior fleet of twelve English ships of the line commanded by admiral Herbert. The naval force of the enemy, thus rendered formidable, made the sending of troops to Ireland appear more difficult; and an insurrection in Scotland, conducted by Graham, Vis-' count Dundee, who defeated an English army, under general Mackay, with great slaughter, at Killycrankie, engaged for some time in that quarter the attention of the government and military force. At length new levies, consisting of eighteen regiments of infantry and five of horse, completed for the service of Ireland, were placed under the command of two foreign officers, duke Schomberg and count Solmes, of whom the latter was second in authority. Unacquainted with the crooked intrigues of cabinets, and impatient of delay, Schomberg, who had received no encouraging answer to his proposal for transporting the troops, by the shortest passage, from Port-Patrick in Scotland, arrived on the twentieth of July at Chester to hasten the embarkation from that port; but was unable, from the want of necessaries, to sail till the twelfth of August, and even then with only ten thousand of his troops and a part of his artillery.

Unopposed by the Irish garrisons, who might Progress of have much impeded his debarkation, Schomberg, arriving in the bay of Carrickfergus on the thirteenth of July, and landing at Bangor in the county of Down, sent detachments to take possession of

i 4 Belfast

Chap. Belfast and Antrim, abandoned by the enemy, and


«—Y-—' laid siege to Carrickfergus with the main body of his forces. A defence of some length might have been made by this town, environed with a wall and moat, but destitute of a covered way, strengthened with bastions, and defended by a castle with two round towers, built on a precipitous rock, which rises near forty feet from the sea, but on the land side not more than twenty. The garrison, having parleyed at the first approach of the besiegers, but meeting with a scornful refusal of the terms demanded, resisted for a few days the operations of a formal siege, and the fire of six vessels which battered the town; and were permitted in the end to march with their arms and some baggage to the next Irish post. Enraged at the cruelties committed by catholic troops, the Scots of Ulster, without regard to the faith of capitulation, rushed furiously on the garrison, wrested their arms from the men, plundered many of them, and were prevented from slaughter only by the vigorous interposition of the general. Schomberg, reinforced by the arrival of the rest of his forces, ordered his artillery to be carried to Carlingford by sea, as the horses belonging to it had not yet been brought, while he directed his march by Lisburne, Hillsborough, and Dromore to Loughbrickland, through a country desolated by the desertion of its inhabitants, since the protestants had fled on former alarms, and the catholics now with their cattle and effects from the English forces.


The vanguard in this march was formed of the Chap. Enniskilleners, whose successes had been completed iJl^~mJ by the gaining of Sligo, evacuated in a fright by the Irish garrison commanded by Sarsfield. The mean appearance of these men, destitute of all the pomp of war, hardly furnished with its bare necessaries, and unacquainted with regular discipline, quite disappointed the English, prepossessed with a different idea from the well-earned fame of their exploits. Their dauntless and enterprising spirit, notwithstanding the despicable figure of their small horses and accoutrements, might have been signally serviceable on this occasion to the English army, if they had not been too scrupulously restrained by the general within the rules of regular warfare. Bv this restraint the enemy had leisure to burn, as they retired, the towns of Newry and Carlingford,• but were obliged to desist from this course of devastation by a message from Schomberg, who threatened that he would otherwise give no quarter. Dundalk was abandoned without conflagration; and Schomberg, having advanced thus far, encamped about a mile to the north of this town, in low and moist ground, with the mountains of Newry to the east, and a tract composed of hills and bogs intermixed to the north. We find from authentic documents, particularly a letter of doctorGprge, secretary of Schomberg, that many among the English were inclined to treat the protestants of Ulster as enemies; and that these poor people, though cruelly plundered by Schomberg's men, of the little left them by the Irish, adhered with fidelity to the English array, con


vinced that extermination would be their lot on the , final success of the catholics. Such has been generally the unfortunate situation of Irish protestants, doomed on one side to destruction by their catholic compatriots,, and confounded with these compatriots by the ignorant part of the English nation.

The advance of Schomberc; had struck such ter

Eneamp- a

incntat rQj into the adherents of James, that they would

Dundtlk. , J

1689. have retired from Drogheda, and even from Dublin, if they had not been prevented by the persuasions of Tyrconnel. The army at Drogheda was augmented to near thirty thousand by reinforcements from the south; and, when intelligence arrived that the English troops had halted, marshal Rosen, declaring that their commander must be in want of something, drew his army toward Dundalk, while Schomberg so fortified his camp that the enemy could not possibly force him to a battle, if they had with even the utmost earnestness attempted it. To halt had been judged necessary by the experienced leader of the English, as his fleet had not yet arrived at Carlingford; as, instead of a country unfit for cavalry by mountains and bogs, through which he had passed, plains now lay before him where his supplies might

* be intercepted by the numerous horse of the foe;

and as his troops, consisting mostly of new levies, unused to hardship, and ill supplied, had, in a fatiguing march, through a dreary region, in rains and inclement weather, become so sickly, that detachments from all the regiments were employed in collecting and conveying to the camp their enfeebled associates, who had been left behind on


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