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grade classes and the courses to be given in these. As the suggested rearrangements involved time allotment to various subjects, the accepted or alleged values of these were again fully considered. It was evident that the world events and the recent experience of Switzerland made the teachers, even more than formerly, insist on positive answers to questions of a subject's value to the pupil after Wis years at school. The propositions for the discussion of the classics were formulated with regard to these considerations:

1. What significance does the culture of the ancients have for our own time? 2. IXoes the instruction at our gymnasia correspond with this significance?

3. Can not the same goal be reached in other ways, and, if so, what adaptation would it entail on the gymnasia of the future? Early in the discussion it was insisted that Latin, to maintain itself, must show that it leads to undoubted present-day values. Since the war, it was urged, important developments have taken place in the industrial and social life, with new social phases, outlook, and ideals—the position of the individual in the State, the place of woman as a member of the Commonwealth, the principle of the family unit, the international position of the State—time must be found to master and to organize new masses of details to prepare the pupil for the place he is now to take. Hence the question,

Can Latin be dropped as an obligatory study and the time thereby gained given to modern subjects, and can the study of the ancients be extended by reading good translations? Time should be found for psychology which, as it is now being developed, moves close to everyday activities; we constantly come into psychic relations with other people creating perplexing situations and problems. Outside of the schools the pupil is left slowly, painfully, and wastefully to acquire the psychology which the schools could more conveniently give

him." On the other hand it was held that the western world has been influenced by the old classic world for centuries, and hence no matter how high it might tower above the old, its roots get their sustenance from the ancient soil. Our modern social organizations—state, church, school, society—are the result of a development in a straight line from the ancient world. If our present-day intellectual conditions are to be apprehended in their integrity and continuity of development, their origin and growth must be understood. Earlier in this account the pupil's gradual release from lessons and entrance upon wage-earning employment has been mentioned as a feature in the school arrangements. The transition period thereby created gives opportunity for the teachers to render service to the pupils, no less important because it comes outside of the usual school programs. In a circular published January 1, 1916, and addressed by the school authorities of Zürich to the teachers of district sc'

*Adapted from Schweizerische Lehrerzeitung, February, 1919.

higher grade schools, and folkschools, is set forth the duty of teachers to help pupils to find employment suited to their aptitudes. The school boards and teachers have, accordingly, cooperated with the Bureau of Statistics to ascertain what callings were most sought by pupils after completing the period of required attendance. The information brought in showed what callings were most attractive to boys and girls, and also in what fields of endeavor their labor was most in demand. It was taken for granted that the teachers would understand that the prerequisites were bodily force and vitality, power of orderly and sustained thinking, congenial manners, resolution in will and deed, and strength of character. The teacher through personal experience understands the pupil's mental and physical capabilities, and is, in consequence, prepared as no one else to assist the parents in selecting his life work. He would reach an understanding with the parents, and perhaps take occasion to explain to them the moral as well as the industrial conditions depending on the choice, and the disadvantage of being without a trade or calling. If a choice is difficult to make, a pupil may, while yet at school, be guided in the general direction of a trade or one of the commercial lines. In performing this duty the teacher, it was pointed out, would often have a delicate task, for he might have to advise the choice of manual labor in cases where the parents would insist on something they regarded as higher as the calling for their children. If the economic conditions of the parents would permit the pupil to pass through only the primary school, or at most, two classes of the higher grade school, a calling consisting in the main of labor with the hands should not be looked upon as unsuitable, unless marked personal gifts pointed to something different. If, despite the statistical showing that clerical positions and offices are crowded by young applicants, a choice of this calling should seem wise, it becomes the teacher's duty to point out that success here depends especially on tact and personal address, readiness in the use of several languages, skill in figures, and the ability to write a neat and legible hand. The circular of the Zürich school authorities also states that young men and women should be advised that a great many of their number—most of them insufficiently prepared—turn in the direction of a calling requiring scientific training. These people crowd the middle schools, and when they have painfully and at great sacrifice gone through the courses, they find no opening commensurate with their hopes. It is an especially responsible task to guide those that contemplate taking up the profession of teaching. The requisite endowments and possibilities are not always obvious at the age of 14 or 15. The high order of mental power, with responsive temperament and strength of character, is not always indicated by the marks pupils get as the result of examinations. The teacher should there

