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William, were adjudged to death and forfeiture, as c H A P. guilty of high treason, unless they should surrender v^.^11/ within certain periods assigned. Even those who • were detained abroad by sickness, or non-age, could not be restored to their estates until they should have proved their innocence. Two thousand four hundred and sixty-one persons, of all orders and conditions, were included in this sentence, many of whom, as Nagle told the king, when he presented to him the bill, "were attainted on such evidence as satisfied the house, and the rest on common fame.'' The a6t was so framed as to preclude the king from all power of pardoning after the first of November 1689, and was carefully concealed, in the chancellor's custody, from the persons whose lives and properties were thus devoted. When four months had elapsed from the day limited for pardoning, Sir Thomas Southwell obtained a view of it for instructions to his lawyer to draw a warrant for his pardon, which James had promised. When Nagle, enraged at this discovery, declared that the king was merely a trustee for the forfeitures, and had now no power to pardon in this case, the insulted monarch, enslaved by faction, could only impotently complain of the entrenchment on his prerogative by the framing of the bill. Thus this prince, who had imperiously governed the British islands, and might still have continued to rule them arbitrarily, fell by his bigotry into thraldom, into the hands of bigots of his own sect, the most despised of his former subjects. Vol. II. I , Notwith

c H A p. Notwithstanding the compulsion which James, in

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wC-—^ cases violently interesting with the ruling faction, prero^ive.seems to nave sustained, he asserted his prerogative 1689. in some others where his incompliance was less meritorious. He assented, among many, to an a6l for the freedom of Ireland from the statutes enacted by the English parliament, and from appeals to England; and to one which conferred on the Romish clergy all tythes and ecclesiastical dues payable bys persons of their own communion; but he defeated a bill for the repeal of Poyning's law; and would not consent to the establishment of inns of court in Ireland for the instruction of students in jurisprudence, an object of ardent wishes to the Irish catholics. The parliament had voted him a subsidy of twenty thousand pounds a month to be levied on lands; but, finding this insufficient, he imposed by proclamation a tax of the same rate on all chatties, by the sole virtue of prerogative, and resented the remonstrance made against it by his council, saying, "If I cannot do this, I can do nothing." As money was wanted still for the support of a large military force, when no remittance was made from France, the king had recourse to an infamous expedient, a most open outrage on justice and humanity, ioqultaus The utensils of one Moore, who had obtained coinage, from the late king a patent for the coining of brass 1689" money in Ireland, were seized, and a mint was established in Dublin and Limerick, where base metal, such as that of old cannon, was coined into pieces, which were commanded by proclamation to

be be taken as legal payment, with some exceptions, ate Hap. the rate of five pounds sterling for the pound weight, ■ . t . '-* worth about four-pence in real value. The king gave his royal promise that, when this money should be decried, he would receive it in all payments, or make full satisfaction in gold and silver: but by subsequent proclamations the nominal value wa9 raised still higher; the original restrictions were removed; the soldiers were paid in this money; it was poured by them and others on the protestants, who were compelled to take it in all payments, for their saleable goods and old debts, in such manner that the obligation of a thousand pounds was discharged by base coin hardly worth thirty shillings. To purchase gold or silver with this money was forbidden on pain of death: and when protestants attempted to exonerate themselves of this base metal by purchasing with it saleable goods, the king forced them to deliver these goods to his agents at a price fixed by himself in the same metal, and exported them to France for his own emolument. James appeared ultimately the only gainer by this infamous project, as in the course of circulation his own party . had become finally possessed of the greatest part of the spurious money, at the very time when William had power to suppress it by proclamation.

The seminaries of learning could not be expected Attack on to escape the tyranny of this bigoted monarch. The5ity.umv"* protestant school of Kilkenny, erected by the duke i68*' ofOrmond, was by a new charter converted into a Roman catholic establishment. Green, who had

i 2 been

Chap, been formerly disappointed of an imaginary prov--v^^ fessorship in the university of Dublin, was now presented to the governors, with a mandamus to be admitted to the office of a senior fellow. Destitute of the means of subsistence, except the sale of their remaining plate, and exposed to the vengeance of ferocious troops, the governors yet with inflexible courage refused obedience, and pleaded their cause before Sir Richard Nagle, urging the incapacity of Green, the false allegations of his petition, and, above all, the sanctity of their oaths which must be violated by his admission. The fellows and scholars were forcibly ejectedby the soldiery; all private and public property seized; the chapel converted into a magazine, the chambers into prisons; but by the intercession of the bishop of Meath, the members obtained their liberty on the express condition that three of them should not meet together on pain of death; and happily one Moor, a Romish ecclesiastic, a man of letters and liberal sentiments, nominated provost by the king, preserved, with the assistance of another of his order, named Macarthy, the library, books, and manuscripts from the ravages of a barbarous army. peiwution The protectant clergy were almost destitute of subMs^tT°" sistence, as by late acts they were entitled to tythes from none but persons of their own communion, while the Romish incumbents exacted them from all parties. The protectants in this calamitous period, as is usual with mankind in times of oppression, crowded with unusual fervour to their

places

places of worship, a fervour offensive, perhaps Chap. alarming, to the Romish government, who prohi- / '' 'M bited them by proclamation from attending any churches not situate within their respective parishes. Not content with a prohibition which precluded numbers from their worship, since in many places one church only served the purpose in common of two or three parishes, the Romish clergy, with the sanction of magisterial authority, seized protestaut churches for their own use, not only in the country, but also in the capital, among which was Christ Church. As James had pledged his promise for the protection of the protestants, he issued, on their remonstrance, a proclamation, commanding the restitution of their churches. But the authority of a sovereign, attached with stupid zeal to a religion which exalts the sacerdotal above the regal power, was despised in this case by the priests of that religion; insomuch that, though he made earnest exertions to enforce his commands, he was completely foiled in the attempt. With the deprivation of churches were other most serious afflictions sustained by the protestants. When they attempted to purchase provisions with the base coin, these were instantly seized for the king's use, and themselves imprisoned, on a feigned supposition of their intending to send supplies to the enemy. That to starve half of them to death and hang the rest, was the plan of the catholics, was declared by some of this party, who at the same time asserted, that matters could never be right until this should have been accom

13 plished.

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