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rules in force governing degrees, which shall still be in force in all matters not expressly mentioned in this regulation. The council of ministers enacted the recommendation into a royal decree, but only as applying to foreign students. Subsequently recognizing that this action denied to native students privileges granted to foreigners, they engaged at an early date to resume action upon it. Further administrative action necessitated by the war was taken in decrees of the minister and consiglio superiore providing for special dates and places of examinations for university and higher secondary students in military service convenient of access to posts and family residences; conceding to all students enrolled under professional and advanced academic faculties and called to service formal enrollment for 1915–6 in the immediately higher courses as if actually present; and admitting to any institution of higher grade, without fees, students from the invaded territories or from allied countries as a result of war conditions upon evidence of satisfactory attainments. Noteworthy is the inauguration, in 1917, of a “summer course in the Italian language and literature for foreigners of the allied nations,” located in Siena. No other studies than those of language were offered. Courses were as follows, each of two hours weekly: Italian grammar, reading and pronunciation, readings in Dante, history of Italian literature, history of art, practical exercises in translation, correction of themes, and professors' conferences. Instructors were drawn from the faculty of the Royal University of Siena and from the teaching corps of the local ginnasio-liceo and the royal normal school. Social and archaeological features planned were excursions to monuments, buildings, and historical scenes in the vicinity. The use of all facilities of the local educational institutions was freely accorded. By royal decree of December, 1917, the exchange of teachers between the royal middle and normal schools of Italy and the secondary higher schools of France was arranged for. The Italian teacher is to receive a compensation of not more than 2,500 lire ($500), in the discretion of the Minister of Public Instruction, an allowance of as much as 30 per cent of his regular salary, and traveling expenses. The same purpose is manifest in the wider field of the Associazione italiana per l'intesa intellettuale fra i paesi alleati ed amici (Italian Society for Intellectual Relations between Allied and Friendly Countries), founded in 1917 at the University of Rome. Its president is Senator V. Volterra, and the names best known in the literature of Italy are represented in the committee which directs its work and in the trimestral review setting forth its work. Its aims are as follows:

(1) More active relations between the universities, academies, and. in general, educational institutions of the allied and friendly countries. (2) Intensification of the teaching of the Italian language in foreign countries, with wider teaching of the languages of allied and friendly countries in Italy. (3) International exchange of teachers of every rank. (4) Acknowledgment, based on reciprocity, of credits of admission to the universities and of the courses of lectures of the friendly and allied countries. (5) Exchange of students either for special studies or for general acquaintance with the different countries. (6) Facilitation of the exchange of publications and books devoted to a better knowledge of modern Italian literature. (7) Translation of the best Italian works into other languages. (8) Mutual cooperation in the field of science and its practical applications, and specially in that of private and international law. (9) Intellectual relations of every kind to render more close, durable, and fruitful the union of the souls of the nations who fought the battles of civilization together. At the beginning of 1918 the committee presented its plan of operation. It proposes to institute in the Ministry of Public Instruction an independent bureau which aims to promote and direct the exchange of teachers with foreign countries, to send abroad Italian savants for the purpose of teaching or pursuing scientific and historical researches, to invite to Italy with kindred purposes foreign teachers or students, to regulate and assign the matter of international fellowships, to provide eventually for the foundation of Italian institutes of higher education outside of the boundaries of Italy, and to favor in every way intellectual relations with the other nations. The bureau is to consist of a council and an executive committee, both presided over by the Minister of Public Instruction. In the council, composed of 21 members, the faculties of the universities, the Ministry of Public Instruction with the two directors general of higher and middle instruction, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, of Agriculture, and of Industry and Commerce, and the Parliament, are all duly represented. Representatives of private educational and intellectual agencies outside the school and state administration may be included at the discretion of the Minister of Public Instruction. The executive committee, composed of seven members and elected by the council from its own members, is charged with all practical details. The Italian teachers who go abroad for research or for study, according to the plans of the bureau and with the approval of the

Iministry, are distributed in three classes according to the probable or actual period of absence from the Kingdom—those for less than One year, others for more than one year and less than five years, and still others for a longer term. Foreigners teaching in Italy shall have conferred upon them the dignity of the Italian professor of equal rank, and under certain conditions legal validity is given the course of lectures conducted by them. The projected law also determines the value of the studies pursued outside the Kingdom, those pursued by foreigners in Italy, and the value and status of fellowships. In general the studies and examinations pursued in foreign countries in the State institutions or those of established reputation are accorded the same value as studies and examinations in equivalent schools of the Kingdom. The fellowships are not restricted, as hitherto, to graduates, but are granted also to university students doing special work in laboratories, libraries, and foreign archives. Every year a certain number of fellowships shall be granted students and graduates from the high schools, normal and professional schools and special institutes for a period of not more than two years of study abroad. To give a rapid development to this plan and cooperate with the State institutions in Italy and abroad for its accomplishment is now the most important task of the Italian Association and of such

similar associations as may be established in allied and friendly Countries.

O

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
BUREAU OF EDUCATION

V
BULLETIN, 1919, No. 37

| EDUCATIONAL CHANGES IN RUSSIA

By

THERESA BACH

DIVISION OF FOREIGN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
BUREAU OF EDUCATION

[Advance Sheets from the Biennial Survey of Education, 1916–1918]

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

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