fore be aware of his solemn duty to counteract the vanity of parents by aiding his pupils in a choice which saves both them and their parents from cruel disappointments. Again, he will have the more agreeable duty of encouraging the capable boy and girl whom he finds in his class to take up such scientific or professional lines as appear to be within their powers. In behalf of these he will have occasion to confer with the boards and officials that will come to have charge of the pupils in the branches selected. As the question of expense is also involved, the teacher's further service consists in helping the pupils to secure aid and stipends from such funds as are available. As an outcome of these early suggestions, educators began to consider the feasibility of a compendium in which this kind of service could be outlined in a form suitable to be taken up as a part of the scheduled work of certain types of schools. With this in view the educational board of Zürich directed that a vocational guide book should be furnished pupils at nominal cost and be studied as an obligatory subject in the eighth primary class and in the first two classes of the higher grade schools and that it should also be adopted for general use in the third class of the higher grade school. Attention was called to the desirability of treating its content as instruction material. The teacher was enjoined to stress the importance of training for skill and attention to duty and to find occasion to give his pupils helpful words of counsel as they entered on their chosen life work. He was reminded that the pupil’s choice of calling should not invariably be regarded as final; the main point was to help him earnestly to consider the choice. The movement here mentioned, which was well under way in 1916, has since then assumed new phases, and a scope beyond what was originally contemplated. In the annual report of the educational board some of the results for 1917 are given." In many districts and communities, says the report, boards for vocational consultation were established. The official school journal for March, 1917, published a comprehensive list of places where applicants might come for consultation. Many benevolent associations, among them the foundation “For Young People” (Für die Jugend) gave financial support to the cause. The expectation was that a general service bureau for the entire Canton would be established. The Jugendwohlfahrt, Revue Suisse de Protection de la Jeunesse, under date of January, 1919, surveys in part what was accomplished during the years from 1916 to 1919. The suggestions published by the school board led to cooperation between the schools and the associations mentioned above. They succeeded in getting 42 business places, factories, and other industrial plants made accessible to pupils who in company with their teachers desired to visit these to reach a clearer conception of the work there going on with the view of choosing a calling more intelligently. Similarly, they conferred with about 160 foremen of shops and trades to procure information for those pupils who expected to seek positions as apprentices. Every teacher instructing final or graduating classes of the primary and the higher grade schools was furnished with a list of available positions and also of places in the city where practice in the trades could be secured. The teachers were also furnished with a list of applications from farmers who wished to employ boys having completed the school requirements; also a record of places where girls could find employment. Through the agencies mentioned, the instructors kept in touch with about 140 educational officials throughout the Canton, thereby extending the work until the city of Zürich felt warranted in increasing the stipends and funds for promoting instruction in the trades." As the importance of this form of school service became more extensively recognized, there was felt the need of organizing for its further prosecution. With this in view the occupational teachers of the Canton of Zürich, in the autumn of 1918, effected an organization of 200 members. The constitution adopted by this body sets up its purpose thus: (1) To guard and to further the material and ideal interests of the occupational teachers; (2) to promote the professional training of its members; (3) to cultivate right relations among the occupational schools, the folk schools, the trades, and industries; (4) to assist in procuring instruction material for the trade schools. The executive agencies of the association are to consist of permanent committees representing the various occupations. Their chief duty will be to further, in accordance with point 3, closer relations among the trades, the industries, and the schools.

1 Jahresbericht der Direktion des Erziehungswesen über das züricherische Unter rechtswesen für 1917, Zürich, Switzerland.


In order to render the most complete service for life the responsibility of watching over the pupils' health has also been brought fully within the scope of the teachers’ duties. Childhood is obviously the time when physical defects of whatever kind should be discovered and remedied. Each Canton has specific regulations touching the physical examination of the child upon entrance into the schools, the later periodical examinations, and reports of abnormal conditions dis. covered.

The school laws and published regulations show that the physician intrusted with this work must himself pass a rigid qualifying

* Adapted from Jugendwohlfahrt, January, 1919, and Jahresbericht der Direktion des I'rziehumgswesens, Zürich, 1918.

test. He must hold the practicing physician's license as required by the Federal Union. Employed by the department of education, he is not permitted individual practice. When the school board deals with questions of hygiene or sanitation, he may be summoned as an advisory member. His professional duties with regard to the schools and the pupils are minute and definite. In the Canton of Solothurn these include the examination of each individual pupil and inspection of every schoolhouse in towns and country districts. He is to visit schools for women's work at least once a year and to make careful inspection of ventilation, heating, lighting, cleanliness, sewers, water supply, courts, gymnastic rooms, baths, pupils' benches, school furniture, school utensils, and sanitation material. The physician must have regular hours for consultation; he must pass on all requests for exemption from attendance at school based on reasons of health; he determines whether pupils should be placed in classes organized for defectives, and whether or not they are to be sent to children's sanitariums; moreover, he enters on a special record cases where pupils are to be under observation for some time and where they need particular consideration during the school work; at specified intervals he is to repeat the examination of eyes, ears, and teeth. Vaccination, disinfection, precautionary measures against communicable diseases, tuberculosis, and diseases of the scalp, attendance on pupils taken ill— these are matters to which the school physician must attend. He may, if he wishes, make his inspection at any time, even during school hours, though it is expected that he shall interfere with the recitation as little as possible. He is privileged to be present at recitations any time when this may help him to an insight into the pupils’ state of health. Early in the spring of 1919 the school periodicals discussed the physical measurements of pupils with the view of studying a new type of school bench adapted to their health and comfort, an attempt in which the school physician evidently takes part. Other duties falling to him are to approve the plans for school buildings, to inspect the health certificates of men and women teachers, to teach them how to treat the defects they discover in the speech and voices of their pupils, how to deal with children suffering from nervous trouble, and, finally, to lecture to teachers and parents on topics of hygiene. During the influenza epidemic pupils generally attempted to get back to school before complete recovery; hence they were in danger of incurring bad after effects. The school physicians adopted the regulation that no pupil should be permitted to return until the seventh day after complete recovery. Various institutions having both curative and instructional purposes are found throughout Switzerland. Some of these are trade schools adapted to the capabilities of certain classes of defectives; but in all these institutions the instruction is subordinated to the restora

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