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social cleavage, but they also call attention to other factors of the uniform school which in the general discussion are often obscured. Two conditions in the life of a child, both complicated by the social status of its parents, call for adaptation of the general school plans: (1) The demand which requires a definite course of training for a chosen calling—commercial, trade, industrial, or professional; (2) the selection of a calling according to the child's endowments. The Swiss believe that the child's endowments should first be ascertained and then its calling chosen, but in the deliberations among European educators the latter consideration mainly has been heeded. In dealing with the social aspects of the problem the political advancement of the country helps to eliminate such handicap as may depend upon the status of a pupil in society.

Even a cursory view of the school system reveals a close interaction between the schools and society. Society has demanded that every individual be given the amplest opportunity; that the schools encourage individual initiative, that they teach cooperative effort, that they deal with the industries, and, in general, that they show how each individual pupil can be fitted for the best service. How the schools have responded can be seen in what Switzerland has achieved.

PRACTICAL TREND OF THE SCHOOL WORK.

Touching the welfare of pupils, communal endeavor in Switzerland has created means for taking care of their health from earliest infancy, for seeing to it that they have the proper nourishment and clothing, for founding institutions adapted to the needs of pupils specially endowed or specially hampered. Again, this country has put into legislative form advanced ideas of a social and political character, like federal ownership of railways, socialized control of city improvements, banks, and industries, and, most significant of all, a constitutional proviso that Government enactments shall be referred to the voters for adoption or rejection. Aside from the contributions of these measures to the happiness and sterling character of the people, certain material ones more easily measurable may be mentioned. It appears to be a fact that:

Switzerland, with no harbors, no coal, no iron, no copper, with high wages for manual labor, with agriculture inadequate to home needs, has succeeded in becoming, per capita, the next most industrialized nation of Europe, surpassing both England and Germany."

In attempting to indicate at least a part of the share the schools have in the intellectual as well as material advancement of Switzerland, it appears that teachers have spontaneously put into practice the ancient maxim, “We study not for the schools, but for life,” and that they

* Special communication from Dr. Herbert Haveland Field, Zürich, Switzerland.

are impressed with the importance of adapting their work to life conditions. When the health or the future of their pupils so demands, they have been able to move beyond the régime of books, lessons, and traditional programs and to guide their pupils in such other activities as are more closely concerned with their welfare. They are aware that the years of a child's plasticity is the time to discover and to insist on remedial treatment of such physical or psychical defects as may adhere to it from birth, and they appear conscientiously to include this among their duties. The general system of the schools exemplifies the principle that education is a gradual process, with imperceptible beginnings and without abrupt finality. The service, therefore, that the school renders upon the first admission of a child is not of an instructional character; it assumes this character only after a transition period usually taken up by the child's own self-imposed activities. The nursery school takes care of the child, first of all, as assistance to a crowded home or a home in the distress of poverty, permitting the mother, who is probably a wage earner, to leave her child in safe hands while she is at work during the day. When a child is presented for admission a thorough medical examination is made, and if treatment is required it is given. Among the institutions for the care of young children, the crèche, which is nearly always private, receives children of almost any age up to 3 years, at which time they may enter the infant school. The infant school has two divisions, namely, from 24 years of age to 6, and from 6 to 7, the latter division preparing them to enter the primary school. From the first the child finds himself in a congenial environment in the school garden with its play equipment; there is no restraint as to regularity of hours, nothing giving rise to the feeling that in the interest of the school the young pupil is cut off for a certain time from home and parents. When the instructional stage is reached, there are kindly teachers to take him in hand, to see that he learns the correct pronunciation of words and that he acquires good personal habits. So far as expedient the child is left to himself in his first efforts to think, to observe, to understand, and to judge; he is permitted to drift into school tasks without the notion of compulsion; hence he does not come to feel that he is controlled by a rigorous taskmaster. The first form of instruction assumes the nature of entertaining stories with talks of a practical tinge that furnish whatever nucleus there is in the early teaching. The opportunity for advancement is preserved in the recurrent periods of promotion, usually at the end of the year, though in case of the pupil's sickness they may come at the close of the first semester following the year in which the promotion would naturally have occurred.

This class of schools shows a tendency to increasing use of Froebelian methods. The original idea of assistance to the home and of a place of refuge offering a favorable environment is retained without any modification. To their success it is essential that unselfish people be placed in charge, who may anticipate the needs of the children and keep in close touch with their homes. Just as the system permits the infant gradually to enter the instruction stages of the Schools, it permits the young man or woman gradually to enter on the duties of a vocation while still remaining under the guidance of the schools. This principle is realized in most Cantons by the obligatory continuation schools. These are founded by the communes and by them brought to an accepted standard with regard to buildings and equipment in order to receive State aid. They are of two classes, schools for reviewing and supplementing the general school branches and schools mainly for training in the vocations and the trades. In most Cantons the compulsory attendance for boys ceases with the completion of the fifteenth year, though in others, like Obwalden and Wallis, it is from 6 to 12 months longer; yet even these have a proviso permitting boys to discontinue at 15 by passing a special examination. In certain localities there is an obligatory continuation school of two or three years for girls, where instruction is given in manual work for girls and in household economy. In most continuation Schools is embodied an idea of the Grundtvig institutions of Denmark, namely, that of an intermission after the compulsory period by which time is provided for the pupil to recover from a species of classroom fatigue by which he is then handicapped; a year or two is permitted to lapse before the continuation; the pupil then takes up the work not only with better vigor, but with clearer conception of educational aims. The brevity of time in the programs of these schools does not permit comprehensive curricula nor exhaustive study of any of the branches. Hence, only the subjects pertaining to practical and civic life are taken up. As a rule these schools admit only young men, though in some Cantons, as in those of Zürich and Bern, they are coeducational. As nearly all lead to such practical vocations and industries as pertain to the localities in which they are established, they show a strong tendency to specialize in the direction of the trades, in agriculture, horticulture, or commerce. In the Cantons of Fribourg and Thurgau there are household schools for girls; in the former the required attendance is two years, which may be extended to three years if the pupils' progress has not been satisfactory." The continuation schools specializing in the vocations and the trades are often conducted in accordance with a schedule that permits the

