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Cotton consists of the fine long hairs which grow from the seeds of several varieties of Gossypium. These hairs are so long and numerous, that they completely fill the pod or seed-vessel. They are very delicate, of the same size throughout, but seldom jointed, and they are each separate from the other. The cottonplant is chiefly cultivated in the Southern States of North America and in India. It is produced in great abundance, and is exported to England, where it is manufactured into cloth. The cotton-factories are chiefly in Lancashire.


The colonel being wounded, Champion took the command of the regiment. He was a man of great gentleness and piety ; and if he was not highly endowed with intellectual gifts, he was able to express the feelings of his heart with something of a poetic force. His mind was accustomed to dwell very much on the world that lies beyond the grave; and in the midst of this scene of carnage he gained, as it were, a seeming glimpse of the happy state ; for when the younger Eddington fell at his side, Champion paused to see what ailed him, and looking upon his young friend's pale face, he saw it suddenly clothed with a 'most sweet expressjon.' It was because death was on him that the blissful look had come.

In the mind of Champion the sight had a deep import; for he was of the faith that God's providence is special, and to him the beautiful smile on the features of the dead was the smile of an immortal man gently carried away from earth by the very hand of his Maker.

Yet this piety of his was of no unwarlike cast. Nay, he was of so noble a sort that, though he had willingly chosen the profession of arms, yet, when he prayed, he was accustomed to render thanks to his Creator for vouchsafing to make him a hardy soldier ; and being, he said, very strong in the belief that he could die as piously on the battle-field as in a downy bed, he pressed on content, with his soldiers, to the face of the great redoubt.



JANUARY 31, 1863.

If the termination of the American war is already possible, the cautious and conciliatory proposal of the French government may facilitate the commencement of negotiations. The offer of mediation which was formerly discountenanced by England and Russia, involved an armistice by sea which would have established the independence of the Confederacy by putting an end to the blockade. The French emperor is now careful to profess his friendship for the government of Washington, and to explain that negotiation between the belligerents would not be inconsistent with the continuance of hostilities.


The longer I live, the more I am certain that the great difference between men, between the feeble and the powerful, the great and the insignificant, is energy-invincible determination—a purpose once fixed, and then death or victory. That quality will do anything that can be done in this world ; and no talents, no circumstances, no opportunities, will make a two-legged animal a man without it.



Gutta percha is a substance possessing many useful and valuable properties. It was unknown in Europe until a very recent date, though it is said to have been in common use for a long period previous to our discovery of its utility amongst the natives of the Indian Archipelago. It is the concrete juice of a large tree, and is brought to Europe in irregular masses of a brown colour, containing various impurities, which are easily got rid of by working it in hot water. It possesses the desirable properties of being solid, slightly elastic, and very tough. It is used for very many industrial purposes.


Caoutchouc, or India rubber, which, till recently, was used only for rubbing out pencil-marks, is now made serviceable for almost innumerable purposes. It is the solidified juice of several trees, such as the Siphonia, the Jatropha elastica, and the Ficus elastica. It is got by making incisions in the trunk of these trees during winter, and collecting the juice, which is a compound of caoutchouc and water. The water evaporates, and the caoutchouc remains.


Apply the microscope to any of the most minute of God's works, nothing is to be found but beauty and perfection. If we examine the numberless species of insects that swim, creep, or fly around us, what proportion, exactness, uniformity, and symmetry shall we perceive in all their organs ! what a profusion of colouringazure, green, and vermilion ! On their wings, head, and every other part we discern delicate fringe and rich embroidery. How

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high the finishing ! how inimitable the polish we everywhere behold! The most perfect works of man betray a meanness, a poverty, an inability in the workman ; but the works of nature plainly prove that the hand which formed them was Divine.



In everything which respects this awful, but, as we trust, glorious change of death, we have a wise and powerful Being (the author in nature of infinitely various expedients for infinitely various ends) upon whom to rely for the choice and appointment of means adequate to the execution of any plan which His goodness or His justice may have formed for the moral and accountable part of His terrestrial creation. That great office rests with Him ; be it ours to hope and to prepare, under a firm and settled persuasion, that, living and dying, we are His ; that life is passed in His constant presence, that death resigns us to His merciful disposal.



At that moment affairs were going ill with the French. The appearance of our head-quarters on the knoll had been marked by our allies as well as by the enemy; for now a French aid-de-camp, in great haste, came climbing up the knoll to seek Lord Raglan. He seemed to be in a state of grievous excitement; but perhaps it was the violence of his bodily exertion which gave him this appearance, for he had quitted his horse in order the better to mount the steep, and he rushed up bareheaded to Lord Raglan, to ask that he would give some support to the French, and as a ground for the demand, he urged that the French were hardly pressed by the enemy. • My lord,' he said, “my lord, my lord, we have before us eight battalions !'.... Bending in his saddle, Lord Raglan


turned kindly round towards his right-towards the side of his maimed arm—and his expression was that of one intent to assuage another's pain, but the sunshine of the last two days had tanned him so crimson, that it masked the generous flush which used to come to his face in such moments. He did not look at all like an anxious and vexed commander who had to listen to a desponding message in the midst of a battle. . . . . In his comforting, cheerful way, he said: 'I can spare you a battalion.' But it was something of more worth than the promise of a battalion that the aid-de-camp carried back with him. He carried back tidings of the spirit in which Lord Raglan was conducting the battle. At a time when the French were cast down, it was of some moment to them to learn that the English head-quarters, strangely placed as they were in the midst of the Russian position, wore a scene of robust animation, and that Lord Raglan looked and spoke like a man who had the foe in his power.



“God have mercy upon the poor fellows at sea !' Household words these in English homes, however far inland they may be, and although near them the blue sea may have no better representative than a sedge-choked river or canal along which slow barges urge a lazy way. When the storm-wrack darkens the sky, and gales are abroad, seaward fly the sympathies of English hearts, and the prayer is uttered with perhaps a special reference to some loved and absent sailor. It is those, however, who live on the sea-coast, and watch the struggle going on in all its terrible reality—now welcoming ashore, as wrested from death, some rescued sailor, now mourning over those who have found a sudden grave almost within call of land, that learn truly to realise the fearfulness of the strife, and to find an answer to the moanings of the gale in the prayer: God have mercy upon the poor fellows at



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