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PART II.-DETAILED REPORTS.
SECTION 1.-REPORTS BY SUPERINTENDENTS.
REPORT OF WALTER C. SHIELDs, SUPERINTENDENT OF THE NORTHWESTERN DISTRICT.
In the 20 schools within this district the number of pupils enrolled was 1,088, and the entire population of the villages reached by these schools was 3,960. Twenty-five white teachers were under appointment and 13 native teachers; one of the latter received payment in reindeer instead of in money. Inspection.—All of the schools were visited during the year except Shungnak, and several were visited twice. The trips of inspection covered 4,052 miles, 2,664 by water and 1,388 by land. I was absent from headquarters 127 days. During the past eight years I have traveled on tours of inspection 25,264 miles, of which 11,005 miles were behind reindeer. For cross-country runs and for three-fourths of the winter travel necessary in this district deer are, to my mind, far superior to dogs. They insure comfort, economy, and safety. On trails that are hard, especially on the coast, and where feed is hard to get, a dog team makes better time and can be cared for more easily. After the middle of April it is very hard to get deer that are still in good enough condition to be driven. I consider deer better than dogs for three-fourths of the traveling I have to do. I have found more comfort when traveling with deer. Your outfit is not limited, as you can hitch on another deer is necessary. Each man has his own sled and has plenty of room. He can ride or run as he wishes, and his sled is loaded with the idea that the man is to ride. Good deer, well trained, and with good sleds and harness, can be controlled better than an equally good dog team. This will be disputed by every dog driver, but I still contend that good deer driven by lines can always be better handled than good dogs driven by word of mouth, just as a good team of horses can be driven better than a good team of dogs. I have found a deer team more economical than dogs for two reasons: The question of feed for the deer is taken care of by the country, and you have no roadhouse bills for the team. The greatest argument for deer is that they insure a greater degree of safety in a country where winter travel always has its menace. I have already stated that we are not limited as to the size of the outfit, which means that a deer man always carries a lot of extra clothes. The camping outfit is more complete than can be carried on a dog sled. The deer outfit is seldom less than three sleds. And three sleds make a camp which will stand up against any storm that I have ever met. There is always the assurance that at the worst a man can eat one of his deer. And over most of the country there is always food for the animals. The dog driver, is storm bound, is always haunted by the fear of running out of food for his team. Deer do not freeze, and if there is feed (which is invariably found), there is no condition that can arise, except an accident to which men and animals are always liable, which will cause the driver any fear for his animal. Dogs in severe weather require constant attention. Flanks will freeze and feet will Lleed.
In all my winter traveling I know that I owe my comfort and safety to the devotion and efficiency of the Eskimos who guide me. Tautuk, Mukpcadeluk. and Orealuk are splendid fellows and deserve much more from the Government than they get and more from me personally than I can afford to give. All the summer trips were made through the courtesy of the Coast Guard Service on the U. S. S. Bear. With the exception of Shishmaref, which is depopulated during the summer, the Bear touched at every station on the coast. The merchandise for the cooperative stores at Wainwright and Gambell were carried by the Bear, as were also the supplies for the teachers at these places and at Barrow. The school supplies for all points north of Kotzebue and for St. Lawrence were delivered by the Bear. I wish to express my appreciation of the assistance and courtesy extended to me at all times by Capt. P. H. Uberroth and by all of his officers. Many times extra duties were performed by the officers and men of the Bear, which were often arduous and unpleasant. But at all times such assistance was rendered in a cheerful manner, and it was made plain that Capt. Uberroth believed in to e work and wanted to do what was in his power to assist it. I was permitted to leave the ship for three days at Kotzebue to make the trip to Noorvik. First Lieut. J. F. Hahn accompanied me and made an inspection of the sawmill and electrical machinery at Noorvik. Mr. J. J. Dolan, electrician of the Bear, also made the trip and inspected the wireless plant. I wish to express my appreciation of the assistance and suggestions made by Lieut. Hahn and Mr. Dolan. Dr. Murray, of the Bear, in addition to the regular medical work, performed many special operations on the eyes of natives in the north who could not be brought to Dr. Neuman at Nome. Teachers.