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bought gas engines and paid old debts. With the increased means some former luxuries have come to be necessities. The great advance in the cost of food and clothing has consumed much of the large earnings. It is encouraging to see the new life that has come to Sitka during the past Year. It means work and progress for the natives. The Sitka sawmill has been working almost continuously all winter and spring, the first time it has been operated in over two years. The principal labor is native, the foreman being Peter Simpson, a cottager. The Booth Fisheries doubled the size of their cold-storage plant, and that has given employment to a number of natives. This spring the Pyramid Packing Co. put up a one-line cannery on a very complete and well-built scale. Many of the workmen were natives. They will also fish for the cannery during the coming fishing season, while many of the women will work in the cannery. Many of the natives are under agreement to return to other canneries which have advanced them money for engines and boats. A clam and other sea-food cannery was started here on a smaller scale. This has given employment to several men and women rather regularly all winter. About 10 new fishing boats have been constructed here by natives this season, and this year 10 large seine boats will go from Sitka and about 65 smaller craft. All these activities emphasize the need for industrial training. Trained carpenters, masons, blacksmiths, and mechanics receive better wages; the natives see this and want the necessary training.


By MRs. ISABEL A. GILMAN, Teacher.

General conditions.—The natives of Juneau are prosperous, there being abundant opportunity for work in the vicinity. In winter the mines offer employdant at $90 a month; in summer the numerous canneries and packing outfits in southeast Alaska use native help that includes entire families. There are several good carpenters and boat builders in the village whose services are in demand. The women and girls make considerable revenue from the sale of beadwork and baskets. As a whole the natives of Juneau are industrious, healthy, comfortably housed, and fairly well versed in the ways of civilization. They are also thoroughly alive to the needs of their village. The village, being pile-built, is underswept by tides twice a day This affords easy means of securing fuel. Logs are drifted home and left safely anchored on a sandy beach at low tide; here they are sawed and split into stove wood. There is also safe and easy anchorage for boats of all sizes. About 21 feet of snow fell during the winter. When all city streets were obstructed and dangerous for a period of several months, the native town and the main avenue before it were comparatively clean.

The greatest needs of the people at present are a city drinking water supply, a public hall for athletic sports, and literary meetings during the severe weather.

Course of instruction.—Four grades have been maintained throughout the year, and the following subjects taught: Reading, spelling, oral and written language, and elementary grammar, penmanship, tables, and measures and fundamental drill in elementary rules of arithmetic. practical hygiene, and sanitation, elements of history and geography, citizenship and government, thrift and economy, war finance and patriotism, Red Cross knittin' ' 'riotic songs and flag drills, personal cleanliness, neatness, good health, industry, general knowledge, and current events. Regular and persistent instruction has been followed in matters of food conservation, elimination of waste, war savings, and self-denial in order that our soldiers may have food. Specialized instruction in war geography and history by the aid of maps, magazines, and daily newspapers, has awakened the natives to a better understanding of the demands made by the Government upon all people in the United States and Alaska. The natives have responded to calls made by the teacher for public meetings for discussion of these topics and readily pledged themselves to obey the Government. Some of the men have offered themselves for military duty whenever called upon to serve, and a feeling of regret has been several times expressed that the natives of Alaska were exempt, as a class, from conscription. Red Cross work.-The Juneau native school was the first in the Territory to comply with President Wilson's suggestion and organize a junior auxiliary. Thirty pupils paid their dues. Knitting was taught to all the girls, and five pairs of wristlets for the soldiers were finished and turned in to the local chapter of the Red Cross before it was known that juniors were expected to work for the Belgian children. By this time many mothers had visited the school to watch the girls knit. Enthusiasm spread. A native auxiliary of women was organized at the schoolhouse with 35 active workers. Red Cross directions were followed, and the two auxiliaries became a happy family that filled the schoolhouse every Tuesday evening from 1 to 5 o'clock. The juniors preferred to continue knitting for the soldiers, and in this work their mothers kept them constant company. Many white visitors came to watch them at work. A large display of knitted work was made in a down-town store window, together with a photograph of the knitters. This attracted the attention of hundreds of white people and won many words of praise from the local press Altogether, at this writing 100 pairs of knitted socks, 14 pairs of wristlets, 24 hospital bed shirts, and 13 knitted wash cloths have been finished and accepted as perfect work by the Red Cross. Health conditions.—With the exception of a few cases of measles among halt breeds residing in the native village and attending the white schools, the natives have been comparatively free from sickness. The children are clean, healthy, well dressed, happy, and some of them are very bright intellectually. By order of the mayor and the city council, as the native section lies within the city limits, District Supt. Hawkesworth closed the school one week as a preventative measure during an epidemic of diphtheria among the white people. There were no cases among the natives, and the school resumed work one week earlier than the city schools. During the interim the teacher visited the homes, cheered the people, conducted a class in citizenship, and compiled the property report which accompanies this annual report. Regular attendance of mothers at the Red Cross meetings in the schoolhouse, at which all workers have been persuaded to wear white cover-all aprons, and the demand of the teacher that cleanliness be strictly adhered to, together with a few tea parties for social intercourse, have brought about a feeling of sanitary pride and cheerfulness. Cooperation and harmony are now thoroughly established, and a considerable part of the credit is due to Supt. Hawkesworth and Mrs. Hawkesworth. Publicity.—Perhaps the most important work done by the teacher this past year has been conducting a campaign of publicity for the adjustment of certain erroneous ideas concerning the natives which were prevalent among the white population of the vicinity. This campaign was conducted through the medium

