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in circulating school journals, 1865 to the close of the century; Kansas from 1S65 to 1874 spent a varying amount, probably averaging more than $1,000 annually upon the Kansas Educational Journal; Virginia, 1870–1891, gave its journal an annual support amounting as a rule to a little more than $500; Rhode Island aided the Schoolmaster with about $350 a year for several years after 1855; and Iowa, Ohio, Maine, North Carolina, and possibly one or two other States for short periods made annual appropriations to circulate “State” organs. Nevada sent to its school officers the official journal of California. The total amount of money spent by all the States in circulating school journals before 1900 was between $250,000 and $300,000, of which Pennsylvania and California expended more than half. The second means by which States officially lent support to school journals was through permissive legislation authorizing local boards or officers to pay for their subscription out of district funds. There was always an element of local option, even in cases of circulation by State appropriation, for before copies could be mailed to school officers their addresses must be secured, and it happened occasionally that county superintendents or school board members were indifferent to the real or supposed advantages of an educational periodical, or even objected to receiving it, and failed or refused to furnish the publishers with their addresses. Direct State support was more certain, less variable with the times, and was accordingly most sought. But permissive legislation or regulation was much better than none and was gladly made use of in the absence of more acceptable recognition. It was doubtless more pleasant for State legislatures to give an optional local support than to deny in toto the request of a committee representing a teachers' organization, not very numerous perhaps nor politically active, but highly respected. Thus the legislature in Iowa,” though unwilling to give direct State aid of great consequence, recognized the “Voice” as the official organ * and authorized district clerks to make the subscription from local funds. The State board of education * subsequently authorized every district to subscribe for the Iowa Instructor and make it part of the library. A single example will serve as an illustration of the permissive legislation enacted in several States, the Minnesota law framed in 1868 and passed at the request of the State superintendent," which provided that: Any district clerk desiring to receive a copy of the Minnesota Teacher and Journal of Education, at the expense of his district,” may in writing direct the superintendent of schools for his county to order such copy to be sent to him, and for that purpose shall give his post-office address. The superintendent shall thereupon order the publisher of said journal to send a copy of it to such address, which shall be preserved by the clerk and transmitted to his successor in office as property of the district. * * * It shall be the duty of the superintendent of public instruction to examine and approve each issue of said journal before it is issued and to require from the publisher of the Teacher a good and sufficient bond. It not infrequently happened that when it proved impossible to secure legislative support, State school officers discovered that no laws after all were necessary. Thus in Indiana (1863) " after failure in repeated efforts to secure a law with reference to the Indiana School Journal, an opinion was rendered that trustees had a right to pay for the Journal out of district funds, though the law made no provision for doing so. Though this at first brought only moderate results in circulation," the decision was given considerable publicity,
and in 1867 there were counties in which every trustee and director were supplied at the expense of local funds. Similarly in Kansas (1885)" the State superintendent secured from the attorney general an opinion to the effect that, since school boards “are usually composed of farmers and others who do not know the law, it will be helpful for them to receive the Journal at the expense of the district, if so voted by the people at the annual meeting,” and the State superintendent of Nebraska decided that without a specific law on the subject, district boards could legally pay for a copy of the Nebraska Teacher” for each member out of local funds, and advises this to be done. The third means by which States or State officials lent support to school journals was official patronage without specific legal basis, for which the aid of laws was not invoked but much sought after by editors and publishers nevertheless. The most general of these was the mere statement, over official signature of the superintendent, that the Journal was his official organ, accompanied very often by an exhortation to teachers or officers to subscribe. The State school commissioner of Ohio advised each county auditor to take the Ohio Journal of Education * since it would contain school laws and comments. A little later the same advice is given to local school boards.” From the great number of similar quotations which could easily be given, only the following cases are cited : It is the means adopted by the State superintendent to convey his decisions as to the intent, interpretation, and construction of the school law, and teachers and officers should take it for no other reason save this." The State superintendent decided to publish monthly all decisions, reports, and questions used in quarterly examinations. This will practically make the Journal the official paper of the department, and since the subscription price is only $1 per year, I would like to see it in the possession of every teacher and school officer in Colorado." A newly elected State superintendent, continuing the policy, affixes his signature to this statement: " I have this day designated the Colorado School Journal as the official organ of the department of public instruction. * * * This designation is an expression of confidence that this paper should be in the hands of all persons interested in education. Much more directly than by mere exhortation, State school officers stimulated interest in the State publication by exerting pressure upon teachers who were candidates for certificates. This influence, through a multitude of rather intangible connections, as well as openly and above board, it is quite impossible to measure, but as financial support and legal preference declined it became a rather powerful factor. The State superintendent exerted much of this pressure through his influence upon county superintendents. In the first volume of the Kansas Educational Journal" he asks county superintendents to work for the circulation of the Journal. Similar support is in evidence for the Indiana School Journal.” If the State superintendent issued a circular letter or pub