* Substance from the Report of Prof. Neuberth.

pupil to be both wage earner and pupil at the same time. The schoolroom and the workshop function in close cooperation. To be properly matriculated the pupil must have secured regular employment in the trade which he makes his chief study. The employer is closely identified with the school; he not only instructs the pupil, but he also looks after his interest as wage earner; he has a definite understanding with the school authorities about the courses and the time the apprentice pupil may reasonably spend at school. The time the pupil is to remain at the work he has begun, together with other particulars calculated to insure his attendance to duty, are embodied in a contract which the pupil is required to sign. The session is held almost exclusively in the winter, with from 6 to 12 hours so grouped as to fall upon two or three forenoons each week. The flexibility of the general system adapts itself to varying local conditions, and the instruction often extends throughout the year. The schools thus specialize in individual directions so that they fall into groups, each of which is characterized by the needs of its general patronage. It would be a mistake to suppose that the dominant endeavor is to impart peculiar technical skill merely to fit the pupil to be an acceptable wage earner. Ethical and humanitarian subjects are always included, to ennoble the work of whatever kind it may be by educational ideals and associations. A view of the plans and methods prevailing in the teachers' training schools will show that their work is ordered in strict accordance with the one principle of anticipating what the pupils are to do later on in life. In the apportionment of the time between the academic and the professional subjects, those training directly for the teacher's future duties are given the greater prominence. Realizing the need of a review of the general branches, and yet the danger of allowing too much time for this, the regulations concerning it are so framed as to effect a carefully balanced compromise without unnecessary restrictions. The statutes of Zürich order that the future work of the teacher shall determine the allotment of time to each subject, as well as the character of the instruction; they also specify that the instruction in all branches shall be such that it may serve the pupil as an example in his future school work. To secure conformity to these regulations those who conduct the recitations are required to make thorough preparation for every lesson and to keep a book in which the plan of each lesson is preserved. Instruction material, textbooks, plans, programs, and apparatus are fully discussed, so that the prospective teacher becomes familiar with them, and reaches an estimate of their value for his future work. The training is conducted with regard to the twofold capacity of a good teacher: As a master of the details of his subject organically combined and, again, 119037°–19—2

as the instructor specialist who has the skill to fashion the subject matter for presentation before the class.

The official guides and study programs anticipate in their outlines the practical work of the pupil after his school days. The instruction plan for the Canton of St. Gall sets up as a chief principle that instruction in fact should predominate. In grammar, for example, there is to be less theory than practice; this book should, in fact, be only a guide to the correct use of the language in speech and writing, an aid in composition. The outlines direct the pupil to write on what he has seen or heard or experienced, and hence really understood. Description is to be not simply a list of the characteristics of an object, but it is to be brought into living relation to nature and to man. In history the events of one's country should be seen as related to what takes place about one's home. In the geography of particular localities and countries careful attention is to be given to the life of the people of these places, their work, and arrangements peculiar to their life and calling. In natural history the pupil is to be led to see why the object under inspection has the peculiarities he discovers and how well it is adapted to its mode of existence, what relations of reciprocity it holds to other beings, what value it has for man, and how man accordingly is under obligation to protect it or destroy it.

The report of Prof. Neuberth, of Christiania, supplying details of observations in the classrooms of Swiss schools, gives a glimpse of the actual work of teachers thus trained. He says:

There was a quiet orderliness in all the activities of the pupils, no trace of indifference, no slovenliness, but evidence of painstaking care and of close cooperation between pupil and teacher. Some, to be sure, would fall below the good marks, but there was no real, and certainly, no general delinquency. The instructor was gifted with particular skill in framing his questions, a matter regarded of such importance that it is pointed out in the statutes of Zürich as the special mark of a good teacher. The questions invariably compelled the pupils to think; instead of furnishing the form for the pupil's answer, they left him to do this for himself. The teachers had, it appeared, carefully weighed and judged both the content and form of their questions, appearing to be indefatigable in training themselves to get their questions stated right. * * * The answers, which were given with very satisfactory readiness, often gave rise to new questions on the part of the teacher and, what was particularly noticeable, also on the part of the pupil. Though the deliberateness seen may be criticized for its dry outline character and for the absence of those spontaneous details that vitalize a lesson, the landmarks through the lesson were certainly charted and established, giving a chance to fill in with appropriate illustrative matter.

The practical life issues of the teaching have, as would be expected, a large share in the deliberations of teachers at their professional meetings. During its session of September 30, 1918, the Zürich Teachers' Association discussed contemplated changes in the higher

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