of local newspapers and magazines. Hitherto the local press has recorded all tlle delinquencies of these people and has given much space to their criminal records, thereby placing more than half of the native population in a wrong light before the general public. When the Native Brotherhood held its convention in Juneau, the teacher found an excellent opportunity of placing before the reading public some of the good things accomplished by the order, and some of the hopes and ambitions of the future. This brought forth an editorial in the Alaska Daily Empire, which was widely copied by other papers both inside and outside the Territory. The newspapers were glad to print anything of interest that was properly written. The natives themselves were quick to profit by the publicity given them and evinced a desire to live up to the ideals expressed. Competitive patriotism, through reading of their own good work and that of their neighbors, resulted in much mental enlightenment in the Juneau native village. The success of the scheme has been far-reaching and remarkable. White people came to the school to see with their own eyes what was being done; others attended native meetings and were interested readers of native items. At this writing many of the native miners are regular subscribers to one, and sometimes two, daily newspapers; one man has been appointed “fourminute" speaker at church and at other public gatherings in the native village to inform his fellows on the progress of the war, explain to them the nature of the Liberty bonds, and other Government measures, including world knowledge. Four natives have taken instructions and have applied for certificates of citizenship according to the territorial law, two of the members for the express purpose of having their daughters eligible to enter the fifth grade in the city schools in September—a precedent having been established the previous year. Altogether the outlook for Juneau is very encouraging. The present trend is toward the elimination of racial prejudice. Library.—The school library has been extensively used and enjoyed by the more advanced pupils, also the magazines furnished by the teacher. Pupils have read the newspapers in school and then reread them to their parents with good results.



I have been devoting considerable time to the study of the various problems confronting the natives, but the tribes are so widely scattered and the con(litions under which they live are so varied that at the present time I do not feel justified in going into the subject at length.

The Bureau of Education is doing splendid work, especially among the Eskimos who have been taught the value of reindeer herding. As a result many natives have become comparatively wealthy.

The various missionary bodies have been requested for reports on their activities, but to date only partial replies have been received and so can not be fully commented on. I have, however, visited a number of the mission schools and can testify as to the excellence of their endeavors and to the really constructive results accomplis-hed.


The schools for native children in Alaska are under the supervision of the Bureau of Education of the Interior Department, being directly supervised by five district superintendents in Alaska, responsible to the chief of the Alaska Division of the Bureau of Education, with headquarters in Seattle. For the past year these schools numbered 71, two of which were summer schools, having a total enrollment of approximately 3,500. The majority of these schools are located in native villages, each of which is usually in charge of a man and wife. On account of the variety of the work in connection with a native school the Bureau of Education finds it advantageous to appoint married people. Not only must these Federal employees be capable of teaching school, but they must also possess practical abilities which will enable them to promote native industries, domestic arts, personal hygiene, social welfare, and in general improve the living conditions of the adult as well as the school population of the village and the vicinity. The schoolroom and living quarters of the employees are usually under one roof, forming a center from which quite often there issues the only uplifting and civilizing influence in that community. There has been and still is an attitude of aloofness toward the native population by the white people of Alaska which is not conducive to rapid advancement by the former race. Quite often the bureau employees and the missionaries are the only whites who seem to have any interest in the natives' welfare. Until a tolerant and sympathetic attitude is generally exhibited by the white race, the natives will be constantly handicapped in their efforts to reach a higher plane of civilization. The natives of Alaska are unquestionably an asset to the Territory, and the intelligent development and improvement of this asset will be remunerative to Alaska in many ways. These native Alaskans are self-reliant, law-abiding, and honest, and the only help they have had from the Federal Government is the establishment of schools in the larger villages,

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