--There are two things that the superintendent of this district takes great pride in—the Eskimos among whom we work and the teachers who do the work. The work in this district is in the hands of trained and capable men and women. The teachers in this district are experts, and most of them have been in the service a long time. This accounts for the success with which they are doing their work. I am proud of the fact that the standard of village work in this district is of the highest, and that through the work and influence of these teachers the Eskimos in this district are devoted to the Government. All of these representatives of the bureau do their work at out-of-the-way places. The most hopeful thing that I have to report this year is the great success in school and village work attained by our Eskimo teachers. The entire work at Kotzebue, Wales, and Solomon was under the direction of Eskimo teachers. At other places Eskimo assistants were employed with great efficiency. Wales is one of our largest centers and largest schools. This entire work has been under the direction of Arthur Nagozruk, and has been most efficiently done. He has been mayor of one of the best councils any Eskimo village ever had. He organized the reindeer men into a local club that has done good work. Wales has a large church building, but has had no missionary for several years. Arthur Nagozruk and Warren Adlooat, with the assistance of a good church committee, managed the church themselves. The school, mission, and village work at Wales the past year was very successful. It shows what IXskimos can do under the leadership of one of their own race. I consider the work done at Wales by the Eskimos under the direction of Arthur Nagozruk the past year the very best “exhibit " that our service has to show in this district. At Kotezbue the work was under the direction of Charles Menadelook. He was a stranger to that section, and even had to become accustomed to the change in the dialect. Kotzebue is not an easy place, with its choice assort
ment of old-timers who pose as experts on everything connected with the natives. It has tried white teachers to the limit. Charles Menadelook took hold with considerable energy. He worked through the church and through the council and forced his personality on the entire village. Both of these young men are a great credit to the service, and we should be proud of them. With such possibilities among the Eskimos there is every reason for us to look forward to the time when a great part of the work in this district (except the medical work) will be in the hands of Eskimo teachers. Both of these men, Nagozruk and Menadelook, are from Cape Prince of Wales, and received their early training under the present chief of this division, Mr. Lopp. Population.—As I stated in the first paragraph of this report, the 20 schools in this district reach a population of 3,960. Outside of these villages the population is estimated to be about as follows: Barrow (the point), 50; Icy Cape, Point Lay, etc., 75; Point Hope and Lisburne, 325; Kiana and points below Shungmak, 75; Deering and Candle, 50; Point Wooley, Cripple, etc., 50; Cape Nome, 25; Koyuk, 75; King Island, 125; scattered, 50. Total population outside of villages with schools, 900. This would make a total Eskimo population for this district of 4,860. Last year I estimated the total population at about 5,000. Since that time Mr. D. W. Cram, of Barrow, reports that about 100 natives left Barrow for the eastward. Most of them, I presume, went over the boundary line. Noorvik is now the largest Eskimo village in this district, with a winter population of 403. Barrow is next with 354, and Wales with 348. Nine villages (including Point Hope) have a population of 200 or over. The average village would have a population of 200. During the year in the 20 villages in which schools are situated there has been an increase of 49, being an increase of 1 per cent. There were 132 births and 83 deaths. Thus, as last year, the birth rate is about 3 to the 1,000, and the death rate 2 to the 1,000. Only 4 villages showed a net decrease in population: Diamede, Gambell, Solomon, and Wainwright. General development.—Perhaps the most pronounced development among the natives is the great tendency to the increase of solidarity of the race. The fairs, the “Eskimo Magazine,” their councils, and their Eskimo leaders are all bringing them closer together. They are feeling more pride in their race and are becoming more independent in their everyday life. One of the most hopeful signs for industrial development for the Eskimos outside of the reindeer industry is the boom in herring and salmon fishing. A cannery has been operated at Kotzebue, employing native labor. A large herring packing plant is planned for Chinik this year, which will employ several hundred natives the great part of the summer. Fishing is work that appeals to an Esikmo in all of its different branches, and it is work at which the entire family can be employed. If these concerns that handle native labor for fishing can plan to develop their work along such lines that they can give natives a chance to own their own fishing outfits and then buy their fish; or if these concerns, after natives have been properly trained, will establish Small fishing stations along the coast under the management of capable natives, and then work out some profit-sharing scheme for them; and if in connection with the fishing stations the concerns can arrange to pay for the native labor partly in supplies at a reasonable figure, then, under these conditions, I can see that the fishing industry furnishes a very fine chance for the Eskimos to obtain work for which they are specially adapted, and also gives them a chance to develop along independent lines.