lished a signed statement to the effect that designation of anointial organio “is complete evidence of my confidence that the Journal can be safely indorsed by superintendents as a paper which should be in the hand of every teichér,”. and if in addition it happened that the State superintendent was also editor or financially interested in increasing the circulation, considerable force was given to such an appeal. And if the county superintendent was more or less dependent upon the State superintendent-editor for certification, or fond of the sort of publicity found in the thousand-times-repeated item, “Superintendent — of — County sends -us a ‘nice' list of subscribers,” the appeal came with peculiar force to timid, inexperienced, incapable, or suspicious teachers, reasonably perturbed over the consequences of an impending examination. There is much evidence that fear of examination or examiners was early seized upon to spread chrculation, and that it was in a degree effective. A few examples of thus endeavoring to drive teachers into the subscription list are given by way of illustration. Indiana State Teachers' Association (1856) : * Resolved, That school examiners throughout the State be respectfully requested to aid in the circulation of the Indiana State Journal by remitting their fees for examinations upon candidates taking and paying them for the Journal ; and that whenever an examiner shall thus procure five subscribers he shall be entitled to one copy free of charge. A few years later” the convention of examiners voted to add 5 per cent to the grade of all candidates who took a school journal, preference being given to the Indiana School Journal, and an examiner is quoted to the effect" that he will lower the grade of any teacher who refuses to take the Indiana School Journal. The superintendent of North Carolina, among other instructions to examiners, issued the following:" I would especially urge that you ask all, male and female, if they take the North Carolina Journal of Education; and where teachers of experience are found to be without this or any other educational periodical, or any work on the subject of teaching, wholly neglecting such means of improvement, that they be examined with the most critical care and with least allowance for their deficiencies. * * * They owe it to their own character and to the public, deeply interested in their character, to avail themselves of all such means as they can well afford to gain information necessary to the faithful discharge of their duties, and to be unwilling to spare a single dollar for such a purpose argues a narrowness of vision or an indifference to the sacred obligations of the teacher which the public should know and which should meet with your unqualified disapprobation. The State superintendent of Virginia" recommended that teachers be permitted to subscribe for the Journal of Education in lieu of examination. Pressure, often of semiofficial nature, was exerted through resolutions of county teachers' meetings, institutes, and associations. “Resolved, That it is the duty of each teacher to take the Illinois Teacher,”" from the proceedings of a county association, needs only a change of name to embody the content of thousands of such resolutions in favor of official periodicals. The resolution itself, perhaps, became as trite and conventional as many others regularly included at each annual gathering, but its presence suggests some force, other than its inherent worth, at work to prevent forgetting the needy periodical.
*: ...? whofovisothé. Result of state aid, permissive legislation, state and official pasronage described. ..in the foregoing pages? No attempt will be made to Fo this.otion: separately for each form of assistance, though certain phases of the answer will apply to one in a greater degree than to the others. Superintendents repeatedly state that, so far as the use of a school journal as a means of communication was concerned, the plan represented a good investment for the State. The Rhode Island Schoolmaster quotes from the commissioner's annual report: * The appropriation so wisely made for the distribution of “some educational journal " in the State was given to the Schoolmaster. Three hundred and fifty copies were distributed in the district. I can not conceive of a more judicious or economical expenditure for the advancement of educational interests. In order to these necessary objects (communicate with school officers), there was only the choice between special circulars and a regular channel of communication.” I begin with circulars, which were found to be expensive and unsatisfactory. * * * The board of education agreed to unite with the educational association in an enlargement of the Journal to its present size of 48 pages, 12 of which belong to this department, and the annual cost to the school fund is about $500. For this amount every superintendent and every district board in the State receives the entire magazine. The publishers could not afford to do this but for a special donation of $200 in aid of the Journal from the Peabody Fund. Were I called upon to designate the most useful minor expenditure in connection with the