I have never been able to become very enthusiastic over the future for Eskimos as wage workers. Some have been employed in mines with more or less success. But few Eskimos will stay with such steady labor, and in any case it puts them into competition with white labor, which always brings complications. However, the fishing industry is entirely different and to my mind offers the best industrial opportunity yet given the Eskimos outside of the reindeer industry. The fur catch the past year was very good at places, especially Noatak, White Mountain, and Shishmaref. Lynxes were caught in great numbers up to Christmas and then left the country. The prices paid were the highest on record. There were several fur buyers who traveled over the country, bidding against one another and all paying cash. Willage government.—The village councils have developed more and more each year and have accomplished good work at each village. The councils have settled many problems and have strengthened the work of the school at each place. Among other notable things that have been done by village councils, I would report the action of the Shungnak council when a white man was brought into their village badly shot. The council met, commandeered the very best dogs in the village, irrespective of their owners, got the best driver, and sent the wounded white man across country to Selawik. That village, through its council, did the same thing, and relayed the patient to the hospital at Candle. The council at Wales became much worried when they heard the results of a survey of the prevalence of tuberculosis in their village. They met and passed a law that no one having tuberculosis could attend the big dances in the Kozge. This is something that Bureau of Education representatives have talked of, but which we all deemed impossible of accomplishment. The native council did it in a few minutes and made it hold. War service.—The natives at White Mountain, Nome, and Igloo made cash contributions to the Red Cross. White Mountain gave over $150, much of it their new fund for the purchase of a sawmill. All the villages from Wales to Barrow collected eider down for the Red Cross. Over 1,000 pounds were collected. This represents quite a valuable cash contribution. I believe every Eskimo man from Golovin to Point Hope wishes that he had a chance to help in the war. I do not refer to the sentiment along this line north of Point Hope, because I had no chance to talk with the people. The report was circulated that Eskimos would be expected to register. At once each teacher and official was approached by Eskimo men all eager to be taken as soldiers. It is true that the Eskimos are few and that their race is barely on the increase; but we all know that almost every village has a surplus of men and not enough women. It would not harm the race for a part of them to go to war. On the other hand I can see great benefits to come from the use of Eskimos as soldiers. The race could receive an impetus that would advance it very rapidly. The young men who would return with the experience they would gain in the Army and with their knowledge of the power of concerted action would become the leaders of their people. The Eskimo.—The little magazine started by Mr. E. D. Evans and myself two years ago has almost completed its second volume. It is still working along the same lines originally planned for it and is achieving the ends we had hoped for it. Through this magazine we have given the Eskimos a common meeting ground; we have brought them all closer together; we have interested them all in one another; we have given them something that makes even the most academic side of their education of actual use to them, for the magazine gives them something to read that is of direct interest to them. And all of this has been done without one cent of Government money. The paper does not as yet pay its own way, but those of us who are backing it feel that it furnishes us a very good way to make a direct contribution to the cause.
THE REINDEER SERVICE.
District supervision.—Most of the herds between Nome and Point Hope have been visited by the superintendent during the winter. Those that were not visited, with the exception of Shungnak, were fully covered by a visit to the station and meetings with the herders there. Through our paper, the Eskimo, and an extensive correspondence the Nome office has kept in touch with every herd and with many of the individual herders. The annual fairs furnish the best way to get into touch with each local situation. The fact that we have built up a system of supervision through the Eskimo head herders and the local reindeer clubs also furnishes an excellent substitute for the detailed personal work that used to be required of the superintendent. Local supervision.—I can not overemphasize the need of the appointment of special men to take charge of the reindeer work over large districts. It is impossible to expect a teacher to do all the work that should be done. The demand upon each teacher increases each year as the work becomes more complex. It is very hard to get men who are qualified by training and temperament to study both Eskimos and reindeer. For our general educational work we must emphasize the former, but for Our Specialized reindeer work we should soon begin to emphasize the latter. Diseases and breeding.—There has again been considerable hoof and joint disease in some of the herds. It will be hard to eradicate this without proper range control and expert supervision. Our campaign against the warble fly, which was encouraged by the Eskimo, did considerable good in arousing interest, but I question whether it did much to exterminate the fly. The herds at Noatak, Kivalina, Selawik, and Buckland reported the presence of large caribou bulls during the rutting season. In several cases the bulls were unusually large and stayed through the entire season. This is our best chance to secure new blood, and we look for excellent results. By care in selecting bulls from good stock and, as Mr. Lopp has pointed out, by making sure that the females are grazed on the best ground, we will be able to do a great deal to improve conditions in each herd. However, the fact still remains that we do certainly need a large supply of new blood. After the war it is to be hoped that some arrangement can be made under careful inspection to secure several hundred Tunguse bulls from northern Siberia for distribution. Reindeer fairs.-The two fairs, at Igloo and at Noatak, surpassed anything that we had ever had before. The weather before the Igloo fair was very bad, and there was a deep fall of snow at Noatak. In consequence, the racing events at both fairs were made in slower time than before. There is considerable similarity in all the fairs, yet each proves more interesting than the one before it. The way the Eskimos have taken hold, especially the head herders, is a continual revelation to all of us. The Noatak fair grounds were located along a little creek bed in the foothills. Thick spruce timber surrounded the tents. The racing course was located on a small plateau, from which there was a splendid lookout over the entire course. A brief description of the outstanding features of the Noatak fair will give some idea of the work and of thought that Mr. Maguire put into it.