school system, I should name this; and I think that school officers would do the same. The editorial labors thus imposed upon me are considerable, and I have not failed to edit every number for four years without assistance or compensation ; but I do it cheerfully, because I see that no part of my work tells better on the efficiency of the school system than the Educational Journal. At the expiration of State aid in Wisconsin (1863) the Wisconsin Journal of Education * stated that it was useless to try to maintain a school journal upon private subscription. “Teachers are so generally transient and fugacious that it will not do to calculate upon the renewal of more than one-fourth or one-third of existing subscriptions.” It is easy to show that none of the early school journals paid more than expenses, that few compensated the editors for clerical and even manual labor involved, and that not a few were conducted at great loss, often made up, as will be shown, by the State associations. The editor of the Pennsylvania School Journal “ lost $1,000 and his labors during the first 18 months of the ex- istence of that periodical. The Connecticut Common School Journal,” in its first three years, cost its editor in excess of every and all receipts more than $1,800. An item of expense not usually included was in this case the payment of more than $400 to writers of special articles. Accepting these as typical of many which might easily be chosen, it is safe to say that State superintendents, in guiding the organization of new school systems, considered direct State aid of school journals a good investment, and that it was often a question of State aid or no school periodical. But there is evidence from the first of certain disadvantages inseparable from such State patronage. In one of the first two journals circulated at State expense, the Michigan Journal of Education," it is complained that school directors * were refusing to take the Journal from the post office because the State had failed to make appropriation to pay postage. In New York,' after a few years, the State legislature voted the appropriation for the District Journal very re
luctantly, alleging that school officers were not taking it from #he 'pët-office;’ :* that it was not interesting—even that it was dull reading for which the State. ; : . .
was wasting its money. ... : :". : ... : : " ... : ". . . . . . . .
After commending the Michigan Journal of Education as an official organ, Supt. Gregory remarks: * “In a few instances the directors have shown so much indifference as not to call for their copies, but in the great majority of cases it is inquired for with interest, and often is circulated and read throughout the district.” Such examples as the foregoing indicate that indifferenco often characterized the attitude of school officers to the official organs. A cause of occasional controversy grew out of rival claimants for State aid or patronage. When the Voice of Iowa suspended publication,” its subscription list was transferred to a small periodical of literary nature. The teachers' association of the State" and the secretary of the State board of education each established organs. All three claimed recognition as the State organ, the first upon the ground of being successor of the original official journal. The State board diplomatically designated all three as equally official. Fortunately the first soon ceased publication and the other two united. The large sums which were the prize accompanying official designation in California were the occasion of bitter controversy. The first hint of partisan or personal use of the State organ was given by a State superintendent about to relinquish editorial control in favor of his successor, of whose professional spirit he by inference expressed doubt in the following statement: The Teacher is sustained mainly by the State subscription," without which it is doubtful whether a journal devoted exclusively to education could find adequate support in California. It is the organ of this department exclusively, and therefore should not be used for the promotion of either personal ambition or partisan views. When thus perverted from its legitimate purpose, the State patronage should at once be withdrawn. The subsidy was ably defended upon the ground of its economy to the State," but became a political prize which made or unmade periodicals repeatedly and resulted in contentions among editors, publishers, school officials, and politicians. Another problem which confronted the editor of a State-aided journal, especially if he were State superintendent, was to keep the public from believing that he was making a fortune in part at the expense of the State." To keep the public from being uneasy, many statements of receipts and expenditures were published. The average annual compensation for labor of packing, use of office, and occasional items of postage in the first 10 years of the Pennsylvania State Journal was placed at slightly more than $400." Six years later, when accused of making a fortune out of the Journal and asked for that reason to discontinue advertising, the editor shows the annual income to be only $1,000, and that without advertising the loss would be as much. Several of the States fixed subscription prices so low as to preclude profit except through advertising. For $2,400, the New York District School Journal" was obliged to issue 12,000 copies. Thirty-four hundred copies of the Wisconsin Journal of Education were surnished the State for half as many dollars. Under the terms imposed there was little possibility of private profit at State expense, and citations in preced
* Rept. of State Supt. of Mich., 1860; cited in Mich. J1. of Ed., VII, 88.
* Voice of Iowa, 1858, III, 1.
* Aurner : II, 258, quotes Laws of Iowa, 1858, 107, and action of State board, second session, 49–52.
• Rep. of State Supt. of Calif., 1871–72, 80.
* Pacific Ed. Jl., 1887, I, 40; Ibid, 1896, XII, 13; Western Jl. of Ed., 1898, III,
* Pa. Sch. Jl., 1861, X, 87.
* Ibid., 1867, XVI, 56.
* N. Y. Dist. Sch. Jl., X, 60.